- Identify and explain 3 differences between Karl Marx and Max Weber explanation of social stratification.
IntroductionWelcome to the learning-module 7! The topic of this module is social class and class conflicts in the USA. “Social Stratification” is the term sociologists use when referring to inequalities of wealth, power and prestige. Social class is one of the central stratification systems in most societies. Other stratification systems are race and gender.By the end of this module, students will be able to:Explain how class is a social structure.Describe the class structure of the United States.Identify the different components of class inequality.Analyze the extent of social mobility in the United States.Compare and contrast theoretical models of class inequality.Investigate the causes and consequences of U.S. poverty.To meet the objectives of this module, you will complete the following activities and assessments:read chapter 8 of your textbook.answer all the questions in the study guide for chapter 8.read about wealth and income inequality in the USAwatch short videos about social stratification in the USAanswer a quiz on the above contentChapter 8 Study GuideRead chapter 8. Answer the questions of the study guide. Do not submit the answers, they are for your own studying. Give special attention to the theories of social stratification and the brief summary provided in table 8.2 in page 189 of your textbook.Define the following: social stratification, social differentiation, estate, social class, and caste.Compare and contrast Marx and Weber regarding their ideas about social inequality.Explain the Functionalists Perspective on Inequality.Explain the Conflict Perspective on Inequality.Explain the Culture of Poverty Theory.Describe the social class structure of the United States.Define the following: social mobility, intergenerational mobility, intragenerational mobility, horizontal mobility and structural mobility.Describe the extent of social mobility in the USA.Define the following: class consciousness, false consciousness, poverty line, underclass, and the feminization of poverty.Describe the American poor population in terms of age, gender, race/ethnicity, and regional distribution.Identify different ways of combating poverty.Social Stratification SOCIAL DIFFERENTIATION AND SOCIAL STRATIFICATIONStatus, as defined earlier, is a socially defined position in a group or society.Social differentiation is the process by which different statuses in any group,organization, or society develop.Social stratification – the relatively fixed, hierarchical arrangement in society bywhich groups have different access to resources, power, and perceived socialworth, is categorized into three types: estate, caste, and class systems.Most societies seem to have a system of social stratification, although they vary in the degree and complexity of stratification.ESTATE, CASTE, AND CLASSIn estate systems of stratification, the ownership of property and the exercise of power are monopolized by an elite who have total control over societal resources. Most common in agricultural societies..Have been largely supplanted by industrialization.In caste systems, one’s place in the stratification system is an ascribed status, assigned at birth. The hierarchy of classes is rigid and is often preserved through formal law and cultural practices that prevent free association and movement between classes. Examples include apartheid in South Africa until 1992, Jim Crow segregation in the American South, and the traditional caste system of India.In class systems, status is partially achieved, with some potential for movement from one class to another. In the U.S. class system, the class a person is born into has major consequences for that person’s life. Social class (or class) is the social structural position groups hold relative to the economic, social, political, and cultural resources of society. Class determines the access different people have to these resources and puts people in different positions of privilege and disadvantage. Members of the same class share a common way of life. Max Weber describes this as life chances.Max Weber described the consequences of stratification in terms of lifechances—opportunities that people have in common by virtue of belonging to aparticular class. He sees class as a feature of society. Class is a structural phenomenon; it cannot be directly observed, although objects with designated labels can become symbols of status. A prominent indicator of class is income; other common indicators are education, occupation, and place of residence.Thorstein Veblen described the class habits of Americans as conspicuousconsumption.Karl Marx: Class and Capitalism – Karl Marx (1818-1883) defined classes in terms of their relationship to the means of production, including the capitalist class supported by the petty bourgeoisie, and the working class, including the lumpenproletariat or unnecessary workers (the underclass of today). Marx’s analysis, which focuses on the consequences of a system based on the pursuit of profit, predicted intensified class struggle or conflict. While he failed to anticipate the growth of the middle class, his analysis still provides a powerful portrayal of the tendency in capitalism, as the infrastructure of society, for wealth to belong to a few, while the majority work only to make ends meet. It is the ideology of the ruling class that supports the status quo of the system.Max Weber: Class, Status, and Party – Max Weber (1864-1920) took a multidimensional view of social stratification that focused on the connections between economic, cultural, and political systems through the three dimensions of class, status, and party.Functionalism and Conflict Theory: The analyses of Marx and Weber have not answered fully the question of why inequality exists. Functionalism views inequality as essential to the preservation of society characterized by cohesion, consensus, cooperation, stability, and persistence. Social inequality motivates people to fill the different positions in society that are needed for the survival of the whole. Conflict theory views social stratification as a system of domination and subordination based on class conflict and blocked opportunity. Inequality reflects the class interests of the powerful and has negative consequences for society. The assumptions made from each perspective frame public policydebates.What is social class: Marx and Bourdeiu (Links to an external site.)Minimize VideoInequality in the USAHow unequal is the American society? We need to distinguish between wealth inequality and income inequality.Income and Wealth Inequality: Crash Course Economics #17 (Links to an external site.)Indicators of social class in the USA are :income (money received in a certain period).occupational prestige (the subjective evaluation people give to jobs).educational attainment (total years of formal education).Most sociologists describe the class system in the U.S. as divided into severalclasses:upper (owns the major share of corporate and personal wealth) – a verysmall proportion of people who exercise enormous control in society.upper-middle (those with high incomes and high social prestige whotend to be well-educated professionals or business executives).middle (hard to define because a very large percentage of Americans seethemselves as part of this ubiquitous norm).lower-middle (workers in skilled trades and low-income bureaucraticworkers)—known as the working classlower class (little formal education; unemployed, displaced, workingpoor). Recently, the concept of the urban underclass has been added tothe lower class.Conflict theory sees class not as a continuum, but as a relationship of exploitation and domination in which class is defined by the relationship of the classes to the larger system of economic production. The middle class, or the professional-managerial class, is caught in a contradictory position between elites and the working class because they have some control over others but little control over the economic system. Although not to the extent predicted by Marx, classes have become more polarized and the poor are under assault in a system of inequality.DIVERSE SOURCES OF STRATIFICATIONClass is only one basis for stratification in the United States. Factors like age, ethnicity, and national origin have a tremendous influence on stratification. Race and gender are two primary influences in the stratification system in the United States. Class position, race, and gender interact as overlapping systems of stratification. The class structure among African Americans has existed alongside the White class structure, separate and different. Both the African American and Latino middle class have expanded in recent years as a result of increased access to education and middle-class occupations for people of color. Their hold on middle-class status, however, is tenuous because of the persistence of racial discrimination and the vulnerability of their positions to periods of economic recession or political conservatism.The myth of the model minority, applied to Asian Americans, obscures the significant obstacles to success that Asian Americans encounter, ignores the hard work and educational achievements of other racial and ethnic groups, and obscures the high rates of poverty among many Asian American groups.The privileges of the upper middle class (Links to an external site.)Poverty in the USAThe poverty line is the amount of money needed to support the basic needs of ahousehold, as determined by government; below this line, one is considered officially poor.The vast majority of the 46 million people in the U.S. who live below the poverty line (15 percent of the population) are women and children. The feminization of poverty, which has been increasing in recent years, results from several factors including:the growth of female-headed households (one-third of all families headed by women are poor).a decline in the proportion of the poor who are elderly.continuing wage inequality between women and men.high divorce rate and generally little child support provided by men.budget cutbacks in federal support programs and in federal employment.The poor are diverse in age, race, and geography. Inner cities became the home of most of the poor by the mid-1980s, and poverty rates are highest in the most racially segregated neighborhoods. There has been an increase in homelessness over the past two decades, and families comprise 40% of the homeless population. A very large proportion of homeless individuals are mentally ill.CAUSES OF POVERTYTwo views about the causes of poverty prevail—that poverty is caused by thecultural habits of the poor or that poverty has structural roots.Blaming the Victim: The Culture of Poverty – The culture of poverty argument views poverty as caused by welfare dependency, the absence of work values, and the irresponsibility of the poor. Research fails to support the contention that a culture of poverty is transmitted across generations; many people classified as poor remain so for only one or two years. Most of the able-bodied poor work, with the working poor constituting 18% of the workforce. The loss of benefits like healthcare coverage, wages too low to support a family, and workload costs like childcare make it difficult for the working poor to hold jobs and emerge from poverty.Structural Causes of Poverty – The underlying causes of poverty lie in theeconomic and social transformations occurring in the U.S., the most important ofwhich are the restructuring of the economy and the status of women in the familyand the labor market.Social MobilityThe assumption is that the United States class system is a meritocracy—that is, a system in which one’s status is based on merit or accomplishments, not other social characteristics. Social mobility can be up or down, intergenerational or intragenerational, and class systems can be relatively closed or open. Despite the popular characterization of the U.S. class system as open, most people remain in the same class as their parents, and many actually drop. The cultural idols of social mobility are typically men.Social mobility is much more limited than people believe. The limited mobility that exists in the U.S. is related to changes in the occupational system, economic cycles, and demographic factors. Upwardly mobile persons are often expected to distance themselves from their origins, which can result in many conflicts with family, with friends, and within themselves.The experience of upward mobility varies significantly by race and gender, and involves a collective effort of kin and sometimes the community. Even if one’s class position changes, class origins continue to shape one’s social experience. Doing better than one’s parents has long been a hallmark of the American dream, but downward mobility is becoming more common, and for the first time in U.S. history, the middle class is experiencing a decline.CLASS CONSCIOUSNESSClass consciousness is the perception that a class structure exists along with a feeling of shared identification with others in one’s class—that is, those with whom you share life chances. The faith that upward mobility is possible ironically perpetuates inequality. Class inequality in any society is usually buttressed by ideas that support (or actively promote) inequality. Class consciousness was higher in the U.S. during the labor movements of the 1920s and 1930s. Racial and ethnic differences in the working class, a relatively high standard of living, and the belief that anyone can succeed militate against class discontent. False consciousness, the extent to which subordinate classes have internalized the view of the dominant class, is also a factor.How to eliminate povertyHow to end poverty? try this: free money for every one.Rutger Bregman (1988) studied at Utrecht University and the University of California in Los Angeles, majoring in History. In September 2013 Bregman joined the online journalism platform De Correspondent. His article on basic income was nominated for the European Press Prize and was published by The Washington Post.Why we should give everyone a basic income | Rutger Bregman | TEDxMaastricht (Links to an external site.)done8 days agonote: please don’t use google or the web on the internet just use the book or the video I sent to you.please, please please don’t copy my work to another student…….this is the bookcdn.inst-fs-iad-prod.inscloudgate.netcdn.inst-fs-iad-prod.inscloudgate.net
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