HUM 2141 – World Art I Florida Tech Week 15-1: Gothic Art, part 1 Lars R Jones, PhD The High Middle Ages A) The Romanesque Period – c. 1000 to c. 1150; (to the mid-1200s in some areas) – c. 1115 elongated figural canon at St. Pierre Moissac B) The Gothic Period — c. 1150 to between c. 1400 & c. 1500 depending on location – 1140 Gothic architecture begins in royal chevet of the Abbey of St. Denis in Paris – c. 1150 beginnings of merchant capitalism & reurbanization 2 The Romanesque: Expanding Trade & Pilgrimage 3 Pilgrimage: 1) Cathedral of St. James Greater (called brother of Jesus) – Travel time 3-12 months 2) Rome (St. Peter & St. Paul) – Travel time 2-6 months 3) Jerusalem (Holy Sepulcher etc.) – Travel time 18-36 months 4 Romanesque Architecture & the Economy of Salvation along pilgrimage roads: – More users require larger churches – More chapels increase the number of altars, demand for relics & art: more altars = more donations (most churches are privately owned!) Radiating Chapels in St. Sernin, Toulouse, France, c. 1070-1120 (pilgrimage church) 5 < St. Sernin, Toulouse, France Ambulatory Side Aisles Nave Choir Radiating Chapels The Ambulatory (“to walk around”) permits transient pilgrims to visit altars & relics in various chapels without disturbing locals (who occupy the nave for mass) or the clergy (monks & canons) who use the choir; a screen (yellow) separates public & monastic spaces < St. Foy, Conques, France > 13 Growth of French Capetian Lands under Phillipe II Augustus Angevin / English Royal lands French feudal lands Church lands English feuds 14 Capetian domains c. 1225 >> The spread of the Gothic style parallels the rise in power of Capetian France and its acquisition of new territory and prestige – and of the structural integrity of the Gothic style itself. Between the mid-13th & the early 15th centuries the Gothic almost becomes a universal style across Europe before giving way to the early Renaissance styles from Italy 15 General Characteristics of The Gothic Style: **Artists are still copying art, not natural models** > Elongated figural canon > Art increasingly becomes a luxury (not just propaganda) > Increasingly elaborate ornamentation & precious materials (aesthetic of value) > Increased awareness of naturalistic elements (light, color, etc.) > Increasingly apparent relationship between architecture & the 2dimensional / 3-dimensional arts 16 Elongated figural canon begins in the Romanesque > > Lions & Old Testament prophet (Jeremiah or Isaiah?), from the trumeau of south portal of Saint-Pierre (Cluniac), Moissac, France, c. 1115– 1130, marble, life-size > 17 Yet in other places a more Romanlike figural canon and naturalistic style prevails in both the late Romanesque & early Gothic: Benedetto Antelami, King David, statue in a niche on the west facade of Fidenza Cathedral, Fidenza, Italy, c. 1180–1190. Marble, approx. life-size. 18 Death of the Virgin, tympanum of left doorway, south transept, Strasbourg Cathedral, France, c. 1230. Late Romanesque / Gothic 19 > Cf. to Procession of the imperial family, detail of south frieze of Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, Italy, 13–9 BCE. Classical aesthetic 20 Mature Gothic Architecture combines 6 innovations: 1 Structural Pointed arches (used 1st by Normans) 2 Ribbed (pointed) groin vaults (used 1st by Normans) 3 Crocket & Spire decorative motifs 4 Church Section: – More light & more glass; fewer interior murals – Side Aisle/s & Clerestory – Gallery (functional) or non-functional: Triforium – Flying Buttress – Shift toward Screen Walls (often glass walls) 5 Façade Elevations – Tower/s (West work) – Dominant Rose Window at each end of cross plan 6 Decorative program: – Expansion of ornamentation of Triumphal Arch Portal – Expansion of Sculptural Programs above eye-level The problem of Norman Rouen: capital of the (Viking/Norman ) Duchy of Normandy One of the largest & most prosperous cities in Europe (larger than Paris); in 1060 Duke William moved the capital to Caen (and then to London after 1066); its Norman cathedral was largely destroy by fire in 1200 complicating problems to locate the origins of the Gothic style 21 Romanesque Eye-Level Sculptural Programs: – Decorated Lintels (often narrative/historiated) – Typanum (often narrative) – Jamb & trumeau sculpture (prophets/saints) – Expansion onto near façade (prophets/saints) Fidenza Cathedral, Italy, eye-level façade, c. 1170-90 22 Expanded Gothic Sculptural Programs: West facade of the Royal Cathedral of Reims, France, c. 1225–1290. Legibility of sculptural & glass programs vs. Documentation of “truth” (cf. citations) & influence of Scholasticism & Gregory’s “Bible for the illiterate”; the art “is” the Bible is the Church 23 The “first” Gothic structure: Chevet (choir & ambulatory) of the Royal Abbey & mortuary of St. Denis, begun 1140 as re-alignment of 7th-8th century Merovingian structure (gray, below) St. Denis was the patron saint of France Ambulatory and radiating chapels, abbey church, Saint-Denis, France, 1140–1144. 