Chapter 2 The Language of Art and Architecture Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Define the basic units of visual language. Define the terms of formal analysis. Describe the basic principles of color theory. Discuss the three kinds of space in relation to art. Describe perspectival systems. Identify various architectural orders. Given a work of art, describe the role that formal elements play in communicating the content. 8. Give examples from various cultures of the structural systems in architecture. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Introduction • We communicate ideas through languages: oral and written, numbers, music, and art. • For the language of art and architecture, the grammar consists of: • formal elements. • principles by which those elements are composed or structured. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.1 (1 of 2) 2.1 Interior of dome of the Great Mosque of Cordoba, Spain. Umayyad caliphate (Moorish), Spain, 961–966 CE. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.1 (2 of 2) • Traditional architectural structures can be simple or highly complex, as in the Interior of the Dome of the Great Mosque of Cordoba. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. FORMAL ELEMENTS • • • • • • • • line light and value color texture and pattern shape and volume space time and motion Some works also contain elements of: • chance • improvisation • spontaneity • engagement of senses other than sight Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Line (1 of 5) • In art, a line is a moving point, having both length and width. • Actual lines made with drawing or writing materials can be broad, thin, straight, jagged. • Implied lines do not physically exist, but appear to be real to the viewer. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.2a 2.2a Actual and implied lines. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Line (2 of 5) • A line’s direction describes spatial relationships. • Horizontal lines imply inactivity. • Vertical lines imply aspiration, the potential of action. • Diagonal lines suggest movement, like falling trees. • Curving lines suggest flowing movement. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.2b 2.2b Direction. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Line (3 of 5) • Line quality can express a range of emotions: • fragility • roughness • anger • whimsy • vigor . . . Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.2c 2.2c Line quality. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.3 2.3 Utagawa Kunisada. Shoki the Demon Queller, c. 1849–1853. Woodblock print, 1′ 2″ × 9 1⁄2″. Burrell Collection, Glasgow. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Line (4 of 5) • The overall context of Kunisada’s artwork affects the understanding of the line. • Most lines in this print are bold and calligraphic, except for those in the hair and beard, where fine lines depict texture. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.4 2.4 Paul Klee. Bounds of the Intellect, 1927. Oil on canvas, 1′ 2″ × 1′ 10″. State Gallery of Modern Art, Munich. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Compare Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Line (5 of 5) • Lines that compare 3-D objects: • Gesture lines: rapid, sketchy marks mimicking the movement of human eyes when examining a subject • Outline: follows the edges of a silhouette of a 3-D form with uniform line thickness • Contour lines: mark the edges of a 3-D object with varying line thickness and with some internal detail • Cross-contours: repeated lines around an object and express its three-dimensionality • Hatching: lines that produce tones or values using parallel lines • Cross-hatching: many thin, parallel lines create the illusion of a light gray tone; parallel lines layered on top of each other create darker gray tones Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.2d 2.2d Lines that compare three-dimensional objects. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.5 2.5 Albrecht Durer. Artist Drawing a Model in Foreshortening through a Frame Using a Grid System, from Unterweysung der Messung (Instructions for Measuring). Woodcut. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.6 (1 of 2) 2.6 Linguist’s staff (okyea mepoma). Akan artist. 19th–20th C. Wood and gold leaf, 5′ 1″ × 8 7/16″ × 1 5/8″. Princeton University Art Museum, New Jersey. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.6 (2 of 2) • A long, thin, 3-D object such as a linguist’s staff can act like a line in space. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Light and Value (1 of 3) • Light is electromagnetic energy that stimulates the eyes and brain required to for vision: • Natural light: sun, moon, stars, lightning, and fire • Artificial light: Incandescent, fluorescent, neon, and laser • Ambient light: Most art does not emit light but reflects ambient light (the light all around us) Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.7 (1 of 2) 2.7 Dan Flavin. Untitled (To Donna) 6, 1971. Fluorescent lights, 8′ × 8′. Albright-Knox Art Gallery. George Cary Fund, 1972. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.7 (2 of 2) • In art and architecture, light might be an actual element. • In buildings, the control of light is an essential design element, whether with skylights, windows, or artificial lights. • Flavin’s work is made of nothing but fluorescent lights in a corner. The light fixtures form a frame and create a glowing, ethereal space. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Light and Value (2 of 3) • In 2-D art, value represents various levels of light. • Value: one step on a gradation from light and dark • Tone: another word for value • Achromatic value scale: white to black and the gray tones in between • Value is also associated with color: any color can be lighter or darker • Shading or modeling: manipulating gradations in values creating the appearance of natural light Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.8 2.8 Value and intensity diagram. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Light and Value (3 of 3) • Renaissance Italians used the term chiaroscuro to describe light-dark gradations (Fig. 2.9). Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.9 2.9 Rosso Fiorentino. Recumbent Female Nude Figure Asleep, 1530–1540. 5″ × 9 1/2″. British Museum, London. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Color (1 of 6) • Color is visible in refracted light when a prism breaks a light beam into a spectrum of color. • Properties of color: • hue: pure color, the color’s name • value: lightness and darkness within a hue • intensity: brightness or dullness of a hue • intensity synonyms: chroma and saturation • Shade: when black is added to a hue • Tint: when white is added to a hue Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.10 (1 of 2) 2.10 Louise Nevelson. Mirror Image I, 1969. Painted wood, 9′ 9 3/4″ × 17′ 6 1/2″ × 1′ 9″. Collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.10 (2 of 2) • This is a completely black sculpture, but we see a range of dark gray values, caused by light hitting and reflecting off the raised areas. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Color (2 of 6) • High-intensity colors are seen in the spectrum. • Neutral colors include low-intensity colors such as cream, tan, beige. • Local colors are normally found in the objects around us. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.11 (1 of 2) 2.11 Thomas Gainsborough. Mr. and Mrs. Andrews, 1750. Oil on canvas, 2′ 3 1/2″ × 3′ 11″. National Gallery, London. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.11 (2 of 2) • In Gainsborough’s painting, we see: • saturated color in the blue in Mrs. Andrew’s dress. • neutral color in the tree trunk. • local colors in the yellow hay and gray-and-white clouds. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Color (3 of 6) • Additive color system refers to mixing color with light-emitting media. • Theater lighting, performance art, light displays, and computer and video monitors use this color system. • Subtractive color system: refers to mixing color pigments to control the light that is reflected from them. • Pigments are powdered substances ground into oil, acrylic polymer, or other binders to create paints. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.12a 2.12a Diagram showing the additive color system. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.12b 2.12b Diagram showing the subtractive color system. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.12c 2.12c Diagram showing the color wheel for mixing pigments. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Color (4 of 6) • Primary: combine to produce the largest number of new colors: • red, yellow, and blue in subtractive system • red, green, and blue in additive system • Secondary: result from mixing two primary colors • Tertiary: result from mixing one primary color with one of its neighboring secondary colors • Analogous: similar in appearance, next to each other on the color wheel • Complementary: opposites on the color wheel Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Color (5 of 6) • Color perception is relative, we see colors differently depending on their surroundings. • Natural light is constantly changing, so, color is constantly changing. • Stare at the white dot at the center of the flag in Fig. 2.14 for 30 seconds and then look at a white area. It will appear to be red, white, and blue. Color perception shifts due to eye fatigue. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.14 2.14 Relativity of color perception. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Color (6 of 6) • Colors associated with the sun and fire (yellows, reds, and oranges) are considered warm. • Colors associated with plant life, sky, and water (greens, blues, and violets) are cool. • Warm and cool colors can affect an audience both physically and emotionally. • Certain colors can be associated with ideas or events (flags, holidays) and vary from culture to culture. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Texture and Pattern (1 of 3) • Texture is a surface characteristic that is tactile or visual. • Tactile texture consists of physical surface variations that can be perceived by touch. • Simulated textures mimic reality. • Abstracted texture is based on existing texture but has been simplified and regularized. • Invented textures are products of human imagination. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.15 (1 of 2) 2.15 Lion Capital of column erected by Ashoka at Sarnath, India, c. 250 BCE. Polished sandstone, approx. 7′ high. Archeological Museum, Sarnath, India. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.15 (2 of 2) • The Lion Capital has gleaming smooth sandstone on the legs which contrasts with the rough texture of the mane, examples of tactile textures. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.16 (1 of 2) 2.16 Detail of Deesis Mosaic in Hagia Sophia, believed to be 1185–1204. Mosaic tile. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.16 (2 of 2) • A medium may have inherent texture (mosaic, marble, wood, cloth, etc.). • A mosaic is a picture created out of small colored glass or stone pieces affixed to a surface. • Each mosaic piece reflects ambient light in a slightly different direction and has a texture that is particular to this process. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Texture and Pattern (2 of 3) • Pattern: a configuration with a repeated visual form • Natural patterns: occur all around us (leaves, flowers, clouds, crystal formations, waves) • Geometric patterns: have regular elements spaced at regular intervals. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.17 (1 of 2) 2.17 Blanket. Tlingit people, Chilkat style. Mountain goat wool and cedar bark, 2′ 7″ × 5′ 11″, excluding fringe. The Newark Museum, Newark, New Jersey. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.17 (2 of 2) • The black and yellow patterns of this Tlingit blanket are abstracted from human or animal features and have a geometric quality. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Texture and Pattern (3 of 3) • Patterns in architecture create visual interest. • Patterns can function to direct your eye to certain features of a building, like entrances or domes. • Patterns help organize ideas into visual diagrams that make relationships clear. • Patterns can function as decoration (wrapping paper, wallpaper, fabric design). Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.18 (1 of 2) 2.18 Great Mosque of Cordoba, interior, Spain, 786 CE. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.18 (2 of 2) • Patterns can have symbolic value, as in the Islamic Great Mosque of Cordoba where the amazing, rich patterns express the idea that all the wonder of creation originates in Allah. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Shape and Volume (1 of 2) • Shape: 2-D visual entity. • Regular shapes are geometric: • circle • square • triangle • hexagon • teardrop • Irregular shapes are organic or biomorphic. • Shapes can be defined by outlines or by an area of color surrounded by a contrasting area. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Shape and Volume (2 of 2) • Volume is 3-D (versus 2-D) and can also be: • regular or irregular. • geometric or biomorphic. • Volumes may or may not have physical bulk, or mass. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.19 (1 of 2) 2.19 Car. Wire child’s toy, Africa. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.19 (2 of 2) • Car’s wireframe structure has a large volume, but little mass. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Space (1 of 8) • There are three kinds of space in relationship to art: • the space in 2-D artwork (planar space) • the space of sculpture and architecture (its area and its voids) • the space of performance art and installation Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Space (2 of 8) • Complex illusions of space are created through perspective, creating the illusion of depth on a flat plane. • Atmospheric perspective (or aerial perspective): the light, bleached-out, fuzzy handling of distant forms to make them seem far away • Linear perspective: the theory that parallel lines appear to converge as they recede. They seem to meet on the horizon line. The horizon line corresponds to the viewer’s eye. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Space (3 of 8) • Three types of linear perspective: • One-point perspective: the frontal plane of a volume is closest to the viewer, and all other planes appear to recede to a single vanishing point. • Two-point perspective: a single edge of a volume is closest to the viewer, and all planes appear to recede to one of two vanishing points. • Three-point perspective: only a single point of a volume is closest to the viewer, and all planes seem to recede to one of three vanishing points. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Space (4 of 8) • One-point perspective: the frontal plane of a volume is closest to the viewer, and all other planes appear to recede to a single vanishing point Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.20a 2.20a One-point perspective. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Space (5 of 8) • Two-point perspective: a single edge of a volume is closest to the viewer, and all planes appear to recede to one of two vanishing points Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.20b 2.20b Two-point perspective. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Space (6 of 8) • Three-point perspective: creates the illusion of forms that receded to the left, to the right, and downward Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.20c 2.20c Three-point perspective. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.21 (1 of 2) 2.21 Ronald W. Davis. Cube and Four Panels, 1975. Acrylic on canvas, support: 9′ 2 1⁄2″ × 10′ 10 3⁄4″. AlbrightKnox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.21 (2 of 2) • Cube and Four Panels is an example of three-point perspective. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Space (7 of 8) • Other perspective systems: • Isometric perspective: used in architectural drafting, renders planes on a diagonal that does not recede in space. The side planes are drawn at a thirtydegree angle to the left and right. • Oblique perspective: a three-dimensional object is rendered with the front and back parallel. The side planes are drawn at a forty-five-degree angle from the front plane. • Multipoint perspective: various sections conform to different perspective systems. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.22 2.22 An example of an isometric projection (A), an example of an oblique projection (B). Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.23 (1 of 2) 2.23 Festivities, detail of a screen depicting the popular festivities that took place at Shijo-gawa, Kyoto. Late Muromachi period, 16th century. Seikado Library, Tokyo. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.23 (2 of 2) • In Festivities, the artist has used oblique perspective to give a sense of space going back from the lower left to the upper right. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.24 (1 of 2) 2.24 Giorgio de Chirico. Gare Montparnasse (The Melancholy of Departure), 1914. Oil on canvas, 4′ 7″ × 6′. The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.24 (2 of 2) • Amplified or distorted perspective gives dramatic emphasis. In Gare Montparnasse, the perspective gives the painting the fractured space of a dream or a memory. • This example of multipoint perspective shows an unreal or illogical depiction of space. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Space (8 of 8) • Space in sculpture and architecture consists of the footprint occupied by the structure and the voids and solids within each piece and surrounding it. • Space in installation or performance art can be particularly significant because part of the meaning comes from its location and environment. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.25 (1 of 2) 2.25 Yong Ping. Bat Project I (Shenzhen), China, 2001. Replica of an American spy plane from middle of body to tail. Barbara Gladstone Gallery, New York. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.25 (2 of 2) • Ping’s installation was too politically charged to remain in China, so was relocated to an amusement park in the U.S., thus reducing its impact. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Time and Motion (1 of 2) • • • • Time is the period that viewers study and absorb an artwork. Motion is implied by the repetition of similar shapes. Motion marks the passage of time. Motion is integral to film/video, interactive digital art, kinetic sculpture, and performance. In these works, time and motion are related, as motion cannot exist without time and motion marks the passage of time. • Some artwork moves and changes in time and is not in fixed form. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.26 (1 of 2) 2.26 Marcel Duchamp. The Passage from Virgin to Bride, 1912. Oil on canvas, 1′ 11 1⁄2″ × 1′ 9″. The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.26 (2 of 2) • In Duchamp’s painting, motion is implied by: • rhythmic repetition of abstracted forms. • the fading in and out of the image on the left and on the right. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.27 (1 of 2) 2.27 Cai Guo-Qiang. Black Rainbow: Explosion Project for Valencia, Spain, 2005. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.27 (2 of 2) • Some artists allow for chance, improvisation, or spontaneity to add something unexpected such as Cai Guo-Quiang’s piece Black Rainbow exploding into the sky. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Time and Motion (2 of 2) • With architecture and large sculpture, viewers cannot grasp all their features in an instant. • These works unfold in time as we move through around them. • In Figs. 2.28 and 2.29, travelers first see the 29 Ajanta Caves as doorways and porches carved into a hillside. This modest view does not prepare the viewer for the amazing Ceiling of Cave 26. • Even more unfolds in time and with the viewer’s motion as they walk around the cave. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.28 2.28 View of the Ceiling of Cave 26 at Ajanta Caves, Parinirvana between the columns in Chaitya Hall, late fifth century, Maharashtra, India. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.29 2.29 A second view of Cave 26 at Ajanta Caves, Parinirvana between the columns in Chaitya Hall, late fifth century, Maharashtra, India. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Engaging All the Senses • Some artworks appeal to senses other than visual: • Film, video, and performance art usually add sound components. • The Ajanta Caves stimulate smell, tactile, and sound sensations. • African masquerades (as in Fig. 2.30) incorporate art objects, singing, dancing, and community celebrations and rituals. Note that masks are not considered static sculptures but are integral parts of the larger masquerade art form. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.30 2.30 Bwa Masqueraders, Burkina Faso. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION • Composition: the arrangement of formal elements in a work of art. • Principles of composition: • balance • rhythm • proportion and scale • emphasis • unity and variety Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Balance • Balance: placing elements so that their visual weights seem evenly distributed • Symmetrical balance: visual weight is distributed evenly • Asymmetrical balance: careful distribution of uneven elements • Radial balance: elements in the composition visually radiate outward from a central point Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.31 (1 of 2) 2.31 Angkor Wat, Central Temple Complex, Cambodia, c. 1113–1150 CE. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.31 (2 of 2) • Symmetry and radial balance add to the grandeur of the Angkor Wat’s enormous temple complex. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Rhythm • Rhythm: the repetition of carefully placed elements separated by intervals • Regular rhythm: smooth, systematically repeated • Alternating rhythm: different elements repeatedly placed side by side • Eccentric rhythm: irregular, but not so much so that the visuals do not connect Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.32 (1 of 2) 2.32 Churning of the Ocean of Milk, Angkor Wat, Cambodia. Bas-relief. National Geographic Image Collection/Alamy. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.32 (2 of 2) • In this bas-relief, we see examples of regular rhythm (the heads), alternating rhythm (the legs), and eccentric rhythm (the dancing spirits overhead). • The visual repetition is a fitting expression for the rhythmic physical struggle. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Proportion and Scale • Proportion and scale are expressive devices. • Proportion: the size of one part in relation to another within a work of art • Scale: the size of something in relation to what we assume to be normal • Hieratic scaling points to the highest-ranking person in the scene • in Parinirvana (Fig. 2.28), the reclining Buddha is enormous compared to all other figures showing hieratic scaling. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Emphasis • Emphasis is the result of one or more focal points in an artwork. • When there are several focal points, lesser ones are called accents. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.33 (1 of 2) 2.33 Claes Oldenburg, Coosi van Bruggen, and Frank O. Gehry. The Binocular-Entrance to the Chiat Building, Venice, California, 1985–1991. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.33 (2 of 2) • Emphasis in architecture means that one part of a building becomes a focal point. • Architects often use ornamentation for emphasis. • The Binocular Entrance is the obvious focal point on the Chiat Building. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Unity and Variety • Unity: overall cohesion within an artwork • Variety: the element of difference within an artwork • In The Passage from Virgin to Bride (Fig. 2.26), unity is achieved with the brown palette and shapes, simplified geometric versions of the human body. Variety is introduced with the varying angles of the shapes and the changes in lighting. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS IN ARCHITECTURE • Structural systems enable buildings to stand up an enclose space. • Load-Bearing Construction: all areas of the walls support the structure above them, and the walls have few openings. • Post-and-Lintel Construction: ancient method of constructing walls, making openings, and supporting a roof. The basic module is two upright posts supporting a cross beam or lintel. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Load-Bearing Construction • In load-bearing architecture, all areas of the walls support the structure above them, and the walls have few openings. • An extreme example of a load-bearing structure is El Castillo, a Mayan pyramid and temple in Mexico (Fig. 2.34). • The pyramid’s small temple on top has uninterrupted walls except for a few small doors, a necessity given the weight of the roof above. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.34 2.34 El Castillo, elevated view, Chichén Itzá, Mexico, ninth–tenth centuries. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Post-and-Lintel Construction (1 of 3) • Two upright posts support a crossbeam or lintel. • Post-and-lintel systems may consist of: • Columns: refined and decorated cylindrical posts. • Colonnade: row of columns supporting lintels. • Hypostyle: a grid of posts and lintels supporting the roof of a large interior space. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.35 2.35 Diagram showing post-andlintel construction. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Post-and-Lintel Construction (2 of 3) • The Temple of Athena Nike (Fig. 2.36, right) shows post-and-lintel construction in its two porches, and load-bearing construction in the solid wall between. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.36 2.36 Mnesicles. The Temple of Athena Nike (right) and the corner of Propylaea (left), 437–432 BCE. Athens. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Post-and-Lintel Construction (3 of 3) • Subcategories of post-and-lintel architecture: • Classical Greek order • Roman architectural orders • An order consists of the following, all exhibiting standardized proportions and decorative ornamentation: • column with a base • shaft • capital • entablature Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.37 2.37 Diagram of Greek and Roman orders. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Wood Construction • The Chinese developed a wood frame architecture based on the post-and-lintel model. • The complete frame system contains these innovations: • non-load-bearing walls • brackets • cantilevers Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.38 2.38 Chinese wood frame structural system, showing brackets and cantilevers. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Arches, Vaulting, and Domes (1 of 4) • Because of its weight and brittle nature, stone would have limited use as a building material were it not for the arch. • The arch consists of: • voussoirs: wedge-shaped stones • keystone: placed in the center for support • piers or columns: on which the arch rests Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.39a 2.39a Diagram showing types of arches. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Arches, Vaulting, and Domes (2 of 4) • A straight row of arches placed side by side is called an arcade. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.39b 2.39b Diagram showing types of arcades. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Arches, Vaulting, and Domes (3 of 4) • Multiple arches create entire roofs made of stone called vaults or vaulting. • Types of vaults include: • barrel • groin or cross • ribbed • gothic • Arches need outside support from buttresses (Fig. 2.39d) to prevent movement. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.39c 2.39c Diagram showing types of vaults. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.39d 2.39d Diagram showing types of buttresses. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Arches, Vaulting, and Domes (4 of 4) • A dome is theoretically an arch rotated on its vertical axis to form a hemispheric vault. • Domes can rest on: • drums • pendentives Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.39e 2.39e Diagram showing types of domes. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.40 (1 of 2) 2.40 Andrea Buffalini. Cathedral of Dubrovnik: Nave Groin Vault, Croatia, construction finished in 1713. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.40 (2 of 2) • In the Cathedral of Dubrovnik, plain, bright, airy vaults contrast with the gray, heavylooking arcade. • Groin vaults cover the ceiling, except for the dome at the top of the page. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Recent Methods and Materials • New materials, especially steel and steel-reinforced concrete, resulted in structures taller than ever before. • Many modern buildings feature an internal skeletal support system, and the outer surface of the wall acts like its skin. • Expectations of comfort have increased so buildings contain more operating systems for air, electricity, plumbing, etc. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Steel Frame Construction • expands the post-and-lintel grid vertically as well as laterally • floors are usually poured concrete with embedded metal reinforcing bars Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.41 2.42 Diagram of steel frame construction and reinforced concrete. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.42 (1 of 2) 2.42 Seagram Building at Night, New York City, 1954–1958. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.42 (2 of 2) • Steel Frame construction allowed for much taller buildings, which gave rise to the popular 20th-century International Style shown in the Seagram Building. • Architectural features include: • stripped-down facade • glass-covered surface • rectangular boxes Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Reinforced Concrete • Also known as ferroconcrete, reinforced concrete has steel reinforcing bars embedded while the concrete is wet, giving the surface tensile strength. • Reinforced concrete was used for the floors of skyscrapers from their earliest days. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Truss and Geodesic Construction (1 of 2) • truss: a skeletal structure based on a frame made of a series of triangles • Truss benefits: • rigidity • can be used to span great spaces • can be used to support other structures Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Truss and Geodesic Construction (2 of 2) • geodesic dome: a skeletal frame based on triangles that are grouped into very stable, strong polyhedrons • Geodesic dome benefits: • can be scaled to large size • requires no interior supports • easy to assemble from prefabricated modular parts • can be sheathed in many materials Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.43 2.43 (A) Truss structural system and (B) geodesic dome structural system. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Suspension and Tensile Construction • consists of steel cables attached to vertical pylons or masts that can support structures like bridges, exhibition tents, or sport arenas • suspended steel cables hold up the roof mesh providing shade over a large area Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure 2.44 2.44 Gunter Behnisch with Otto Frei. Olympic Stadium, Munich. Munich, Germany, 1972. Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Discussion Questions • What role does color play in your daily life? How are you affected by certain colors? How do artists use chance in their art? Do you think that unpredictability in an artwork enhances or diminishes the work? • How does a mediated viewing experience differ with a direct one? What are the ramifications? Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, Revised 5th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Art 103 – Art Appreciation Reflective Analysis– Aesthetics and Meaning The Reflective Analysis provides you the opportunity to apply what you’ve learned to artworks that you haven’t seen before with an emphasis on your personal response and interpretation. Reflective Analysis #1 focuses on how artists use the formal elements of art to communicated meaning in their work. Process: ● ● Choose one of the artworks/artists from this week’s lecture/reading/links that interests you – one you’d like to explore further. It can also be an artist that you are already familiar with that you think fits well with the assignment. Find an artwork by that artist other than one we’ve seen in class which you’d like to reflect on. In your analysis include a copy of the picture and answer the following reflective questions in one to two paragraphs: 1. Who is the artist and what is the title of the artwork? 2. Why did you choose the artist/artwork – what is generally interesting to you about it? 3. How does the artist’s use of the formal elements of art to emphasize and support their content – the meaning of the work? 4. Thinking back to Reflective Analysis #1, are there broader thematic messages conveyed by the artwork? What are they? 5. Was your initial, subjective interpretation of the art object correct? Or, did it change as you found out more about the context of the artwork? Line Imagine putting the point of your pen to a piece of paper. Now, imagine that you move the point of your pen across the surface of the paper. You have a created a line. Your textbook defines a line as a “path traced by a moving point” (75). Lines however, have many different qualities. Lines can be thin, thick, or somewhere in between. Lines can be straight and geometric. Lines can be curly and organic. Lines can suggest stillness. Lines can suggest movement. Lines can be actual or implied. Lines can be fast, slow, aggressive, heavy, soft, light, wandering, delicate, sensual, rhythmic, harsh, gritty, etc. Let’s take a look at a few different qualities of line: Quality of Line: Contour and Outline In studying line, it’s important to observe that, in nature, lines do not exist. In art, we use lines to visually define the world around us, but actually they aren’t really there. If you were to draw a friend, you might make a black outline of the human body, but there is no dark outline running around the outside of the body. The line we perceive as a boundary between the human form and the world that surrounds it is called a contour line. Getlein defines contour lines as the lines we use to record contours, or the “boundaries we perceive of three-dimensional forms” (77). Egon Schiele used contour lines to differentiate the male figure from the background in his Kneeling Male Nude (Self-Portrait)of 1910 below. Quality of Line: Direction and Movement Artists use horizontal and vertical lines suggest stability and stillness and diagonal lines to suggest movement. Consider Thomas Eakin’s The Biglin Brothers Racing below. Two rowers sit in a boat that appears to be very securely afloat. The line Eakins uses to define the bottom of the boat is horizontal. Yet, the boat is not just floating on the water, it is moving. To suggest the movement of the boat, Eakins uses diagonal line in his depiction of the oars, the rowers arms, and the rower’s backs. The dynamic, diagonal lines implies motion and allows us as viewers to understand that the boat is not at rest, but instead is gliding across the surface of the water. Artists also use lines to help direct the audience’s eye towards important aspects of a work of art. The stair railing in the right-hand of Henri Cartier-Bresson’s Aquila below becomes a bold diagonal line focusing the viewer’s attention to the figure at the end of the line. It is as if Cartier-Bresson is using this diagonal line like an arrow telling you the viewer to look at the woman carrying the bread. Quality of Line: Implied Line Examine Gabriel Orozco’s Horses Running Endlessly, 1995 below. While we might perceive lines between the colored squares of the board, no lines actually exist. When two flat shapes of different color come together, an implied line is created between the two differently-colored shapes. > Crosshatching is a drawing technique that allows the artist to build up a range of light and dark areas. It also is used to suggest the tilt of the surface drawn. A “hatch” is a small mark or line made by any drawing tool. To “cross” your hatch is to criss-cross one line on top of another. Crosshatch also conveys the direction of a surface. The eye follows the direction of the lines and presumes that the surface goes in the direction of the hatching. Which way does the surface of the face move? Does it go across, from side to side, or does it go up and down? Artists use crosshatching marks to give form to different objects and to make them lighter and darker in areas. Look at this detail from a 1491 pen and ink Self-Portrait by Albrecht Dürer. You can see how the crosshatches are used to define form through shadow and highlight. Some hatches direct us down the sides of the forehead and others across the cheeks. Shape Shape: an area that is defined by a contour or edge; 2D ONLY A shape is a given area with a border. This border does not have to be a line. It can be any type of edge created. Think of a lawn outside a house. What defines the shape of the lawn? There is no outline, or “contour” surrounding the yard. The shape is defined by the edge between where the grass stops and the sidewalk begins. A “contour” or outline can also define the shape. A fence around the perimeter of the lawn would be a good example of a contour. Some terms that describe the general characteristics of shapes. Geometric Shape Vs. Organic Shape Geometric shapes are those which appear mathematical or machine made. These might be squares, triangles, fairly precise circles, shapes that repeat, etc. Mondrian’s Broadway Boogie Woogie of 1942-1943 is an excellent example of an artwork that uses geometric shape. Lots of right angles and straight lines, seemingly very precise in its measurement — very “machine-made”. In the following painting by Leger (below), notice how even the curved shapes are geometric because they are so consistent in the way the move down the image. > Organic refers to shapes with natural