Discussion Due Fe/04.

Prior to beginning work on this discussion, read Chapter 1 in the textbook, and review any relevant information in this week’s lecture. Compare and contrast Local Area Networks (LANs), Wide Area Networks (WANs), and Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs). Describe the similarities and differences between the three as well as the limitations of each. Research a minimum of two professional sources that address deployment of these types of networks in business environments. Explain how each type of network could be applied in real-world business environments. Provide an example to illustrate each type.

Your initial response should be a minimum of 300 words in length.

Assignment Due Fe/08.

Networking – Past, Present, and Future

Prior to beginning work on this assignment read chapters 1 and 10 in the textbook, the online Internet History (Links to an external site.) and Project Loon (Links to an external site.) resources, read the Randall Lane Forbes article (Links to an external site.), and review any relevant information in this week’s lecture.

Networking has been around for a few decades. Beginning with a simple four-node network called The Advanced Research Project Agency Network (ARPANet) to wireless broadband beamed from the stratosphere, networking has evolved in technology and in the ways it is being used.

For this assignment, you will write a paper that tracks the transformation of networking from the past to our current day, as well as describes the trends for our future. While networking use and technology can be leveraged for both personal and business use, the focus of your paper will be on the business side of networking. In essence, this paper will cover how this advent and transformation in technology has helped business to reach a competitive edge.

Evaluate telecommunication and network taxonomy as they existed at the beginning of networking through to today. Explain how telecommunication and networking technology has changed from the days of ARPANet to our present day.

Apply telecommunication and network technical knowledge to the current business applications of networking and describe potential trends for the future. Research a minimum of two online professional resources related to future trends. (Access the MISM Credible Resource Guide for assistance with finding appropriate, credible professional resources.) Describe what the current literature says about telecommunication and networking trends.

Explain how the transformation in technology has helped business to reach a competitive edge. Analyze and describe how businesses have used telecommunication and networking technology to increase their profits and be more effective, efficient, and productive.

The assignment.

Weekly Lecture:

Hello and welcome to ISM640: Computer Networking and Telecommunication Design. This week will focus on the history and future of networking. Let’s start by learning about the network of networks, the Internet. We all enjoy open and constant communications today using different Internet technologies, but have you ever wondered how we got here? Who invented the Internet? How was life before the Internet compared with how we know it today? These are all valid questions and a trip down memory lane. Also, looking ahead to what’s expected to come will be a good reflection exercise.

Networks have been around for a few decades now, and many of the current innovations in telecommunications can be attributed to the work of academic universities and the US military during the 1960s and 1970s. At that time, the US military was looking for a way to have communication links between various sites, so that if one link was broken, communication would still be re-routed to reach its destination. A call for solutions was sent out to create such an ideal, and so the birth of a networked world began.

The first network, Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANet), was comprised of just four sites (Computer History Museum, 2004), and each site consisted of only one computer: one in UCLA, another at Stanford University, one at University of Utah, and one at University of California’s math center. Through the years, ARPANet grew from a four-node wide area network (WAN), to a global network spanning most of the continents. At the same time, other network technologies came to life, including Ethernet, which is currently used as the foundation of internet communications today. In 1990, the plug was pulled on ARPANet as it had served to accomplish its intended goals of creating a redundant communications method accessible world wide.

The ARPANet foundation has paved the way to many great innovations and technologies. We wouldn’t be having this online class if it wasn’t for the work of ARPANet. So, what does the future hold for us? Another valid question. We have seen changes like the planned move from IPv4 to IPv6, DNS adding multiple language support, transmission speeds doubling every few years, encryption and security continuing to be in the forefront, and Wi-Fi technologies continuing to grow. So, there’s no limit to innovation, and we can only wonder where it will take us. More recently, companies like Google, Facebook, and OneWeb (Patterson, 2015) have been developing technologies to beam Wi-Fi broadband to remote locations on Earth. We are embarking on exciting times!

Since we are talking about networks this week, it’s important to cover some terminology, and so let’s start with the basic terms of client, server, Network Interface Card (NIC), and packets. A client is a machine, device, or network node that needs something from another device. The client sends a request, and then waits for a response. The request is sent to a server, which then processes the request, and returns a response back to the client. We call it a server because it serves the client. The information sent back and forth between the two devices is called a packet, or to be exact, they are called data packets.

These data packets hold valuable information including who the sender is, who the receiver is, and the content of the data. Now, for the client and server to be able to communicate with the each other, they need a NIC installed in each device. A NIC stands for Network Interface Card, or we call it a network card or NIC for short. For computers to be connected, they need to belong to a network. But what does a network look like? Is there only one kind or type of configuration? The answer to this is found in the network topology. Network topology is the physical arrangement of a network’s computers, switches, routers, and transmission lines. There are different network topologies, such as bus, ring, star, mesh, and hybrid, which as the name implies, is a mix of more than one topology. Typically, a hybrid topology is a star bus or a star ring (Network and Protocols, n.d.).

On a network, each node needs to be identified. Just like people in the US have unique social security numbers, nodes on a network need to have a unique key identifier. Each network card is manufactured with a MAC address. MAC stands for media access control; it’s 48 bits long so there are 281 trillion different MAC addresses out there, which is more than enough to cover our current needs. A MAC address is made up of 12 hexadecimal characters, and looks similar to this number: 00:20:18:F2:54:A3

Most people are more familiar with IP addresses than MAC addresses. One key difference between the two is that the same IP addresses can be used across different networks. For example, when you setup a home Wi-Fi network at home, the default router’s IP address is You may find the same IP address at your friends’ houses. However, MAC addresses are unique and never duplicated.


Computer History Museum. (2004). Internet history (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/

Network and Protocols. (n.d.). Topology-definition and types of topology (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from http://networkandprotocols.blogspot.com.eg/2011/10…

Patterson, T. (2015). Google, Facebook, SpaceX, OneWeb plan to beam Internet everywhere (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2015/10/30/tech/pioneers-google…


Computer History Museum. (2004). Internet history 1962 to 1992 (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from http://www.computerhistory.org/internethistory/

  • This web site provides a comprehensive history of the Internet timeline, events, and milestones. It will assist you in viewing how the Internet progressed over time from its humble beginnings and purpose to the current complex network of networks it is today.
    Accessibility Statement does not exist
    Privacy Policy (Links to an external site.)

Google. (n.d.). Project Loon (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from http://www.google.com/loon/

Lane, R. (2011, November 15). The United Nations says broadband is basic human right (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/randalllane/2011/11/15…

  • This article demonstrates the importance of the Internet to our society. It’s no longer a luxury, but a basic human right.
    Accessibility Statement does not exist
    Privacy Policy
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