24 < West facade, St. Denis, Paris Master of St. Giles, Royal Mass (for Charlemagne?) 15th century. Note altarpiece & gemmed Cross of St. Eloi (a gift from Charlemagne) 25 ^ Detail of the [lost] Cross of St. Eloi from St. Denis cf. to gemmed cross, c. 1200 > Aesthetic of value; an-iconic 26 Using art as a document to re-assemble the Treasury of St. Denis looted in French Revolution < Andre Felibien, 18th century print of treasury Left: Eagle vase, bronze & ancient vase c. 1145 Center: Agate Ewer, c. 1145 Right: Sardonyx Chalice, c. 1144 (not pictured but documented in Abbot’s Suger’s narrative 27 Luxury items in the treasury of St. Denis: ^ Fatimid Ewer, 10th century, rock crystal < Cup of the Ptolomies, 1st century BCE, known from Carolingian period 28 Top: 9th Century Kufic (Arabic) script Above: Limoges enamel ciborium (vessel) with pseudo-Kufic script along rim Center & right: copies of Islamic silk textiles with pseudo-Kufic script 29 Aerial view of Chartres Cathedral (from the northwest), France, begun after fire of 1134; rebuilt after another fire in 1194. Below: reliquary of “chemise” (blouse) of Mary from 876, pilgrimage object from 12th century 30 Royal Portal, West Façade, Chartres Cathedral, France, c. 1145–1155 includes some material (e.g. cut right lintel) from earlier Romanesque church 31 Saints from left jamb & Old Testament kings & queens from right jamb, central doorway of Royal Portal, Chartres Cathedral, c. 1145– 1155. 32 Notre Dame, Paris, façade & expanded sculptural program (below). Computer reconstructed polychrome decoration of Amiens sculpture (c. 1250)> 33 Notre Dame, Paris, head of king/prophet (David?) vandalized during French Revolution iconoclasm 34 Interior of Chartres Cathedral (view facing east), Chartres, rebuilt after fire of 1194. Only surviving (intact) medieval glass program: 152/176 windows, mostly c. 1205-40 35 Only intact 12th century (Romanesque) window: (#14): Virgin & Child & Angels (Notre Dame de la Belle Verrière / Blue Virgin), c. 1170 [red section] inserted between side panels [blue sections] of 13th century; Choir of Chartres Cathedral, 16’ X 7’ X 8” 36 Rose window and lancets, north transept, Chartres Cathedral, France, c. 1220. Stained glass, rose window approx. 43’ in diameter. 1. Colored glass cut and fused 2. Painted detail added in enamel & fused to glass 3. Sections joined by “cames” / leading (also frames the colored glass) 4. Armature of iron bands (pre-1200 = grid) 5. Tracery = stone framework 37 Examples of so-called “guild windows” at Chartres, 1205-40 – Guilds not yet founded, nor could have paid the costs Free-trade zone of cathedral vs. noble taxing authority created conflicts over income 38 39 Post-1194 building phase at Chartres > Saints Martin, Jerome, and Gregory, jamb statues, Porch of the Confessors (right doorway), south transept, Chartres Cathedral, c. 1220–1230. cf. Chartres, Royal Portal jamb sculpture c. 1150 40 South Transept, left portal, left jamb: Sts. Theodore, Stephen & Clement, jamb statues, Porch of the Martyrs (left doorway), south transept, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, c. 1230 41 Robert de Luzarches, Thomas de Cormont, and Renaud de Cormont, west facade of Amiens Cathedral, Amiens, France, 1220 – c. 1270. Amiens was wealthy center of woad (blue) dye production Artificial lighting now used to illustrate original polychromy 42 > Blessing Christ (“Le Beau Dieu”), trumeau statue of central doorway, west facade, Amiens Cathedral, c. 1220–1235. Elongated, Classicizing cf. Chartres, Royal Portal jamb sculpture, c. 1150 43 West facade of the Royal Cathedral of Reims, c. 1225–1290. — Royal coronation church built on site of baptism of Clovis by bishop (later) St. Remi, 496. Gothic cathedral built after Carolingian church destroyed in 1210 fire. Below Reims after WW1 fire of 1915 44 Annunciation & Visitation, jamb statues of central doorway, west facade, Reims Cathedral, c. 1230. Interaction across frames 45 46 HUM 2141 – World Art I Florida Tech Week 15-2: Gothic Art Lars R Jones, PhD Growth of French Lands under Phillipe Augustus Angevin / English Royal lands French feudal lands Church lands English feuds 2 Chivalry & Courtly Love Assault on the Castle of Love, Ivory mirror backing, c. 1320, Paris Louvre Allegory 3 Birth of the Romance & Henry II (King of England; Angevin dynasty) The Romance I Chansons de Geste (Epics) Epic Poetry & Prose Begin c. 1100 – 1130 Normandy, Aquitaine, & Capetian France II Courtly Love Poetry begins 1085 Toledo / c. 1130 Aquitaine, Sicily, Normandy, Germany, Italy Literary Sources / Traditions for the Romance 1. The Aeneid (begins 1135/7 under Henry