sources, usually shapes which are rounded in a random fashion. Trees, puddles, rocks, clouds, a child’s first scribbles with crayons — all are good examples of organic shapes. Georgia O’Keeffe, Abstraction White Rose, 1927 (below) where the petals of the flower are mostly organic shapes. Shapes can be a combination of organic and geometric! If this is the case, are the shapes a little organic or a little geometric. Hokusai’m m m s 1833 print “Kirifuri Falls” (below) is a good example of something that is both organic and geometric. The flowing water is fairly organic, but the general repetition of shapes almost creating a pattern makes them geometric as well. Hard Vs. Sharp Edges The remaining characteristics of shape are the quality of its edges and how it interacts with the shapes around it. Hard edges: the edges of the shape are crisp and in focus. As we see in the Henri Matisse’s 1953 La Gerbe below, edges can be very sharp and distinct. Soft edges: the edge of the shape is blurred and hard to see. These are unfocused, sometimes feathery edges that look as though they’ve been smudged to some degree. Mark Rothko’s 11958 Untitled (Seagram Mural) contains geometric shapes with soft edges. How Shapes Interact The quality of the edges is closely tied to how the shapes interact with each other. Do the shapes “bump” into each other, “blend” into each other or “overlap” with each other? Bumping refers to shapes pushing up against other shapes without “giving way”. Blending occurs when edges are soft and one shape melts or runs into the other. Overlapping is when one shape appears to sit in front of the other, blocking its view. It is rare that only one of these qualities is occurring or that they only occur to a given degree. Try each exercise below. 1. Examine this painting by Gorky (below). What is the general quality of the shapes (organic or geometric), what sort of edges do they have and how do they interact? > There is not one exact answer. The correct response is in using the terms as we’ve defined them to describe how you see this painting. Usually, students’ responses on this image is that the shapes are mostly organic with fairly soft edges, though some are harder in areas. Most shapes seem to blend into each other, but there are areas where harder edges on the shapes make them appear to overlap more. 2. Try this painting by Picasso (below) titled Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler of 1910. What is the general quality of the shapes (organic or geometric), what sort of edges do they have and how do they interact? Mostly geometric shapes with both hard and “medium hard” edges. They interact all three ways, but overlapping seems to dominate. It almost appears as though they’re sliding on top of each other. 3. How about the 1904 lithograph by Pierre-Auguste Renoir titled Ambroise Vollard below? Definitely organic with fairly soft edges. FORM (Mass) — The physical solidity of a form. Only 3D artworks have form/mass This term is usually applied to three-dimensional sculpture or mixed media artworks. When observing the mass of an object, you are trying to describe the physical quality of its form; how big is it, how dense is it, and how does it “sit” in the space it occupies. How big is it? Use “life-size” as a standard for describing measurement. “Larger than life-size”, “smaller than life-size” or “life-size” can seem like overly simple phrases, but they easily communicate the measurement of a form because of our associations with what “life-size” is (somewhere between five and six feet tall). How dense is it? To describe the quality of the material a sculpture is made out of, observe how “dense” or “solid” the artwork is. Density or solidity are different from the weight of an object. Weight is a measurement of gravity pulling on an object. If you weigh 150 pounds on earth, your weight will change if you travel to the moon, but your mass won’t change at all. Mass is the physical material, the physical “stuff” of your body. Put a ton of feathers and a ton of bricks side by side. Both weigh the same (a ton) but one is more dense, or more solid than the other (the bricks). To analyze density, base your judgement on what the material is made out of and how it looks to you. Which is denser, a statue carved out of marble or one carved out of styrofoam? How about marble versus solid iron? When describing density, as with all the elements of form, you must identify a LEVEL i.e.: ” it is very dense, it is a little dense”, etc. Dense objects are less “airy”, their physical material is tightly “packed” in a given space. Although they are very similar, do not confuse weight and mass when describing an object. A three-inch tall sculpture may not weigh very much, but if it’s made out of iron it is very dense. How does it “sit” in space? First, referring to the section on shape in last week’s lecture, is the object organic or geometric? Organic shapes seem to have natural sources, and are usually rounded or curving, often in a random fashion. Geometric shapes appear mathematical or machine made, based on squares, triangles, fairly precise circles, shapes that repeat, etc. Is it an open or closed form? Open forms have areas of open space or project into the surrounding space. Each of us has a certain amount of space surrounding us that we prefer most people stay out of. Usually, this space extends several inches around our body like a cylinder. Imagine that sculpture has the same kind of space, an imaginary bubble that closely surrounds it. When that bubble is broken, or when the sculpture “projects” out of that space, we call it an “open form”. Another way to think of this is to stand on two feet with arms down to your sides. Like this, you are a closed form — raise one arm out to the side and you’ve become more of an open form. Also, when a sculpture has open space through which we can see to the other side, it also fits our definition of open form. Try applying these terms to this sculpture of a reclining figure by Henry Moore. Of course, because it’s a picture of a sculpture, you can’t get a good sense of its size. If you know that it is eight feet long, then it could be referred to as “slightly larger than life”. Can you tell from the screen that it’s made out of solid wood? Knowing this, we can say that it is “fairly dense”. It is relatively organic though some geometric corners or edges are apparent around the knees and shoulders. Finally, it is a very open form because there are open spaces through which you can see and the “body” projects outside of itself into the surrounding space, especially off the top of the head. By comparison, the sculpture below by Rodin is a closed form. It has no open areas to see through and does not project outside of the space it occupies. Being carved out of stone, it is very dense, more so than the solid wood sculpture. However, at only three feet across, it is not very large — just a little smaller than life size. The sculpture clearly has an organic shape. A slight problem exists when trying to describe the mass in a painting or drawing in that there is no actual mass to describe. Any mass that you see is just a picture of something, so we refer to it as the “illusion” of mass. The image below by O’Keefe is an excellent example of this principle. The boulder appears larger than life because it is so large in the picture and it’s big in relation to the clouds. It looks like solid rock, so we can say that it has the illusion of being very dense, closed and somewhat organic. Volume — the contained or internal space of an object. Mass described physical material, volume describes open space contained by the physical material. An empty cup made out of iron has a small, closed, very dense, geometric mass. For functional purposes, the cup is designed to hold liquid. The amount of liquid that it can hold, or the amount of open space the cup contains, is its volume. Place your arms as though you are holding a large beach ball, with one arm going over the top and one around the side. Your arms define a certain amount of open space that the imaginary beach ball occupies. We can describe how big this space is in terms of its volume. Lower your arms and cup your hands together as though you are cradling a small bird. The volume you describe is much smaller than before. Look for volumes of space in the Henry Moore sculpture. They exist in the open space beneath the head, between the legs and between the torso and the legs. Are they large or small, geometric or organic? The Rodin sculpture doesn’t really define any volume in comparison. Try applying all the ideas regarding mass and volume to Laocoon and His Sons from the Hellenistic period in Greek history. The statue is eight feet tall and carved out of marble. Generalizing an answer, most students respond that it is an extremely open form clearly projecting into the space around it and has many open areas of moderately sized volumes. It is larger than life, very organic and extremely dense, as it is carved out of marble. TEXTURE — the roughness or smoothness of something; may be actual or simulated Simply, texture is the way something feels to the touch. The only complication in the visual arts is that sometimes it appears a texture is present but on further inspection, it’s only an illusion. Artists can create what looks like a texture, but in reality is very smooth. To discuss our observations of this, let’s use two terms, “actual” and “simulated”. Actual texture — the real tactile quality of an object. How it feels to your hand when you are viewing the artwork in person. In this format, where images are viewed on computer screen, you have to make assumptions about what the actual texture