here is what the Power Point addresses: 

  • Identify the presenting problem for the case study you selected. (Remember the presenting problem has to be framed from the perspective of role theory. For example, the presenting problem can be framed within the context of role functioning).
  • Identify all the relevant roles assumed by the client.
  • Analyze the social expectations and social and cultural norms revolving around the role, social position, and role scripts of one of the roles assumed by the client.
  • Explain the role and social position of the social worker in working with the client in the case study.
  • Describe how the role(s) and social position(s) assumed by the social worker will influence the relationship between the social worker and the client.
  • Identify three assessment questions that are guided by role theory that you will ask the client to better understand the problem.
  • Identify and describe two interventions that are aligned with the presenting problem and role theory.
  • Identify one outcome that you would measure if you were to evaluate one of the interventions you would implement to determine if the intervention is effective.
  • Evaluate one advantage and one limitation in using role theory in understanding the case.

Explanation & Answer length: 800 Words4 attachmentsSlide 1 of 4

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425 30 Role Theory and Concepts Applied to Personal and Social Change in Social Work Treatment Dennis Kimberley and Louise Osmond All the world’s a stage, And all the men and women merely players: They have their exits and their entrances; And one man in his time plays many parts, His acts begin seven ages. At first the infant [… ]. Last scene of all, That ends this strange eventful history, Is second childishness and mere oblivion. —​William Shakespeare Contextual History of Role Theory and Concepts in Social Work Social work has attended to persons who come for service in terms of biological factors, psychological factors, social factors, and their interactions, which support or impede personal and social development and functioning 452 (Kimberley & Bohm, 1999; Kimberley & Osmond, 2009; Shulman, 2012). Many theories and paradigms that social workers have contributed to (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [DSM-​III to DSM-​5], American Psychiatric Association, 2013, pp. 20, 488; Petrovich & Garcia, 2015), as well as therapies informed by social learning theories that are applied by social workers (such as self-​determination and social support–​social care theories), assume role theory and associated concepts, often without role theory being applied consciously as a dominant model (e.g., trauma-​compromised functioning, Shulman, 2012, pp. 738–​752). Common-​factors theories that emphasize the social structure and relational processes that contribute to influencing personal and social change, through counseling-​therapy or other 435 Role Theory and Concepts in Social Work Treatment social care interventions, suggest that roles and relational processes that account for transtheoretically based therapeutic changes reflect relatively common patterns of therapeutic activity, even though semantically similar conceptual labels applied by each theory may vary in terms of preferred language (such as problems or strengths in personal and social functioning; see Sprenkle, Davis, & Lebow, 2009; Bertolino, 2010). Social group work, family therapy, partner counselling, supportive foster care, addictions interventions, corrections expectations, compromised mental health, health challenges, and anticipated life-​cycle transitions, among other professional helping themes, all address one or more of these issues: role functioning, role expectations, role strain, role conflict, role ambiguity, role overload, role transitions, as well as role evolution and devolution (Williams, 2011). These role sub-​t hemes are often associated with patterns of differential rights, privileges, and social position(s), as well as influences on identity formation, (“residential school survivor”; “professional”). Social justice concerns, as they appear in society and within professional practices, imply rights and responsibilities associated with social roles and social position (such as protection of women and children; empowering mutual aid in social group work). Related oppression concerns imply barriers, inequity, and unfair opportunities: to enable social role functioning and meeting associated needs (such as persons with disabilities); to support personal and social development (e.g., compromised personal and social functioning for maltreated and exploited children); to build capacity and resilience, to enable optimization of social functioning (such as survivors of “Indian” residential schools). Diverse vulnerability concerns within the context of social work practices imply problems, risks, harm, and unmet needs that influence personal and social functioning (e.g., victims and survivors of complex trauma; see Briere & Scott, 2015, pp. 197–​2014; Shulman, 2012). As well, diverse human potential foci celebrate and support strengths, resilience, capacity, potential, and self-​actualization—​a ll implying strengthening and changing role functioning (such as the strengths of the human spirit to rise above adversity; see Ungar, 2012). 