I; expanded at the court of Henry II) 2. Arthur Legend (begins 1135/7 under Henry I; expanded at the court of Henry II) 3. The Trojan War Mythology (begins 1160s at the court of Henry II) 4 2. Arthur & Troy at the Court of Henry II Geoffrey of Monmouth- History of the Kings of Briton (inc. Prophesies of Merlin) 1135-7/8 (England) •Wace, Roman de Brut / Romance of Brutus, 1140s -50s (Norman-French) •Marie De France, Lais, 1160s-70s (Franco-Norman) •Chretien de Troyes (Christian of Troy), Arthurian Romances, 1160-85 (Norman-French) •Benoit de Ste. Maure, Roman de Troie c. 1160-70 (Normandy) •Joseph of Exeter, On the Trojan War aka Yllias, 1184 (England) •Guido delle Colonne, History of the Destruction of Troy, 1287 (Norman Sicily) •Konrad von Wuerzburg, Trojan War, before 1287 (German) •John Clerk of Whalley, Destruction of Troy, early 14th-century (England) 5 Castle of Love & Knights Jousting, jewelry casket, Paris, c. 1330-50. Ivory & iron, Walters Art Museum, Baltimore Derived from Romance of the Rose, 1225-1280 6 Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, France, 1243–1248; Palatine chapel of Louis IX 7 Upper chapel, Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, France, 1243–1248. Building was reliquary for Crown of Thorns, Mandylion, broken tip of the lance of Longinus, sponge, & nails acquired in 1239 after pawned to the Venetians by the Baldwin III, Latin emperor of Constantinople 8 Border showing cathedra (throne of St. Peter representing an altar) with Mary’s mantel, the crown of thorns, the spear of Longinus (sent to pope in 1492), the chalice or holy grail (?), 3 crucifixion nails, the sponge, and a crux gemmata. Detail of apse mosaic commissioned by Pope Honorius III c. 1220, San Paolo fouri le mura, Rome; associated with Honorius III’s organization of the 5th Crusade 9 Ste Chapelle, ^Crown of Thorns; lower chapel 10 “Blue” is associated with Mary and with textiles used in the tabernacle & Jewish temple; Mary also symbolizes the church The most-saturated (& expensive) blue hue was “ultramarine” blue made from ground lapis lazuli imported from Afghanistan Roundels from Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, France, 1243–1248 11 Right: Moralized Bible made for Louis IX, c. 1225 Left: Notre-Dame, lancet & roundels, c. 1230 12 Exegesis: Biblical Interpretation (also applied to art) Literal Sense – means exactly what it says/shows Allegorical / Doctrinal Sense – tells us what to believe Moral / Tropological Sense – tells us how to behave Figurative senses Anagogical / Spiritual Sense – reveals divine truth Moralizing Bibles thus focus on interpreting scripture to influence behavior 13 Archetypal model for Bibles, windows, and sculptures… “Scenes from the Life of Christ,” Pala d’Oro, Byzantine gilded enamel altarpiece, 1105, S. Marco, Venice; gilded frame is c. 1345 14 ^ Christ Pantocrator > Empress Irene, detail of the Pala d’Oro, c. 1105; Saint Mark’s, Venice, Italy,. Gold cloisonné inlaid with precious stones, detail approx. 7” X 4 1/2”. Frame elements added c. 1345 cf. Lost historiated crucifix for St. Denis, c. 1150 15 Nicholas of Verdun, the Klosterneuburg Altar, from the abbey church at Klosterneuburg, Austria, 1181. Gilded copper and enamel, 3’ 6 3/4” high. Stiftsmuseum, Klosterneuburg. Romanesque (round arches) — modelled on the Pala d’Oro 16 Nicholas of Verdun, Crucifixion & Sacrifice of Isaac, details of Klosterneuburg Altar, from the abbey church at Klosterneuburg, Austria, 1181. Gilded copper & enamel, 5 1/2” 17 Nicholas of Verdun, Shrine of the Three Kings, from Cologne Cathedral, Germany, begun c. 1190. Silver, bronze, enamel, & gemstones, 5’ 8” X 6’ X 3’ 8”. Cathedral Treasury. Romanesque 18 St. John the Evangelist holding a model of celestial Jerusalem, detail of the Shrine of the Three Kings, Cologne Nicholas of Verdun, shrine of the Virgin, Cathedral of Tournai, Belgium, c. 1195 (Gothic) 19 Top cover: Bishop’s cathedra or throne; front: the martyrdom of Thomas a Beckett, Reliquary casket of Thomas a Beckett, c. 1185, Limoges enamel. Limoges (Limousine) was the center of workshop enamel production 20 (R) Christ as Architect of the Cosmos c. 1220-25, Moralized Bible, Austrian National Library; cf. Detail from Klosterneuberg enamel altar, 1181 (L) — figure-ground reversal gold-ultramarine 21 Blanche of Castile, Louis IX, and two monks, dedication page (folio 8 recto) of a moralized Bible, from Paris, 1226–1234. Ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum, 1’ 3” X 10 1/2”. Pierpont Morgan Library, New York. Cf. detail from Klosterneuberg enamel altar, 1181 22 Nahash the Ammonite Threatening the Jews at Jabesh; > Abraham and the three angels, f.7v of Psalter of Saint Louis, from Paris, 1253–1270. Ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum, 5” X 3 1/2”. 