is. Simulated texture — the illusion of real texture. Visually, it may appear as though the texture is rough or smooth as created by the artist, but often the actual and simulated texture are different from each other. Looking at this untitled student charcoal drawing, what is the actual and simulated texture? Many students feel that this image appears as though it would be rough (simulated texture) but on learning that it is a charcoal drawing (charcoal is a very smooth, delicate material) describe the actual texture as smooth. If you were to view the sculpture below in person, Objet (aka Luncheon in Fur) 1936 by Meret Oppenheim, what would the actual and simulated texture be? The actual texture would be soft and furry and a simulated texture wouldn’t really exist because you were looking at the real object, not a painting of the object. COLOR: The visible wavelengths of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum. There is a continuum of energy in the Universe called the electromagnetic radiation spectrum. On this spectrum is a wide range of energy, from high energy to low energy. On the high energy side of the spectrum are gamma rays, x-rays, and ultraviolet light. On the low energy side of the spectrum is infrared light, then microwaves and radio waves. Our skin is sensitive to ultraviolet light, and we use simple instruments to help sense infrared light. In the middle of the spectrum, between high and low energy, is a tiny portion to which our eyes are sensitive. This is called “color”. In decreasing order of energy, the colors as they appear in the visible spectrum are violet, blue, green, yellow, orange and red. Sunlight is considered “white light”, containing the full spectrum of color. In a variety of ways, when sunlight gets to earth, the white light is broken into its different components and we see the individual parts, what we will call “hues”. On page 94 of your text there is a diagram of how a prism separates the white light into the color of a rainbow. If “color” refers to the full spectrum of violet, blue, green, yellow, orange and red, then how do we define and describe each component individually? As you’ve found by now in these lectures, we will establish some terms that can be used as tools for discussion. When looking at color there are four characteristics that you should be able to discuss. Your book lists three of them on page 96, but there is an essential fourth element I’d like to include. They are hue, intensity, value (light level), and temperature. After going through the terms we will then look at examples and apply the information to our observations. Hue: the actual color. For the time being, what you would usually refer to as color will be called a hue. “The hue of the apple is red, the hue of the car is green”, etc. This is simple identification of which portion of the spectrum you see. The are three categories of hues that are commonly used both for discussion and simple color theory; primary, secondary and tertiary colors. To understand how these categories work, open page 88 in your book to see the image of a color wheel. Primary colors: red, yellow, and blue Secondary color: Orange, green and violet. The combination of two primary hues results in secondary hues. If you mix yellow and blue you get green, blue and red make violet and yellow and red make orange. The secondary hues can be found halfway between the primaries on the wheel. Yellow, red and blue. These are the three hues from which all other hues can be mixed. Tertiary colors: Yellow/green, yellow/orange, blue/green, blue/violet, redviolet and red/orange. Tertiary hues are made by mixing a primary and secondary hue that are next to each other on the color wheel i.e.: yellow mixed with green makes yellow/green. They exist halfway between neighboring primary and secondary hues. When looking at the color wheel, notice that there is no black or white. Black does not exist as a color — we refer to it as a shade. When a hue is darkened with black it is called a shade of the hue, when lightened with white it is called a tint. On page 88-89 of the book is a good discussion of how simple color wheel theory has been used at an advanced level. George Seurat was a PostImpressionist painter (to be covered later in the course) who studied the way hues were created and how they appeared in relation to each other. > On page 92 of your text book is a detail of his most well known image “A Sunday on La Grande Jatte” from 1884-86 (which many of you said you’d take home from the Art Institute of Chicago if given the chance). In this painting, he placed dots of pure hues next to each other to create the illusion of other hues. When creating a shadow he placed tiny dots of red and blue next to each other allowing the blues to dominate, creating a cool tertiary blue-violet shadow. You can see in the detail on page 99 how he lightened and warmed the green of the grass by adding mostly yellow dots around the green dots, and then shifted to more blue and green dots for the shadows. Come back to this example after you’ve covered the remaining color characteristics and look at how he manipulated them using the color wheel. Once the hue is identified, the next of the four characteristics is intensity. Intensity: The richness or purity of a hue. When describing a hue’s intensity, we can say that it is rich, saturated, dull, drab, etc. Thinking of a fire engine, is the red you see dull or intense? “Fire engine red” is an excellent example of intense red. A good analogy is a sponge soaked with water – when a sponge doesn’t hold water it is unsaturated. If you squeeze it nothing comes out. Put that sponge in water for a few minutes and then pick it up. Its has become much heavier or more “saturated” with water. If you squeeze it now, excess water runs down your hands and elbows. Repeating this analogy but making the water red, when the sponge holds more red water in it we say it’s saturated (intense) and when there’s less red water it is unsaturated (dull). Going back to the fire engine, if you could “squeeze” the fire engine, would a lot of red come out of it, as if it was the sponge? When there is a lot of “red” in the red or “blue” in the blue, it is an intense hue. Look around you to find other examples of varying intensities in hues. How about a blue sky versus an old pair of blue jeans? Both are blue but one is intense and the other dull. How about green grass and the green of an army uniform? Which is more intense? It is extremely important not to just identify something as being intense or dull, but to describe a level — “it’s very intense, it’s slightly dull…” The third characteristic refers to the level of light the hue has. Value: the lightness or darkness of a hue. This is probably the easiest of the characteristics to identify. How light or dark is the hue you’r e looking at. Which is lighter, which is darker, the blue of the ocean or the blue of the sky? The green of a leaf of the green of a dollar bill? Identify two objects with the same hue in the room your are in right now. Which is lighter, which is darker? Again, as with intensity, describe the level of light versus dark. Is the hue extremely dark or very light? Is it in the middle of the value scale or slightly to one side? The last of the four characteristics is temperature. Temperature: the visual warmth or coolness of a hue. Does the hue look warm or cold? Blue, violet and green tend to appear “cool” to the eye of most people. Our associations with these hues are water, snow, ice, dampness, etc. Red, orange and yellow tend to appear “warm” to our eyes, the association being fire, sun, earth, etc. It’s important to note that these temperatures are not absolute. It is possible for blue to be warm if used properly, though it may never be as warm as orange, or for red to be cool, though probably never as cool as green. A cold violet may appear warm if used in contrast with an even colder blue, or a warm red may appear cool next to a hot yellow. When applying these terms first identify the hues you see, then for each one observe their level of intensity, value and temperature. Think of these four characteristics as separate radio dials. You can “tune” each one to suit how you see. A hue you identify may be very intense, dark and hot or it could be dull, middle gray and cool. The possibilities are endless. Each characteristic can work independently of the others. The electronic reproduction of hues on computer may not demonstrate the variation of these characteristics clearly enough, so for the worksheet we’ll look at examples in the book. We’ve seen this lithograph by Calder before when discussing shape. > The hues are red, yellow and blue (primary grouping). Yellow is the lightest hue, blue is the darkest and red is in between them. They are all very intense (this may be hard to see on your screen), but students often see either the yellow or red as most intense. Red is the warmest with yellow close behind (or do you see the reverse?!) and blue, though not cold, is the coolest of the three. Black, a shade, is obviously darker than any of the hues. Make a comparative observation of the hues as they change when looking at this image by Edward Hopper. > All the same hues are there, but most of the characteristics have changed. The yellow has become darker, warmer, and duller. Blue has become lighter, warmer and less intense. Red is lighter, duller and cooler. Do the same with the Monet below comparing to the Hopper this time. > The yellow is much lighter, much cooler and much duller (yellow is very subtle in the original painting, so you may not see it in reproduction. It is located mostly in the skyline just above the trees. Blue is equally