453 Role theories and related concepts, largely adopted from social psychology, as developed or interpreted by sociologists (e.g., Goffman, 1963; Mead, 1934), psychologists (Moreno & Zeleny, 1958), anthropologists (Mead, 1949), social workers (Grinker, MacGregor, Selan, Klein, & Kohrman, 1961), and psychiatrists (Ackerman, 1958), have provided sensitizing concepts, theories, paths for analysis, and dynamic understandings about how persons and collectives view and express themselves, as well as meet social expectations, especially in social interaction, including in interpersonal relational contexts. Some social workers have applied role concepts, theories, and presumptions about roles as acted out, explicitly to address problems, risks, needs, harm, strengths, resilience, and human potential that persons and collectives experience or exhibit within the context of personal and social functioning, with a special interest in assessing and supporting changes in role functioning (Appleby, Colon, & Hamilton, 2011; Karls & O’Keefe, 2008; Karls & Wandrei, 1994; Kestenbaum & Wahl, 1994). Many social work concepts, theories, and practices (such as feminist social work; child welfare practice), and those from cognate disciplines applied by social workers (such as deviance theory, Scheff, 1975); social identity theory (Cass, 1979); and stigma theory (Goffman, 1963), make implicit assumptions about role expectations and related social positions—​the latter referred to in some postmodern thought as “social location.” For example, social justice and oppression theories describe how some persons take on and integrate identities (e.g., “survivor” role relative to an experience of “rape” or child abuse) and related life scripts (such as role scripts, such as volunteers in rape crisis counselling; or children’s protection worker) which may be associated with identification of persons and collectives as marginalized, stigmatized, over-​responsible, victimized, traumatized, exploited, oppressed, and disadvantaged and/​or privileged, all while being resilient, evidencing strengths, and demonstrating abilities. Fundamentally, role theory and related concepts help social workers analyze client systems in dynamic interaction with their physical (such as an “Indian” residential school) and social (such as a women’s addiction treatment group) environments based, in part, 45 454 on role expectations, social role functioning, and associated interpersonal responsibilities—​often contextualized within social care and social reform intents. The empirical indicators of social role functioning are typically observed in actions, beliefs, attitudes, values, expectations, and motivations as expressed or as signaled nonverbally, as well as relatively repeated and often predictable patterns of interaction that persons exhibit in their social-​relational and physical environments (e.g., group citizenship in a trauma survivors group for exploited youth). Social role theory may sensitize social workers who provide social work treatment to attend to personal capacities, potential and actual problems, risks, harm, needs, and injustices associated with role functioning and role expectations, as part of a social work assessment and social diagnosis. For example, workers may challenge how some roles in society may be stereotypically ghettoized or associated with one group (e.g., women more often provide personal care to infirm parents of both sexes). Other roles may be inherently unjust (such as the scapegoated child; Pillari, 1991) and may be expressed in unjust family dynamics (such as a parentified child; DeYoung, 2003). As well, role adaptations to cope with life situations may appear functional at one level but may also contribute to problematic and unjust relational dynamics at another (such as over-​responsible partners of alcoholics; Bepko, 1985). In addition, social workers are aware about how both anticipated and unanticipated life transitions may be associated with personal and collective distress; role theory points to assessment opportunities within the context of role-​related distress associated with complexities of role functioning as well as transitions in role expectations (Appleby, Colon, & Hamilton, 2011; Karls & Wandrei, 1994). Just as persons may experience intrapsychic conflicts (such as to follow basic instincts or to self-​regulate) they also may experience social role conflicts (such as a parental caregiver and disciplinarian, or female parent and male parent roles). “Sick role” dynamics may be normative (such as a reduction of social expectations after heart surgery) or be judged as representing clinically significant “pathological” role dynamics (such as in Munchausen’s-​by-​proxy Social Work Treatment syndrome [MBPS]; personality disorder). Other roles may be defined as primarily deviant (such as a pedophile who distributes child porn), or as being reflective of a self-​fulfilling prophecy based on the unjust application of a deviance label (such as mentally disordered; Denzin, 1968). Notions of role ambiguity, confusion, complexity, conflict, rigidity, incongruence, strain, ambivalence, progression, and