23 > Master Honore, David anointed by Samuel and battle of David and Goliath, folio 7 verso of the Breviary of Philippe le Bel, from Paris, 1296. Ink & tempera on vellum, 7 7/8” X 4 7/8”. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. ** INDEPENDENT WORKSHOPS ** Lozenge mural from Lower Chapel of the Sainte Chapelle, Paris, c. 1230 24 Master Honore, Book of Hours from Paris, France, c. 1290-1300. Ink and tempera on vellum. Breviary or books of hours Office of the Hours (prayers / brief service) 3am 6am 9am Noon 3pm 6pm 9pm Midnight Designed for private, individual worship The breviary or books of hours seem to have been formalized during the Gregorian Reforms (1073-85); and widely popularized by the Franciscan order after the 1220s Prayers & readings for the days of the year and the hours of the day 25 > Unknown sculptor, Virgin and Child (Virgin of Paris), Notre-Dame, Paris, early fourteenth century. Jean Pucelle, Hours of (Queen) Jeanne d’Evreux, 1324-28 26 Jean Pucelle, Book of Hours of Jeanne d’Evreux, 27 > Virgin of (Queen) Jeanne d’Evreux, from the abbey church of Saint-Denis, France, 1339. Silver gilt and enamel, 2’ 3 1/2” high. Louvre, Paris. < Cf. Virgin from the Hours of Jeanne d’Evreux (flipped) 28 Jean Pucelle, David before Saul, folio 24 verso of the Belleville Breviary, from Paris, France, ca. 1325. Ink and tempera on vellum, 9 1/2” X 6 3/4”. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. 29 Late French Gothic Limbourg Brothers (Pol, Hennequin, Herman), October, from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, 1413–1416. Ink on vellum, approx. 8 1/2” x 5 1/2”. Musée Condé, Chantilly. Showing the Old Louvre Palace begun c. 1130 30 Jacob von Landshut, ^ Three Magi, & < façade saints, 1494-1505, Strasbourg, Cathedral, France 31 Dissemination of the Gothic Style 32 The Babylonian Captivity after 1305/09 The Holy Roman Empire Capetian France Avignon (Papal Palace below) French-Papal alliance against HRE French influence increases through 14th cent. 33 – Magna Carta 1215 / Barons support France (Philip II) against king John who also favored France; John dies 1216 Tomb of Edward II, Gloucester Cathedral, England, c. 1330–1335. > Salisbury Cathedral, England, 1220–1258; west facade completed 1265; spire 1320– 1330. 34 Doge’s Palace, Venice, Italy, begun c. 1340–1345; expanded and remodeled, 1424–1438. 35 Gerhard of Cologne, aerial view of Cologne Cathedral (from the south), Cologne, Germany, begun 1248; nave, facade, and towers completed 1880. In 1945 >> 36 International Gothic Style Gentile da Fabriano, Adoration of the Magi, 1423, Florence, tempera on panel 37 38 HUM 2141 – World Art I Florida Tech Week 15-1: Gothic Art, part 1 Lars R Jones, PhD The High Middle Ages A) The Romanesque Period – c. 1000 to c. 1150; (to the mid-1200s in some areas) – c. 1115 elongated figural canon at St. Pierre Moissac B) The Gothic Period — c. 1150 to between c. 1400 & c. 1500 depending on location – 1140 Gothic architecture begins in royal chevet of the Abbey of St. Denis in Paris – c. 1150 beginnings of merchant capitalism & reurbanization 2 The Romanesque: Expanding Trade & Pilgrimage 3 Pilgrimage: 1) Cathedral of St. James Greater (called brother of Jesus) – Travel time 3-12 months 2) Rome (St. Peter & St. Paul) – Travel time 2-6 months 3) Jerusalem (Holy Sepulcher etc.) – Travel time 18-36 months 4 Romanesque Architecture & the Economy of Salvation along pilgrimage roads: – More users require larger churches – More chapels increase the number of altars, demand for relics & art: more altars = more donations (most churches are privately owned!) Radiating Chapels in St. Sernin, Toulouse, France, c. 1070-1120 (pilgrimage church) 5 < St. Sernin, Toulouse, France Ambulatory Side Aisles Nave Choir Radiating Chapels The Ambulatory (“to walk around”) permits transient pilgrims to visit altars & relics in various chapels without disturbing locals (who occupy the nave for mass) or the clergy (monks & canons) who use the choir; a screen (yellow) separates public & monastic spaces < St. Foy, Conques, France > 13 Growth of French Capetian Lands under Phillipe II Augustus Angevin / English Royal lands French feudal lands Church lands English feuds 14 Capetian domains c. 1225 >> The spread of the Gothic style parallels the rise in power of Capetian France and its acquisition of new territory and prestige – and of the structural integrity of the Gothic style itself. Between the mid-13th & the early 15th centuries the Gothic almost becomes a universal style across Europe before giving way to the early Renaissance styles from Italy 15 General Characteristics of The Gothic Style: **Artists are still copying art, not natural models** > Elongated figural canon > Art increasingly becomes a luxury (not just propaganda) > Increasingly elaborate ornamentation & precious materials (aesthetic of value) > Increased awareness of naturalistic