light for the most part, cooler and more intense. Red is lighter, cooler and less intense. Make one more set of observations in this painting by Kossof. > Looking closely, the full color wheel is being used here. The hues we’ve been watching, red, yellow and blue, have all gotten middle gray, middle temperature and dull. There is not much visual “energy” to this use of color. Move back and forth between the four paintings and track how the same hues shift, how the “radio dials” of color characteristics change with each image. Remember that each characteristic can function independently of the others; just because a color is cold doesn’t mean it’s dull, or if it is intense it may not necessarily be light. At the start, use the characteristics as a checklist until you become used to describing the hues more fluently. These terms, your color “vocabulary”, will continue to be used when talking about the mood and perception of color. They ways in which color can affect mood are infinite. Rather than trying to give you a list of the emotional qualities of color, I’d like to offer a couple of examples from which you can make decisions and examine your own responses. In and of itself, color can communicate mood without any reference to narrative, or a story. The best way to view this is through a comparative look at shifting hues in the same painting. Below is “The Old Guitarist” by Picasso (also can be seen at the Art Institute of Chicago!). Do a quick color analysis of the hues; generally blue, blue-green with some yellows, dull, cool but not cold, middle gray. What mood does this painting communicate? Try to look just at the hues, NOT the narrative. Write down your response. The next image is exactly the same, but there is a distinct shift in the characteristics of the hues. Write down your observations as to the shift in characteristics of the hues, and how the mood has changed. > Notice that when the hues changed the mood changed, but the image is exactly the same. Students in class often feel the blue version is melancholy, sad, heavy, etc., and the red version is more romantic, nostalgic and peaceful. Even in the abstract, color can communicate emotions and energy. Mark Rothko was a color field painter who studied color relationships and meaning by applying large areas of color on top of each other with various types of edges. In the two paintings of his that follow, write down your analysis of the hues as well as a subjective response to the emotion of the color. Remember that nothing changes just because there isn’t a picture to “read”. Have you ever been moved by music that had melody and rhythm but no words? Recognizable images are the “words” of art and while they can be wonderful to guide you through the meaning of an image, the visual elements communicate to you aside from the narrative. In the first image the hues are generally orange with darker shades. Overall it is dull, warm and rests in the middle of the value scale. The second image is generally blue with tints and shades to lighten and darken it, is a little intense (more than the orange?), cool and is in the middle to middle dark part of the value scale. Subjective responses to these pieces often have to do with subtle forms of emotions, low energy and heaviness caused by the general dullness of the hues and the almost neutral, grayish quality of light. Note how the elements here are described to support the subjective response. In this analysis the terms are not being used as an end in themselves, but to express/support an opinion. There are two additional terms that will be helpful to analyze the use of color in an artwork: spatial movement and complimentary color. Spatial movement – depth created by the use of color. Intense, warm hues tend to visually move forward in space. Dull, cool hues tend to recede in space. Note the “flat” appearance in this painting by Gauguin. The ocean in the background looks as though it is equally distant from the viewer as the foreground because the blue of the ocean is more intense than the red or brown. Visually, it “pops” forward based on its color characteristics. > The same thing occurs is this image by R.B. Kitaj. > In the hall at right, linear perspective is being used to create space receding back to the porter. However, the red in the hall is equally intense and warm throughout, so the illusion of depth is flattened. We could say that the two spatial effects in this image create visual tension. Primary Colors: Red, Blue & Yellow (base of all other colors) Secondary Colors: 2 primary colors mixed together (Green, Orange, Violet) Tertiary Colors: Primary + Secondary color (Yellow-Green, Blue-Green; Red-Orange, Yellow-Orange; Red-Violet; Blue-Violet Color Temperatures: Colors that are next to each other on the color wheel • • • Cool Colors: Violets, Blues, Greens Warm Colors: Reds, Oranges, Yellows Neutral “Colors”: White, Black, Greys, Browns Color Schemes (text refers to these as “Color Harmonies” but is limited in scope p. 97-99) • Achromatic Color Scheme = LACKS color = Grey Scale. An “A” = lacks; “chrom” = color o Restricted Palette o Example: Pablo Picasso, Guernica, 1937, O/C, 11’6″ x 25’6″ Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid o • Monochromatic Color Scheme = Mono = one; chrom = color = composition composed of tints & shades of ONE color o Restricted Palette o Promotes a single, dominant mood o Example: Pablo Picasso, The Tragedy, 1903, oil on wood, 41 7/16″ x 27 3/16″ National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC o • Analogous Color Scheme = composed of colors NEXT to each other on the color wheel o Restricted Palette o Promotes a single, dominant mood o o Example: Claude Monet, Water Lilies, 1906, O/C, 35 3/8″ × 37 1/16″ Art Institute of Chicago o • Triadic Color Scheme = composed of any THREE colors equidistant from each other o Restricted Palette o o Example: Peit Mondrian, Composition II in Red, Blue & Yellow, 1930, O/C, 23.4″ x 23.4″ Private Collection o • Complementary Color Scheme = composed of colors that are OPPOSITE each other on the color wheel o Open Palette o o Example: Vincent van Gogh, Starry Night, 1889, O/C, 28.7” x 36.25” Museum of Modern Art, NYC o • Local Color Scheme = composed of colors as they would be seen in nature or reality o Open Palette o Example: Edouard Manet, Olympia, O/C, 51.4” x 74.8” Musée d’Orsay, Paris o • Arbitrary Color Scheme = composed of colors that have NO relation to reality or nature, such as a blue cow or purple horse; may be more emotionally or symbolically significant o Open Palette o Example: Andy Warhol, Marilyn Monroe Suite, 1967, portfolio of 10 screen prints, each 36″ x 36″ Museum of Modern Art, NYC o • • • LIGHT & VALUE Light: the quality of brightness or darkness of an image. Light is essential to seeing and producing color. In art, especially Representational artworks, light is essential when attempting to mimic the natural world, drawing the viewer’s eye to important areas of an artwork, creating shadow to define the contours of a shape, and evoking emotional or psychological responses from the viewer. Value: The lightness/darkness of tones or colors. White is the lightest value; black the darkest value; between the two are varying grays = aka gray scale • • To describe the light in an artwork, we’re going to follow a small checklist to help organize our observations: 1. Is the artwork generally light or dark? 2. Does it have a broad or narrow value range? 3. Is the light hard or soft? When talking about the luminous quality of an artwork we talk about the value or level of light in the artwork. To assess the value in an artwork using the questions above, imagine a value scale that goes from black to white. There is a value scale on page 86 of your book. Looking at an artwork IN GENERAL, does it fall on the light side or dark side of the scale (or anywhere in between). The more variety of values an artwork has, even if they’r e all in the middle gray area of the scale, the broader the value range. A broad value range doesn’t have to include white and black —it just needs to include a wide variety of values. The last question asks if extremes of light and dark exist in the artwork. Is there 100% black and/or 100% white in the artwork? A black and white checkerboard has a very narrow value range (only two values) but does contain extremes of light and dark. Again, let’s apply this information to practical examples. Examine Hopper’s etching, Night Shadows of 1921. • • This work could be described as a generally dark image, with a slightly broad value range and extremes of light and dark. • How about the student drawing of a box in the light below? • • This is a generally light to middle gray image with a very broad value range (lots of grays), almost an extreme of white but no black (is the darkest area 100% black?). • • • • How about the 1761 edition of Giovanni Battista Piranesi’s untitled etching (called “The Smoking Fire”) from the series The Imaginary Prisons below? This is generally a middle dark image with an extremely broad value range and extremes of light and dark. ************************************* In certain artworks, such as 19th-century-American Landscape paintings, light can have metaphorical meanings whereas areas bathed in light are synonymous with rationality, godliness, goodness, civilization, or intelligence; and, those areas shrouded in darkness symbolize irrationality, evilness, primitiveness, savagery, or ignorance. Thomas Cole’s The Oxbow (1836)is an excellent example of how the era’s ideologies are embedded in an artwork. Created in the context of 1836 U.S.A., Cole’s landscape conveys the doctrine of Manifest Destiny – the right side of the landscape