In the Violence and state Failure chapter, Baker focuses on political violence, criminal and state failure and the consequences that come alongside them. The author argues that political, criminal violence and state failure has negative impacts on the economic development of a country. For instance, Somalia has experienced all the forms mentioned above violence and true to the author’s argument; the state continues to experience political unrest and poor living conditions among the nation’s citizens. However, although political violence is a characteristic of most developing countries, I argue that it is not obvious that political and civil unrest in Somalia cannot be entirely blamed for poverty and poor economic conditions in the country. Other factors such as poor leadership and climatic conditions are important in understanding the economic quagmire in Somalia.

Mogadishu the capital of Somalia, was once recognized for its outstanding architecture but today, it has continually recognized for its political unrest. However, most individuals fail to understand that the country was impoverished even before the civil war. Also, bearing in mind that Somali residents are nomads, there was nothing to be benefitted from the guerrilla warfare since they initially didn’t have permanent possessions. Moreover, the poor economic developments can be blamed on poor leadership policies by ancient leaders such as Said Barre largely contributed to the declining policies. Baker also argues that Somalia’s climatic conditions do not support modern development since as it is characterized by little rainfall. Although some would counter-argue that even Egypt faces similar droughts but it is economically stable, it is important to note that the longest river in Somalia, River Shabelle dries up at least once a year. This is unlike the River Nile of Egypt that supports farming in the country.

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