elements (light, color, etc.) > Increasingly apparent relationship between architecture & the 2dimensional / 3-dimensional arts 16 Elongated figural canon begins in the Romanesque > > Lions & Old Testament prophet (Jeremiah or Isaiah?), from the trumeau of south portal of Saint-Pierre (Cluniac), Moissac, France, c. 1115– 1130, marble, life-size > 17 Yet in other places a more Romanlike figural canon and naturalistic style prevails in both the late Romanesque & early Gothic: Benedetto Antelami, King David, statue in a niche on the west facade of Fidenza Cathedral, Fidenza, Italy, c. 1180–1190. Marble, approx. life-size. 18 Death of the Virgin, tympanum of left doorway, south transept, Strasbourg Cathedral, France, c. 1230. Late Romanesque / Gothic 19 > Cf. to Procession of the imperial family, detail of south frieze of Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, Italy, 13–9 BCE. Classical aesthetic 20 Mature Gothic Architecture combines 6 innovations: 1 Structural Pointed arches (used 1st by Normans) 2 Ribbed (pointed) groin vaults (used 1st by Normans) 3 Crocket & Spire decorative motifs 4 Church Section: – More light & more glass; fewer interior murals – Side Aisle/s & Clerestory – Gallery (functional) or non-functional: Triforium – Flying Buttress – Shift toward Screen Walls (often glass walls) 5 Façade Elevations – Tower/s (West work) – Dominant Rose Window at each end of cross plan 6 Decorative program: – Expansion of ornamentation of Triumphal Arch Portal – Expansion of Sculptural Programs above eye-level The problem of Norman Rouen: capital of the (Viking/Norman ) Duchy of Normandy One of the largest & most prosperous cities in Europe (larger than Paris); in 1060 Duke William moved the capital to Caen (and then to London after 1066); its Norman cathedral was largely destroy by fire in 1200 complicating problems to locate the origins of the Gothic style 21 Romanesque Eye-Level Sculptural Programs: – Decorated Lintels (often narrative/historiated) – Typanum (often narrative) – Jamb & trumeau sculpture (prophets/saints) – Expansion onto near façade (prophets/saints) Fidenza Cathedral, Italy, eye-level façade, c. 1170-90 22 Expanded Gothic Sculptural Programs: West facade of the Royal Cathedral of Reims, France, c. 1225–1290. Legibility of sculptural & glass programs vs. Documentation of “truth” (cf. citations) & influence of Scholasticism & Gregory’s “Bible for the illiterate”; the art “is” the Bible is the Church 23 The “first” Gothic structure: Chevet (choir & ambulatory) of the Royal Abbey & mortuary of St. Denis, begun 1140 as re-alignment of 7th-8th century Merovingian structure (gray, below) St. Denis was the patron saint of France Ambulatory and radiating chapels, abbey church, Saint-Denis, France, 1140–1144. 24 < West facade, St. Denis, Paris Master of St. Giles, Royal Mass (for Charlemagne?) 15th century. Note altarpiece & gemmed Cross of St. Eloi (a gift from Charlemagne) 25 ^ Detail of the [lost] Cross of St. Eloi from St. Denis cf. to gemmed cross, c. 1200 > Aesthetic of value; an-iconic 26 Using art as a document to re-assemble the Treasury of St. Denis looted in French Revolution < Andre Felibien, 18th century print of treasury Left: Eagle vase, bronze & ancient vase c. 1145 Center: Agate Ewer, c. 1145 Right: Sardonyx Chalice, c. 1144 (not pictured but documented in Abbot’s Suger’s narrative 27 Luxury items in the treasury of St. Denis: ^ Fatimid Ewer, 10th century, rock crystal < Cup of the Ptolomies, 1st century BCE, known from Carolingian period 28 Top: 9th Century Kufic (Arabic) script Above: Limoges enamel ciborium (vessel) with pseudo-Kufic script along rim Center & right: copies of Islamic silk textiles with pseudo-Kufic script 29 Aerial view of Chartres Cathedral (from the northwest), France, begun after fire of 1134; rebuilt after another fire in 1194. Below: reliquary of “chemise” (blouse) of Mary from 876, pilgrimage object from 12th century 30 Royal Portal, West Façade, Chartres Cathedral, France, c. 1145–1155 includes some material (e.g. cut right lintel) from earlier Romanesque church 31 Saints from left jamb & Old Testament kings & queens from right jamb, central doorway of Royal Portal, Chartres Cathedral, c. 1145– 1155. 32 Notre Dame, Paris, façade & expanded sculptural program (below). Computer reconstructed polychrome decoration of Amiens sculpture (c. 1250)> 33 Notre Dame, Paris, head of king/prophet (David?) vandalized during French Revolution iconoclasm 34 Interior of Chartres Cathedral (view facing east), Chartres, rebuilt after fire of 1194. Only surviving (intact) medieval glass program: 152/176 windows, mostly c. 1205-40 35 Only intact 12th century (Romanesque) window: (#14): Virgin & Child & Angels (Notre Dame de la Belle Verrière / Blue Virgin), c. 1170 [red section] inserted between side panels [blue sections] of 13th century; Choir of Chartres Cathedral, 16’ X 7’ X 8” 36 Rose window and lancets, north transept, Chartres Cathedral, France, c. 1220. Stained glass, rose window approx. 