regression, role modelling, and overwhelming social role expectations may also inform social work assessments.1 Questions for social workers and client systems include: What are the problems, risks, needs, resiliences, strengths, capacities, ambivalences, and potentials in terms of role functioning within a set of associated social roles (such as a child, sibling, student)? To what extent are role expectations of a person or collective contextually—​functionally adaptive or maladaptive; justified or not justified; subjected to negative social support (such as continued harmful drug use by peers) or positive social support (such as harm reduction and recovery supported by peers)? What are the implications of role expectations and privileges, as ascribed or internalized, within the contexts of imperatives associated with culture, color, race, ethnicity, religion, sex, and gender, sexual orientation, ability status, or age? Social work, being a change-​and action-​oriented vocation and profession (Goldstein, 1984; Kimberley & Osmond, 2009), enables personal and social change, including increasing strengths and reducing injustice, by helping persons and collectives understand the roles they and others play, in one or more social contexts, and related psychosocial dynamics (such as a victim of bullying in interaction with a bully in a junior high context). As well, patients/​clients/​consumers may wish explore how they might wish, need, or be required to change their role performances in a social context (such as parenting capacity within the context of justified children’s protection); social workers may then apply various intervention theories (such as empowerment theory), concepts (such as self-​actualization), and practices (such as reframing), all to enable needed, desired, or required personal and/​or collective change and associated motivation—​words that signal social and internalized role expectations. 45 Role Theory and Concepts in Social Work Treatment Such applications may help the person or collective sustain the change in role identity (such as from victim, to survivor, to social-​emotional leader), social role functioning (such as presenting self as confident and assertive, and acting congruently), as well as in acting on role responsibilities as well as rights (such as safe and protective child care and parenting). In this analysis, the authors focus on role theory, concepts, and related practice wisdom, as may be applied, directly and indirectly, in assessment and treatment in diverse social work contexts in the interest of enabling optimization of desired, needed, and/​or required, or otherwise justified personal and social change—​in individuals or collectives such as partners, families, or treatment groups.2 Roles: Concepts and Theories for Social Work Practice Roles as Determined and as Socially Constructed “The larger number of participants in the group interview, permitting the advantage of diversification of roles, has one of its consequences the appearance of problematic roles.” [contextualized quote]; Alfred Kadushin, 1972 The concept of role (sometimes referred to as social role) implies a societally or smaller social group, constructed and culturally determined, set of social expectations, associated with the boundaries of status and identity (such as a foster child) and patterns of conduct internalized and expressed in social interaction, and undertaken, or placed on, the person by himself-​herself (“unlovable-​undesirable child”), by significant others (“rejecting parents”), by a membership group (such as a teen gang), and/​or by the community and/​or by society (such as police as representatives of society and social order), which that person typically internalizes and assumes or takes on (Dandaneau, 2007), such as becoming tentatively bonded with a surrogate parent. Social role also implies sets of interactive, interdependent, and interrelated responsibilities, rights, privileges, and opportunities for individual and collective agency. The latter is evident in terms of relatively conscious and willful acts to both construct their realities (such as identifying as a member of the foster 455 family and assuming their surname), and to more consciously and mindfully process biopsychosocial determinates of role performance (such as justified, desired, and needed change in foster child–​foster family bond). While roles may be socially and culturally determined, in part, people and collectives also have opportunities for a degree of agency in how they manage, modify, interpret, and act-​out a role relative to their social position, social situation, and social context (such as a participant in a group of male “batterers”). Another implication is that roles act as determining some boundaries of self-​identities, but people and collectives also actively construct, reconstruct, and socially present their identities within role boundaries (Cass, 1979). One paradox of self-​agency is that role performances may come to be expressed in habitual and relatively unconscious patterns.3 Important questions for the social workers include: To what degree is the client’s best interest served by meeting social role expectations (such as a parent, student, employee)? To what degree is