is domesticated, cultivated, orderly and bathed in light, which represents the first 13 colonies and lands usurped since Independence; the left side is overshadowed by storm clouds which casts the landscape in a dark, stormy wilderness and symbolizes the the unknown primitive & savage territories of the western frontier as well as all who reside there (i.e., American Indians). In short, the painting is propaganda to justify the continued colonization of the American continent and the oppression of Native Americans. • • Thomas Cole, The Oxbow (or, View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts After a Thunderstorm, 1836, O/C, 51.5″ x 76″ Metropolitan Museum of Art, NYC • • • • TENEBRISM & CHIAROSCURO TENEBRISM = Abrupt shift from light to dark CHIAROSCURO = Gradual transition from light to dark The light in Caravaggio’s painting Crucifixion of St. Peter of 1600 changes very quickly specifically along St. Peter’s left arm; the image is either very light or very dark — the middle grays are not very apparent. Tenebrism is a key characteristics of the Baroque Period in European art history in which light acts theatrically to draw worshipers back into the Catholic Church after the Protestant Reformation. During the era known as the Counter-Reformation, the Catholic Church used artworks as advertisement and propaganda to bring the masses back to Mass much like concert posters and movie trailers work today. • • • • In Peter Paul Rubens Bacchus painting of 1638/40 (below), the body of Bacchus emerges out of shadow because of the way Rubens has shown the gradual transition of light and dark across the body to create the illusion that it has mass. CHIAROSCURO = Gradual transition from light to dark • • Finally, “flat light”, almost the opposite of chiaroscuro, is used when there is little or no change in light across surfaces. Without the transition of light to give them form, objects/figures have a flat appearance, almost like paper doll cutouts. This is seen in Henri Matisse’s 1909 painting called Dance. • • • And in cartoon characters such as The Simpsons: • • • • • • • SPACE — distances or areas around, between or within components of a work of art. Space can be two-dimensional, three-dimensional; negative and/or positive. Space is the area around us in all three dimensions; up and down/side to side/front to back. It can be defined as no bigger than our body or the infinite space of the universe. In art, an illusion of space is often created through one or more traditional methods. Before listing the methods, there are a few general terms to define that we will use in discussion. Size — the measurement of an object, or its actual physical size. Scale — the relationship of size between objects. If you are 5.5 feet tall, then your size is 5.5 feet. Let’s say you have a friend whose size is 6.0 feet tall. When you stand next to each other and someone compares your two sizes (“Hey, you’re taller than him!), they are comparing the two of you in scale to each other. In this painting by Magritte, we see how the artist manipulates size and scale. We have a good sense for the size of his subjects. The comb, bar of soap, shaving brush, glass and match all fit comfortably into our hand. We know what their sizes are. Looking at the other objects, we have clear associations with the size of the bed, dresser and rug. Magritte has gone further though, distorting the normal scale relationships between the two groups of objects so they appear unusual — the comb is bigger than the bed, the glass as big as the dresser, etc.. Identifying whether or not size and scale have been manipulated or handled • • • • traditionally in an artwork is important to understanding the artist’s ideas. POSITIVE SPACE Areas of a painting or sculpture which are occupied by forms or images NEGATIVE SPACE The “empty” areas, where no forms/images are located Rick Bartow’s 2009 pastel & charcoal drawing is a great example of positive & negative space. Every place he made a mark on the paper is positive; where he didn’t add imagery is negative space. Foreshortening — the illusion of a three-dimensional shape projecting forward on a two-dimensional surface. • • • This is an artist’s craft, or trick that creates the illusion that a form, often a figure, is sticking out towards the viewer. When you wear 3D glasses in a movie, although the screen is flat, it appears as though the objects/people are sticking out at you. In theory, this illusion is the same as foreshortening. Usually, when looking at the human figure, we expect to see it with arms and legs in a certain proportion to the torso and head. Stick figures that we draw are an excellent example of this — arms out to the sides and legs hanging beneath the torso. When a figure lies down, the proportions change dramatically, and conveying this in a drawing requires the practiced skill of foreshortening. This skill is clearly evident in The Dead Christ by Mantegna. The image is presented twice here — once as it normally appears and then with the figure of Christ outlined. The outline hardly looks like a human body, but the image is clearly of a figure lying down with feet projecting towards the viewer. This is a foreshortened figure. • • • • Another example is in the work of someone we looked at last week, Caravaggio. In The Conversion of St. Paul, the body of St. Paul is foreshortened dramatically as his body disappears behind the head and arms. Using your finger, lightly trace the outline of the body on the screen to see how different it is from the usual contour of a human figure. In this image even the horse is somewhat foreshortened. ************************************************** *************************************** • • • HOW DO ARTIST’S CREATE THE ILLUSION OF THREE DIMENSIONS (3D) ON A TWO DIMENSIONAL PICTURE PLANE? There are four primary methods that are used to convey the illusion of 3D space on a 2D picture plane: Linear Perspective, Atmospheric Perspective, Overlapping & Isometric Perspective. Linear Perspective — illusion of depth where size represents distance. • • • If you stand on railroad track and look off in the distance, the tracks appear to join at a common point. However, you know that the two rails are parallel to each other and never really meet. In the 1420’s, Brunelleschi was one of the first to “discover” that the illusion of real space could be shown in an artwork through the use of simple formulas that mimic the way our eyes take in information, creating this effect. In principle, whenever two lines or edges are parallel in nature, they appear to converge at a “vanishing point” in the distance. In the following etching by Canaletto, we stand at one end of St. Mark’s square in Venice, Italy, looking in the distance at a tower. The illusion of space is very believable. Now, looking at the second image, you can see how all the parallel edges in the square, the tops of the tents at left and building at right, converge at one vanishing point. This is called “one-point perspective”. • • • In Noon at Midday by Saryan, although she has distorted perspective at the roofline, there is a clear sense of the buildings and street generally recede to a vanishing point. • • • Most of the time, we see the world around us in “two-point” perspective, an illusion where there are two vanishing points to which all edges/lines recede. If you were to draw the room you are sitting in right now, you’d notice that there are two main sets of parallel lines; the walls to your left and right are parallel as are the walls in front of and behind you. To create the illusion of the room in a drawing, you would have to draw all edges receding to two vanishing points. This effect is evident in the following WWII painting by Eunich where I’v e highlighted the linear perspective in a second version. • • • • When linear perspective is being employed by an artist, objects close to your are large and those further from you are small. It isn’t necessary that there is an obvious effect of lines coming together as in these examples. Linear perspective is occurring on a landscape when a person close to you is large in the picture and one further from you is small. You’ll see this occur in the next slide when we discuss atmospheric perspective. Atmospheric (or Aerial) Perspective — the illusion of depth based on how we see colors in nature. • • • • • When standing about 5 miles from downtown Chicago, the buildings look grey and dull and can be hard to see. This occurs because you are looking through 5 miles of pollution and water in the air which distorts the fall of natural light. As you move closer to the buildings, colors become easier to see and edges of buildings are more clearly defined. This effect is easily reproduced using atmospheric perspective. Atmospheric perspective is based on the principle that lighter, cooler, duller colors recede in space, and warmer, richer darker color come forward. This illusion of depth is clearly seen in the following land/seascape by Aivazofsky. Look at how the mountains in the distance get lighter and hazier, conveying the illusion of distance. Linear perspective occurs here also, evident in how the size of the figures in the foreground is larger in scale to the boat and buildings in the background. To check this, measure the height of the figures and compare them to anything in the background. Size represents distance here, so although this painting relies mostly on atmospheric perspective to create depth, Aivazofsky makes use of a little linear perspective as well. Isometric perspective = “Iso” means equal and “metric” refers to measure. The illusion of depth is flattened or non-e

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