Select a victim or offender or a group of individuals and apply one of the theories/issues discussed in the text or in the materials section of the course to the victim or offender selected. The paper will analyze some case that students have researched. This may be a case that was presented in the reading materials; and it may be a case that was analyzed in class. The student will be expected to present the argument and support it with evidence. Evidence from articles in academic journals, newspapers, magazines, videos, news reports, etc. should be used. The paper will be evaluated for its writing and content. These cases are expected to be scholarly presentations.

Students should submit a 5-7 page paper summarizing their efforts, and share their major points with the class on the discussion.

Attached is an example as well as a rubric!

I would like for mine to be on the case of Casey Anthony Please let me know if you have any questions!😀

Explanation & Answer length: 5 pages2 attachmentsSlide 1 of 2

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Case Study Rubric Criteria Excellent Good Satisfactory Poor Depth of Answer Demonstrates a thorough and conscious understanding of the case and subject matter. Demonstrates a thoughtful understanding of the case and the subject matter. Demonstrates a limited understanding of the case. Development of examples, evidence Uses specific and convincing examples to support ideas and make insightful connections. Uses some vaguely developed examples to support claims. OABC format (a)Opening, (b)Agenda, (c)Body, and (d)Closing, Language use/style, grammar. Follows the OABC format. Uses stylistically sophisticated language that is precise and engaging with a good sense of voice and awareness of audience and purpose. Skillful sentence structure and essentially no grammar errors. Uses relevant examples from experience to support claims. Makes applicable connections between ideas. Mostly follows OABC format. Uses language that is usually fresh and original with a sense of awareness of audience and purpose. Has control of sentence structure and grammar with only slight errors. Demonstrates little or no understanding of the case study and subject matter. None or very few specific examples used to support claims made in answer. Some issues with OABC format. Uses some imprecise language with little sense of voice and limited awareness sentence structure and grammar. Does not follow the OABC format. Uses language that is unsuitable for the audience and purpose with little or no awareness of sentence structure or grammar. Not Acceptable No submission. No submission. No submission. Violated Case of Tanika Lynch Description You’re in prison-you just want to do your time and get home to your kids. But there’s a corrections officer who thinks you were put there for his sexual gratification. That’s the reality for thousands of women in this country-where half of all female prisoners are black. The behavior under consideration in the paper is murder. This behavior may be manifested in a number of ways by a variety of individuals for a number of different reasons. While technically defined as a crime by state or federal statues, the behavior in question is also regarded as despicable, horrendous, and heinous. It is the purpose of this paper to first describe the behavior using Muraskin and Henriques’s framework on women all criminality. The facts of the case are Tanika Lynch, who is a 25 year old female, is incarcerated at the Robert Scott Correctional Facility a multilevel security state prison about thirty minutes west of Detroit. Tanika Lynch entered the prison system in October 1996, serving a 16 to 60 year sentence at Scott for second degree murder. While serving her sentence in prison Lynch has become a victim of sexual abuse. A young, articulate, intelligent woman, Lynch was very assertive about her rights from the moment she entered the system. She successfully complained of sexual abuse by a corrections officer. Lynch at first willingly participated in a sexual relationship with Corrections Officer Philip Lewis. Her experience demonstrates that the power guards have over inmates puts the women at risk of abuse and retaliation should they decide to end the relationship. In late 1996, Lynch offered to accompany a wheelchair-bound inmate to the health care services office. While she was waiting to escort the woman back to her cell, Lynch and Lewis struck up a conversation. After that encounter, Lewis began pressuring Lynch to have a sexual relationship with him, but even though she was interested, it was difficult for them to get time alone. He gave her a condom-contraband under prison regulationsand asked her to keep it for him until they could use it. He told her what clothes to wear and would instruct her to show him different parts of her body. Not only did Lewis put Lynch at risk by giving her contraband to keep for him, but as other prison staff became aware of the relationship, it was Lynch, not Lewis, who was blamed. In fact, when Lynch’s supervisor at the store where she worked in the prison, Mr. Little, became aware of the relationship between Lynch and Lewis, Little told Lynch that if the over familiarity between her and Lewis continued, she would be fired. Lynch immediately informed Lewis of Little’s reprimand. Lewis responded by calling her a bitch and accusing her of being sexually involved with Little. The verbal hostility increased with Lewis’ calling Lynch’s daughter a bastard and offering to read the definition of bastard to her from a dictionary. Lewis threatened Lynch with physical harm and took advantage of routine pat-frisks to sexually abuse her. Initially Lynch tried to protect Lewis from any problems even though she was afraid of his escalating hostility. As the harassment increased, Lynch talked about Lewis’s behavior to other women prisoners, to Little, and to officers whom she trusted. She also talked to Lewis and told him if he did not stop abusing her that she would be forced to report him. He reportedly responded, “Who do you think they’re gonna believe? I’m the officer. You’re just an inmate bitch.” On July 8, 1997, Lynch finally reported the abuse by Lewis. The next day, Lewis issued Lynch a major misconduct ticket for stealing from the prison store. In the first seven months of 1997, Lynch had received four misconduct tickets. In the four months after she reported the sexual abuse by Lewis, she received twenty-five tickets. On September 23, 1997, Lynch asked the residential unit officer (RUO) permission to go to the bathroom. He denied her permission and reportedly said, “Bitches like you get found in ditches.” Lynch reports that other officers have taunted her as they issued her tickets and told her if she does not like, it she should call on her friends in the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Lynch filed a grievance citing the Resident Unit Officer that was dismissed as frivolous. Initially, other guards appeared to rally around Lewis. Theron F. Atkinson, the person charged with reviewing grievances filed by the inmates, issued a major misconduct ticket to Lynch alleging