their best interest served by empowering client systems to be agents in changing expectations, related role responsibilities, related unjustified oppressions, and related social identities? Individual and collective commitments to needed, desired, or required changes in role expectations, role functioning, and/​or role responsibilities are implied in much of social work intervention. To what degree are rights, privileges, and social positions coherent and justified? Social Position and Social Role If a role set is assigned to an elevated social position and the related status assigned to it (such as a professional social worker), within a given social context (such as protection of children and youth), then associated rights (privileges and powers) and responsibilities may have significant social value and high performance expectations associated with that role (such as to assess a child as in need of protection and to be sanctioned to apprehend and place a child exploited for child pornography). Others may have deviant, marginalized, or otherwise contextually “lower” social positions in terms of value, voice, and range of power 456 456 (such as a sex trade worker; exploited youth). Important questions for the social workers and clients are: “To what extent are role expectations and associated social responsibilities clear, confusing, ambiguous, double-​binding, overwhelming, or contributing to internal or interpersonal conflict, ambivalence, and ‘role strain’—​when role expectations and identity demands, are not sufficiently congruent, supported, or justified? To what extent are the social requirements of a role inconsistent with the respect given to the person or collective in the related social positions?4 To what extent is there a paradox of significant power associated with a devalued social position but one of high value in specific social contexts?” (such as a drug pusher). Roles Sanctioned and Required The term “role” may be used to give direction to the analysis of personal and collective responsibilities that a person or persons undertook in acts of commission or omission, which might be interpreted as warranted, or not, in a given social situation, in a broader social context (such as not disciplining a recently arrived, frightened foster child for a minor infraction). Such roles may be sanctioned before or after the fact (such as expecting that an abusive male leave the home), or may be challenged after the fact (such as failure to take seriously a male’s complaint about partner abuse). Or, the social worker may ask: “What responsibility did this parent have in protecting, or failing to protect, the child?” There is an implication in applying role theory and associated concepts that persons in a given culture or society are reasonably familiar with the boundaries of role expectations (such as a child caregiver), social role functioning (such as caring for a child), as well as how related responsibilities are typically expressed in actions required of individuals (such as a parent) or collectives (such as school personnel)—​conscious and unconscious, intentional and habitual. A person, or people, within a role set may be judged to be: over-​or under-​responsible within the context of age, stage, and a social situation, or as an adequate or less-​t han-​adequate role model, expressing an adaptive or maladaptive,5 or congruent or incongruent, set Social Work Treatment of responsibilities relative to common expectations for a given role and context—​including cultural context. Individual or collective commitment to needed, desired, or required changes in role expectations, and/​or social role functioning, and/​or role responsibilities are implied in much of social work intervention. Role definers, rights, and expectations may be both socially constructed and socially determined, but persons and collectives also have opportunities for a degree of agency in how they manage, modify, and act out in a role, relative to social position (such as a recovering charged and convicted addict), social situation (such as being in the presence of active drug users who support his “sobriety,” and using their positive support) and social context (such as living under a parole order to not use and not be in the presence of users). Another implication is roles as defined and as acted out influence self-​identities but that persons and collectives also actively and unconsciously construct their identities (such as self-​regulating and in control; see Hood, 2012). Important questions for social workers and clients include: “To what degree is clients’ best interest served by meeting social role expectations as defined-​directed by others (such as a parent, student, employee)? To what degree is their best interest served by empowering client systems to act more as relatively self-​regulating agents in changing: self and social expectations; related social responsibilities; patterns of acting in role performance; patterns that are experienced as role conflict, role strain and associated dissonance; and the boundaries of self and social identities? To what degree are role requirements contextually justified?” Roles in Interaction and Social Organiza…

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