43’ in diameter. 1. Colored glass cut and fused 2. Painted detail added in enamel & fused to glass 3. Sections joined by “cames” / leading (also frames the colored glass) 4. Armature of iron bands (pre-1200 = grid) 5. Tracery = stone framework 37 Examples of so-called “guild windows” at Chartres, 1205-40 – Guilds not yet founded, nor could have paid the costs Free-trade zone of cathedral vs. noble taxing authority created conflicts over income 38 39 Post-1194 building phase at Chartres > Saints Martin, Jerome, and Gregory, jamb statues, Porch of the Confessors (right doorway), south transept, Chartres Cathedral, c. 1220–1230. cf. Chartres, Royal Portal jamb sculpture c. 1150 40 South Transept, left portal, left jamb: Sts. Theodore, Stephen & Clement, jamb statues, Porch of the Martyrs (left doorway), south transept, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, c. 1230 41 Robert de Luzarches, Thomas de Cormont, and Renaud de Cormont, west facade of Amiens Cathedral, Amiens, France, 1220 – c. 1270. Amiens was wealthy center of woad (blue) dye production Artificial lighting now used to illustrate original polychromy 42 > Blessing Christ (“Le Beau Dieu”), trumeau statue of central doorway, west facade, Amiens Cathedral, c. 1220–1235. Elongated, Classicizing cf. Chartres, Royal Portal jamb sculpture, c. 1150 43 West facade of the Royal Cathedral of Reims, c. 1225–1290. — Royal coronation church built on site of baptism of Clovis by bishop (later) St. Remi, 496. Gothic cathedral built after Carolingian church destroyed in 1210 fire. Below Reims after WW1 fire of 1915 44 Annunciation & Visitation, jamb statues of central doorway, west facade, Reims Cathedral, c. 1230. Interaction across frames 45 46 HUM 2141 – World Art I Florida Tech Week 16-1: Early Italian Art Lars R Jones, PhD Popular Piety: Heresy & Heterodoxy The Albigensian Crusade, 1208-18 & the Cathar Heresy Crusaders & The Cathar Heresy Documented from early 12th century Manichean Christian Gnosticism Cf. Augustine’s “City of God” Material = Evil; Spiritual = Good Rival Cathar Church appears with bishops, priests & Pope (Spoleto) 2 Cathar Perfects vs. Franciscans Cathars achieve widespread conversion of lower & middle classes neglected by the Church Commoners saw Cathar Perfects as more pious than corrupt/noble clerics – especially after Gregory VII’s 1075 letter urging laity to reject corrupt clergy 1208-10 the Franciscan Order used by Church to compete directly with Cathar Perfects – Francis (a noble) pledged total obedience / fealty to the papacy & Church hierarchy Francis was just one of many such attempts to reach masses Eg: Peter Waldo / Waldensians 1177 Peter Waldo preaches to the masses 1179 Waldo’s order is approved by the Pope 1184 Waldensians declared heretics for supporting popular ideals 3 Fourth Lateran Council, 1215 – Canon laws against heretics, Jews, Muslims, & vegetarianism – Everyone must confess & take communion (only) once per year in their home parish before Easter – Inquisition created to punish heretics – Dissemination of the cult of images Innocent III creates the Mendicant (begging) orders: < Francis of Assisi submitting To authority of Innocent III & receiving orders 1210 for The Order of Friars Minor (The Franciscans) > Domenic de Guzman, 1216, Founder of Order of Friars Preacher (The Dominicans) 4 Rood beam or chancel / transenna (wall, like the iconostasis); note: 1) Mary panel (NOT altarpiece); 2) crucifix, and 3) baldacchino (tabernacle) over altar but no altarpiece. Master of the St. Francis Cycle, Upper Basilica of San Francesco, Assisi, c. 1290 5 Byzantine Style “Triumphant Christ” crucifixes “Historiated” panels ^ Roman/Byzantine Cross of San Damiano , Assisi, c. 1150-60 “School of Pisa”, Cross #15 c. 1180-90 > “School of Florence” c. 1180-90 >> 6 > (above) Francis before the cross of San Damiano (“Rebuild my c/Church”), Master of the St. Francis Cycle, Upper Basilica of San Francesco, Assisi, c. 1290 Lamentation over the Dead Christ, wall painting, Saint Pantaleimon, Nerezi, Macedonia, 1164 (Byzantine) 7 Cathar Heresy: 4th Lateran Council of 1215 & Dead (or Dying) Christ Crucifixes ^ Bonaventura Berlinghieri, “Triumphant Christ”, c. 1200 Coppo di Marcovaldo, “Dead Christ”, c. 1260-80 > Cimabue “Dead Christ”, c. 1280^ Cf. Lamentation 1164 (flipped) 8 ^ Giotto, Ognisanti Crucifix, c. 1320 (cf. Cimabue Crucifix, c. 1280>) Giotto, Rimini Crucifix, c. 1305-10 >> 9 Innocent III & Fourth Lateran Council, 1215: – Doctrine of “Transubstantiation” & the belief in the tangible presence of the divine in the image – Counters heretical position about worldly corruption of the divine – Francis’ stigmata (1224; d 1226) also “proves” the divine interacts within the “corrupt” human form < Madonna degli Occhi Grossi, c. 1180, painted relief, Siena (old cathedral frontal, sides removed); may have served as the first altarpiece in the rebuilt Duomo. ^Unknown artist, Altar Frontal, c. 11801200, Siena, painted relief 10 < Coppo di Marcovaldo, Carmelite Madonna, c. 1260 from church of Santa Maria Maggiore, Florence > Greve Master, Enthroned Madonna & Child, c. 1260 from Greve in Chianti, Tuscany Probably altarpieces; may be rood panels… 11 Responses to Popular Piety: Increasing Ritualism Innocent III & Fourth Lateran Council, 1215 – Priest turns his back to the congregation underscoring his symbolic role as intermediary between heaven & Earth Before 1215 ^ & after 1215 > 12 The Altarpiece – The priest’s liturgical change causes a shift from altar frontals (below) to altar pieces (behind & above the altar) Siena, Altar Frontal, c. 1180-1200; painted relief Giotto, Peruzzi Altarpiece, c. 1310: Polyptych 13 Early Altarpieces: Polyptychs (=many panels) Polychromy at Amiens, c. 1260 (below) Left Giotto, Peruzzi Altarpiece, c. 1310 Diptych = 2 panels Triptych = 3 panels 14 Historiated altarpieces: Bonaventura Berlinghieri, Saint Francis Altarpiece (R), San Francesco, Pescia, 1235. Tempera on wood, 5’x 6’. Anonymous Sienese painter, St. Domenic, c. 1240 (below) 15 Kahn Madonna (L), & Mellon Madonna (R) Spain or central Italian, mid-12th century. Washington D.C. National Gallery of Art “Chrysography” Chancel / Rood Panels? 16 > Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned with Angels & Prophets, c. 1280–1290. Tempera on wood, 12’ 7” x 7’ 4”. Uffizi, Florence. Chancel / Rood panels 17 Duccio, Rucellai Madonna (L), Santa Maria Novella, Florence c. 1280-90 (trained in Paris workshops) & Giotto di Bondone, Madonna Enthroned, c. 1310. Tempera on wood, 10’ 8” x 6’ 8”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence; Chancel / Rood panels 18 The School of Pisa Bonnano da Pisa, Pisa Cathedral doors, 1186; cast bronze Cathedral built 1063-1090 19 Republic of Pisa – commercial trading center > Pisa Cathedral (1063-1090) & Bapistery (1152-1363) (L) Cathedral of Cagliari (Sardinia), 12th century (cf Pisa Cathedral >) Bonnano da Pisa, Monreale Cathedral doors, c. 1187, Monreale, Sicily (R) 20 Nicola (D’Apulio) Pisano, pulpit of Pisa Baptistery, Pisa, 1259–1260. Marble, 15’ high. Detail of Crucifixion panel 21 Nicola Pisano, Annunciation & Nativity, detail of Pisa baptistery pulpit, Pisa, Italy, 1259–1260. Marble relief, 2’ 10” x 3’ 9”. No evidence of Polychromy! Cf. Etruscan sarcophagus 22 Nicola Pisano, Siena Cathedral pulpit, 1265-8 & detail of Crucifixion 23 Giovanni Pisano (son), Pisa Cathedral pulpit & detail of the Nativity, 1297-1301 24 Giovanni Pisano, Annunciation & Nativity, detail of the pulpit of Sant’Andrea, Pistoia, Italy, 1297–1301. Marble relief, 2’ 10” x 3’ 4”. 25 The “School of Rome” Roman earthquake of 1279 starts redecoration campaign ^ St. Paul’s Outside the Walls interior before 1823 fire (Pannini, 1799) showing nave mosaics by Pietro Cavallini, c. 1282-90 (engraving of lost mosaics)> 26 Pietro Cavallini, apse wall mosaics; Santa Maria in Trastevere, Rome, 1290s; commissioned by Cardinal Jacopo Stefeneschi Detail of the Birth of the Virgin 27 Pietro Cavallini, Seated Apostles, details of the Last Judgment, Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome, c. 1291. Fresco. 28 Jacopo Torriti, Coronation of the Virgin, apse mosaic, Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, 1294 29 Giotto, Navicella, c. 1290, Atrium of Old St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome; below: Antoniazzo Romano, copy after Giotto’s lost mosaic Below, right: the sole fragment of Giotto’s Navicella mosaic 30 Raphael, Giulio Romano & assistants, c. 1520, Donation of Constantine, Hall of Constantine, Vatican Palace, Rome. Note interior view of Old St. Peter’s & apse mosaic restored by Pope Innocent III c. 1200 – 1300 was Jubilee year; Pope Boniface offered a full Crusader indulgence to pilgrims 31 Deodato Orlandi, copy of late 13th century frescoes from Old St. Peter’s Basilica Rome (Cimabue / Cavallini?), San Piero a Grado, Pisa, c. 1300-1305 32 Giotto, Stefaneschi Altarpiece, c. 1290, High Altar, Old St. Peter’s, Rome Double-sided altarpiece < detail of Cardinal Stefaneschi (donor) canon of St. Peter’s but never a priest 33 The Basilicae of St. Francis of Assisi St. Francis (d. 1226), canonized 1228 Lower Church 1228-1230; decorations (inset) begun c. 1250 Upper Church, 1239-1253; decorations begun c. 1280 34 Upper Church of the Basilica of San Francesco, Assisi – completed 1259 – Bonaventura’s “Legenda maior” of Francis published 1266 – Cimabue, Crucifixion, fresco c. 1280; lower Church – Silver negative 35 The “School of Rome” & decoration of the Upper Church, c. late 