that she had filed a frivolous grievance. In his deposition taken for the Nunn suit, Atkinson admitted that it was extremely rare for him to issue such a ticket. Atkinson also admitted that he told several co-workers that he thought Lynch was a liar. Atkinson took time off work to attend Lewis’s preliminary examination, where he told Lewis not to worry because “I’m behind you.” Under oath, Corrections Officer Julie Kennedy-Carpenter said that originally she did not believe Lynch’s accusation against Lewis. However, after a couple of other inmates told her that Lewis had behaved in a similar manner toward them, she found the report more credible. Kennedy-Carpenter also reported that Lynch was being harassed by other officers: “I know a lot of officers have talked about making her pay.” On January 27, 1998, Lewis was found guilty of criminal sexual conduct in the fourth degree. Lynch had planned to give a victim impact statement at the sentencing. However, before sentencing, two guards who work with Lewis approached Lynch and made thinly veiled threats against her family. Lynch decided not to speak at the sentencing out of fear that something might happen to her child. Lewis was sentenced to two years’ probation. Lynch reports that she is still subject to intense verbal harassment by guards. Explanation Muraskin states sexual assault is the gender-neutral term now used to refer to the sexual violation of both men and women. It is meant to capture the traditional legal concept of rape. Rape may be defined as the forced carnal knowledge of a woman by a man. Despite the statutory differences, by state, in the term used to refer to traditional rape, a generic definition of the offense criminal sexual assault is “any genital, anal, or oral penetration, by a part of the accused’s body or by an object, using force or without the victim’s consent: (Tutie, 1992). Muraskin argues that sexual abuse is sometimes used interchangeably with sexual assault. Sexual assault is recognized as an increasing problem in the general population. By extension, it is reasonable to believe that the number of sexual assaults among the incarcerated is astronomical, according to Muraskin. Many women were sexually abused (rape, incest) prior to their incarceration (American Correctional Association). Their continued abuse at the hands of their keepers is therefore an issue that warrants attention and redress. Muraskin argues that there is a fine line between consensual and nonconsensual sex in the prison system. In the case involving Tanika Lynch, a victim of sexual abuse illustrates the findings of Muraskin in that addressing the sexual assault of abuse of women in prison, several issues must be considered. New York State Senator Catherine Abate noted that male officers, by virtue of their position, have a great deal of power over female prisoners. Lynch case is a classic example of Muraskin argument that women in custodial regime are “…. Probably lonelier and certainly more vulnerable to sexual exploitation, easier to ignore because so few in number, and viewed with distaste by prison officials, women in custodial unites were treated as the dregs of the state prisoner population” (Rafter, 1990, p. 21). Tanika was imprisoned for punishment for a committing a criminal offense not to be exploited by male custodial officers in addition to degradation of imprisonment. Muraskin notes while imprisonment may be just deserts for the crime committed, forced sexual assault is underserved, unjust, and harsh punishment. Sexual assault of female inmates by male correctional staff is inconsistent with the goals of retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, or rehabilitation. As indicated by Muraskin absent empirical data, anecdotal reports of custodial sexual assault of females are rich sources of the magnitude and nature of the problem. A Tanika Lynch case is a key paradigm to Muraskin claim. When Lynch attempted to tell authorities of what her offender was doing officials did not believe her. When other women came forward is when officials took and interest in investigating the allegations against the officer. This leads into Henriques study of African-American Women: The Oppressive Intersection of Gender, Race and Class. The article written by Henriques states the lives of African-American women continue to be impacted by racial oppression, sex discrimination and class stratification on a constant basis. African American women are never placed on a pedestal, and conceived of as pure beings removed from the mundane realties of sexuality and work. African American in the past were considered chattel; privately owned property. Sexual exploitation shaped the life of the African-American female during the period of slavery and beyond. Therefore African American women are victims of a trilogy of oppression (Gordon, 1987). Factors that define the trilogy of oppression are why the crimes committed by black women are misappropriated to other gender and racial groups. The trilogy of oppression relating to crime is very relevant to this case. According to Henriques the most urgent social issue requiring an Afro centric response is that involving race and crime. Victims of crime and unjustly victimized by the criminal justice system are two key indicators that support the notion that African American community is disproportionately represented. It is known that many African American women who are sexually abused by their male counterparts and stay in the situation do so to show solidarity with their men in the white majority society. Some women rationalize their oppression and abuse as acts perpetrated by racism and its pressure upon the African-American male. It has become evident that African American women cannot rely on the criminal justice system to protect them. This ideology shows direct parallelism to the case of Lynch because her rights were violated in one of the criminal justice institutions The criminal justice system is not viewed by African American women to be an organization that protects or dispense justice on the their behalf. The criminal justice is viewed by many as a “manipulative, socio-cultural, political tool that functions at the behest of this society’s central authority” (Cooper, 1981:78). Police officers expect more violence in black communities and are less likely to give attention to cases involving Black on Black crime. A consequence to this perception as noted by Henriques is that less police intervention and more individual reactive responses in the case of assault or battering of African-American females. Therefore this perception results in the misconception that the African American female can take care of herself (Young, 1986.) As seen through the treatment toward Lynch, who finally decided to confide in the authorities, left her to defend herself in a corrupt system who has repeatedly belittled her character, self esteem, and rights. As of this writing, she remains in jail as her case is being reviewed. Hence, she continues to be one of the “forgotten offenders” since she will not be released until 2010.

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