rmining meaning Frame of Reference • Our background, experience, cultural expectations, environment… • None are identical, even identical twins! The communication fallacy Leveling – some details are lost Assimilated – clarified to conform to other messages we might expect Condensed – message is shortened for memory Sharpened – only “important” details retained Embellished – details added, context added ***100% percent correct communication is simply a logical error*** Codes Verbal Vocal Visual Nonverbals • Eye • Face • Posture • Hands and feet • The Statue Channel • F2F, telephone, text, call, email, audio, TV, radio, newsletter… • The medium selected to send the message Depends on needs and abilities of sender/receiver Consider amount and speed of feedback Do you need permanent record? What is cost? What is the formality needed for situation? Feedback • Verbal and visual response to a message • Advantages ❑ Reduces misunderstanding ❑ Improves accuracy ❑ Makes people feel valued • Disadvantages ❑ Feels under attack ❑ Time-consuming ❑ Hard to generate quality responses Environment • Time and place • Also, physical and social surroundings • Be aware of mood! • Location, lights, climate – are things that communicators can be able to control • Consider the example of time of a meeting – 8 am vs. Noon vs. 4:30 pm? Which meeting will have more focused workers? Noise • Internal Preoccupations, knowledge • External Cold air, phones ringing Intro to Communication WEEK #2 MCQUAIL, D. (2010). THEORY ALL IMAGES (6TH MASS ED.). OBTAINED COMMUNICATION SAGE VIA PUBLICATIONS. CREATIVE COMMONS Definition of Communication • “to make common to many, to share” • The process of people sharing thoughts, ideas, and feelings, with each other in a commonly understandable way Mass Media Communication • Last week, we established the definition and model of communication. • We acknowledge that channels of communication impact our ability to encode and decode messages. • The reading for week 2 identifies specific mass media channels that developed through history. I recommend reading slowly and making a timeline for your notes. • You can see that the channels are MANY, and we are only doing an Introduction course. For future consideration, our interpersonal, group COM, multimedia, and intercultural COM classes cover details in specific media areas you might find interesting! Media History • Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers, or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter. — Thomas Jefferson, U.S. president Mass media idea-sharing started largely due to religious and political motivation. In the beginning… (not so much a focus on entertainment) Used for control or was controlled by government and/or public safety Even today, some media changes are slower in certain regimes and cultures! Example figure from 2020: Impact of economic wealth of countries and access to information on internet. Yes, media access is impacted by government policy still now! Print Media • Libraries held books, the sacred texts that were hand-written to store information – the first flash drive! • Authorship process was revolutionized by printing press. • Originally, books only circulated to those who needed to know info. • Once it was economical, books could be printed multiple times, shared by many, and printers could be a profession. • Considerations for copyright, authorship, and freedom of press arose from this ability to copy books. Pamphlets to Papers • Initially contained information about commerce; targeted professionals • Allowed for public access to information instead of needing word-of-mouth connection • Reflects the news of interest to its current readers, making papers vulnerable to popular opinion • Forced publishers to determine freedom of press and how much separation from government influence Other sharable print media • Song sheets • Posters • Poems • Comics • Maps • Periodicals • Special-interest magazines Film: end of 19th century • Nearly immediate, massive popularity • Allowed for leisure time in an affordable, sharable way • Helped share music, drama, humor, and news • Three categories (with some overlap) Propaganda film Social documentary Art film Film > https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=utntGgcsZWI • https://youtu.be/utntGgcsZWI Do YOU go to the movie theater? • Increasingly, no, we don’t. • Film went from public to Private use via: ❑ Personal use DVD own/rent ❑ Cable ❑ Subscription services Broadcasting • TV and Radio are in this category • Only certain channels open at first, highly regulated by government • Initially, everything was live! No recording. • Acted as a window to the world but could be in the living room • Radio is cheap, flexible, and diverse, more than TV • Most massive impact in terms of reach, time spent, and popularity globally Old Media vs. New Media • What’s left to mention? • Music, DVDs, CDs – content is not easy to regulate, and impact is difficult to measure and generalize. • Private media-making abilities are ever-present (printers, cameras, phones, selfpublishing). • Traditional mass media (all described previously) are one-directional, meaning publisher direct to reader/consumer, and no feedback. • New media (term in use since 1960s) is interactive, meaning audience has ability to provide feedback almost immediately. The Internet • Global reach • Accessible • Relatively low cost • Hard to regulate • Gamechangers e-Bay Napster AMAZON But is it mass media?? Or simply a medium with which to share film, music, ideas… Running header: SCHOLARLY EXAMPLE ©Voynich2021 Scholarly Example with APA Formatting Melissa Voynich My University Prepared for Dr. Voynich October 32, 2020 Scholarly Example 2 Scholarly Example with APA Formatting Introduction Typically, the introduction is 5-7 sentences, but it is so important – it is the first impression of your paper. You will grab attention, establish your credibility, reveal your paper topic, establish relevance to the class and reader (why are we interested in reading?), and provide a thesis. Here is a sample thesis that reveals my topic and the three main points found in the body of the paper: In this article review, I address observations about the author’s credentials, confusing gender vocabulary, and important revelations for my understanding of diversity. Analysis The body of a paper usually provides very little in the way of direct summary and quotes. Your job is to interpret information rather than recite it. The body of a paper usually has three to five points, as identified in your thesis. The paragraphs are formatted as 1) your point stated in your own words 2) evidence from articles to support all opinions 3) elaboration on the sources provided in your words. Some things to review in scholarly articles: • Credentials of the author and quoted persons • Vocabulary that is important OR was confusing for you (hint: Google the terms) • Support available for the area of research (Is there a lot? none? Is it recent?) • Any obvious bias or opinion that you feel is not supported enough • What of the research is new to you OR confirms about what you know and/or makes you question what you know (check the discussion sections!) Below is an example body paragraph about impact parenting, where you can see that I do not state any opinion without the support of scholarly materials. Also, no direct quotes: Scholarly Example 3 First, one needs to identify and quantify the impact of parenting. Much research has focused on the struggle of public education systems to equalize learning for disadvantaged youth populations (Swail, 2000; Rosenzweig, 2001). Billions of dollars in federal money are intended to benefit students in disadvantaged familial circumstances (Githens et al., 2014). Parental/guardian guidance has been identified as important to student success, as these influential figures can model educational persistence – or lack of it – for young students (Rosenzweig, 2001; Garrity et al., 2010; Giani, 2015; Morris-Paxton et al., 2018). Parental involvement is a primary data point affecting socioeconomic status, and, notably, has a predictable relationship in a student’s drive to succeed in higher educational endeavors (Rosenzweig, 2001; Giani, 2015). Conclusion o Do you have significant, important, new findings for the reader? Does this reflection impact readers for the good or bad? o How would you improve in the future? How do you see this new knowledge incorporated into our life? Sample conclusion content: In closing, conditions for educational equality were addressed through factors of parental involvement, rural location, and use of technology in the classroom. Further research to identify different parental factors should be explored, especially as the data report vastly different homelife trends influenced by recent recessions and the pandemic. Related to developing data on communities, further exploration is needed in rural areas. Potential effects could be identified to address educational policy, especially as students might experience educational disadvantage due to parental, racial, or other socioeconomic demographics. Scholarly Example 4 References (sample APA style – note indents, margins, and italics) Githens, R., Sauer, T., Crawford, F., Cumberland, D., Wilson., K. (2014). Online workforce development in communication colleges: Connection with community, institutional, and governance factors. Community College Review, 42(41), 283 – 306. If your professor requests a word count, the reference page is not included in

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