1280s and/or 1290s. — Problems of attribution: Cavallini, Torriti, Giotto, 36 Coppo di Marcovaldo (design), Last Judgment, mosaic in the dome of the Baptistery San Giovanni, Florence, c. 1290s (Baptistery dedicated 1059) 37 Arnolfo di Cambio, & others, Florence Cathedral (view from the south), Florence, Italy, begun 1296. Campanile (bell tower) by Giotto; Dome completed c. 1450 because cathedral was built without knowing how to build such a large dome. 38 ^ Florence, San Lorenzo, 15th century church retains its original appearance. < Francesco Poccetti’s 1577 drawing captures the appearance of the Florentine Cathedral/Duomo with its Romanesque façade Don’t be deceived! Most churches Have been heavily modified for Various reasons: fashionable renovation, “restoration”, Nationalistic movements (like the Italian “Risorgimento”), rebuilding after wars or destruction, etc. 39 Siena Cathedral, c. 1215-63; dedicated 1260; façade sculpture begun 1283 by Giovanni da Pisano & completed in later 19th century 40 Madonna degli Occhi Grossi, c. 1180 (L), Siena (old cathedral); & Presentation of the City to the Virgin On the Eve (Sept 3) of the Battle of Montiperti on Sept. 4, 1260; Biccherna tablet (Account Book Cover) 1482 41 Duccio di Buoninsegna, Virgin & Child Enthroned with Saints, principal panel of the Maestà altarpiece, from Siena Cathedral, 1308–1311. Tempera on wood, panel 7’ x 13’. Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, Siena. Cut down… 42 Duccio di Buoninsegna, reverse side of the Maestà altarpiece, Siena Cathedral, 1308–1311 43 > 11 3. Pure Land / Amitabha / Amida Buddhism – Derived from Mahayana school in 2nd century CE – Faith-based Buddhism focuses on divinity of Buddha as savior from samsara & forgiveness for karma; thus devotional art source – Parallels Mahayana in development & dissemination (China/Japan) – Increasingly ritualistic; salvation dependent on faith (not unlike Christianity) 12 Alexander’s conquest of Indus Valley c. 325 BCE destabilizes India and … Leads to consolidation by Chandragupta Maurya (Jain) after c. 298 BCE Mauryan India 13 King Ashoka, Mauryan Dynasty (r. 269-231 BCE) — Unites India as Jain; capital Pataliputra (NE India, Ganges) — Experiences a moment of self-awareness about war and suffering in which he saw that compassion was the path toward the alleviation of suffering, & which had specific social and political benefits — Converts (c. 264) to & propagates (devotional) Mahayana Buddhism; Mahayana Buddhism spreads widely in S. Asia — Builds c. 100,000 monasteries & stupas to disseminate it — Still no known iconic Buddhist art (no images of Buddha) 14 c. 220 BCE Ashoka sends missionaries to establish communities in Sri Lanka, Burma, along the Silk Road (Bactria/Afghanistan & Tarim Basin) and into the Arabic Peninsula and the Mediterranean. Ashoka records missions to each of the Greek Hellenistic kingdoms (Antigonids, Pyrrhids, Attalids, Ptolomies, & Seleucids) where they influenced Hellenistic philosophy & religion—even later Christianity. 15 Ashoka issues many carved stone edicts & erects edict columns to commemorate “Ashoka was here” – Some are anti-brahmin/anti-ritualistic sacrifices (e.g. stop hunting) – Others concern Buddhist practices 16 < Triple Lion capital of edict column erected by Ashoka at Sarnath, India, c. 250 BCE. Polished sandstone 7’ > Persian Double Bull Capital, Persepolis, early c. 5th century BCE 17 Reconstruction of Sanchi with Great Stupa and Vihara (monastery) in c. 2nd – 1st centuries BCE (Stupa founded by Ashoka, c. 240 BCE) — Stupa – reliquary shrine; place of pilgrimage & perambulation — Chaitya – assembly hall Chaitya Great Stupa 18 Stupa (reliquary mound) Torana / Gate (4) Verdica / fence Dirt Fill Chatra (linga / umbrella or Stylized/abstracted Boddhi tree over relics) Harmica / Railing Ambulatory (yoni) –> Circumambulation = reflects Earth’s movement around sun 19 Mauryan Dynasty Patronage Chatra (umbrella or Abstract boddhi tree over relics) Harmica / Railing Torana / Gate Verdica / Fence Ambulatory Great Stupa, Sanchi, (central) India, third century BCE to first century CE (View from the east). Founded by Ashoka, c. 240 BCE. Oldest architecture extant in India. Monastery abandoned by c. 9th century CE 20 Greco-Indian Kingdom (200 – 10 BCE) – Mauryan Empire breaks up 200-180 BCE – King Demetrius I converts to Mahayan Buddhism c. 200 BCE – Controls West India / Indus Valley at Gandhara (modern Islamabad, Pakistan) from remnants of Greco-Bactrian Kingdom to its West (modern Afghanistan); later expands to Ganges plain – Buddhist images introduced into Mahayana Buddhism Demitrius I > 21 Bimaran Casket, c. 50 BCE–50 CE, gold repousse with rubies, Jalalabad, Afghanistan, center of Greco-Buddhist culture; reliquary inscription says it contains remains o

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