Persuasion Persuasive Essay #1: The Fantastical Protest Expected Length Part 1 – The Protest: About 500 words (the length of 1 single-spaced page or 2 double-spaced pages) Part 2 – The Analysis: Approximately 500 words (the length of 1 single-spaced page or 2 doublespaced pages) Overarching Tasks 1. To compose a short protest essay in which you, as a fictional character, attempt to persuade your audience of (1) the importance of a current issue in your world and (2) take some kind of action (even if it’s just changing their minds or realizing an issue actually is important) that would substantially alter the canonized plotline of your world. 2. To engage deeply with course concepts by composing a metacognitive analysis in which you reflect on the writing (and acting) choices you made in your essay. You will explain what you did and defend why you did it within the theoretical context of Persuasion. Part 1 – Protest Instructions 1. Pick a fictional universe you know and love. Take on the persona of a character in that universe. (e.g. Harry Potter) 2. Pick a “happening” relevant to the fictional world of the character you have embodied. This happening should relate to the canonized plotline of your world. For example, you might refer to Lord Voldemort’s return at the end of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. 3. Using your role as a rhetor, compose an essay in which you accomplish the following tasks: Prior to the start of the protest essay, write me/your peers short, 3-5 sentence introduction that covers: – What universe you are embodying (i.e. Harry Potter) – Who you are portraying (i.e. Voldemort) – What type of rhetorical outlet you imagine you are using (i.e Daily Prophet Newspaper editorial) – Who you are most likely speaking to (i.e. Hufflepuffs) – What canonical plot line you’re hoping to alter (i.e. I want to convince the Hufflepuffs to join the Death Eaters) – Any other information we need to know in order to understand your speech’s content (i.e. I’m going to be using the names of some spells from the book like “Expecto Patronum”) Then, once you start the protest essay, include a thorough explanation of the “issue” you seek to persuade us about today. – What is happening? – Who is causing this to happen? – Where is this happening? – Why is this happening? – Are there conflicting perspectives on this issue? – Hint: Consider how rhetorical situations, narrative scripts, etc. are influencing your explanation of who/what/when/where/why. Give your audience an evaluative analysis of this issue at hand in which you could discuss: – Is this happening positive? Negative? Sudden? Long-standing? – How should your audience feel? Excited? Enraged? Disgusted? Exhausted? – Which of many possible stances are you taking on this issue and why should your audience agree? Persuade your audience what they, as an active public, need to do in response to this issue. Remember, if the audience were to listen to you, the canonized plotline of your universe would be altered in some way. – Should they audience “take to the streets”? – Should they go on strike? Boycott something or someone? – Should they write to their senator/king/overlord? – Should they become “enlightened” and realize that they’ve been lied to about something this entire time? – Should they alter their political system and pursue democracy? Part 2 – Metacognitive Analysis Instructions Don’t be fooled by the big word. This short essay is an informal, first-person style essay in which you “think about your thinking” and explain why you structured your protest essay like you did. Why do you think it was the most effective way to go about persuading your particular audience? Instead of merely re-summarizing the plot of your fictional universe (this is a common error), I want you to apply a reasonable number (4-5) specific persuasion theories we’ve been learning in class. Examples might include: – Deliberative Rhetoric Ad Miseracordium Utopian Rhetoric Expectancy Violation Theory Primacy-Recency Effect Ideograph An easy format (but not the only possible format) might be to have four solid paragraphs of text, each focused around a particular course concept. Within each paragraph you could (1) list the concept you attempted to apply, (2) define it, (3) explain specific places you applied it, and (4) defend why that example was a successful application of that concept. Remember, this is not the way you have to write the analysis. Just a starting point. Point Distrubution: Part 1 – 50 points, all or nothing, easy A or easy F. Did you put in an effort? Full points. Did you half-ass it? Partial points. Did you not do it? No points. Part 2 – 50 points, graded like a reading response. Did you properly use and define at least 4 vocab words? Did you show me areas in your protest where you put those concepts into action? Did you clearly defend your choice? Are you writing at the college level (e.g. using paragraph breaks, proofreading, etc.) Introduction to Persuasion & Politics SUBTITLE: THE “PLEASE DON’T THROW THINGS AT YOUR CLASSMATES” UNIT LECTURE 9.1 Today’s Goals Introduce the genre of “political communication” and, by extension, persuasion in politics Investigate the various modes of political communication Explore current controversies in political communication Midterm Post-Mortem YES, all your midterms are graded. YES, overall the scores were quite good. Avg. grade around a “B,” range is from F to A+. YES, it was obvious who read/watched the texts and who was winging it. NO, there will be no makeups or redos. Introduction to Political Communication Politics: the public clash & debate among groups (who have varying degrees of power) regarding resources, visions, & policies, with the goal of reaching broadbased decisions that are building on, and may benefit, the larger collective (Perloff, 2013) Political Communication: A complex communicative activity in which language and symbols, employed by leaders, media, citizens, and citizen groups, exert a multitude of effects on individuals and society, as well as on outcomes that bear on public policy (Perloff, 2013) Rhetorical Roots Aristotle defined three genres of rhetoric: ceremonial (epideictic), legal (forensic), and political (deliberative) Deliberative Rhetoric = Political Rhetoric = Concern about the future 5 Subjects: Ways & Means; War & Peace; Imports & Exports; National Defense; Legislation Political Communication has Many Sub-Genres Example: “The Political Campaign” Genre Norms Include: Short duration (i.e. 2018 midterm elections) Sponsoring Candidate (i.e. Greg Pence for Trump) Multimodal persuasion strategies (i.e. internet & television) Massive staff/volunteers focusing on different persuasive arenas (i.e. fundraising) Application of verbal and nonverbal persuasive messages (EX: The speech and the red tie) When & Where & By Whom does political communication happen? Let’s find out! Name some places where political communication takes place. Another Genre: Presidential Rhetoric Powerful discourse that communicates directly with the people through access to media where presidents possess a level of authority others political actors do not have (Windt, 1990) Presidents are the “master-builders” of a rhetorical climate for political deliberation The means by which an elected candidate establishes ways to… Fulfill campaign promises Continue communicating with supporters Reach out to those who weren’t supporters Example: FDR’s “Fireside Chats” Are non-politicians political communicators? Political persuaders? EX: The viral video “JibJab,” 2004 What is the purpose of political communication? Ultimately, it’s persuasion! What has happened in the past that must happen/never happen in the future? What is happening now that must be continued/discontinued for a health future? What should the future look like? And, in a 2018 U.S. American context, we theoretically want to see that Habermaisan deliberative democracy. Preview for Thursday: Political Comm and Media Recall Habermas. Anyone remember how he felt about the current state of the public sphere (remember, he wrote it in 1969) What, according to Habermas, was the primary reason that the public sphere might be in danger? How do you think Habermas might feel in 2022? What did DeLuca argue? Deliberative Democracy in 2022 MCGEE: “FRAGMENTATION OF THE PUBLIC SPHERE” For Next time… Beeson, Wemple, video… Think about where you get your political news… Goodbye! PERSUASION & POLITICS II: ELECTRIC BOOGALOO Lecture 8.2 TODAY’S GOALS Review the foundations of political communication Investigate the role of “big M media” in determining political rhetorical genres Interrogate contemporary manifestations of this phenomenon REVIEW What is political communication? What is deliberative rhetoric? What are some genres of political persuasion that we have discussed? MASS MEDIA AND POLITICAL PUBLICS Recall Habermas. Anyone remember how he felt about the current state of the public sphere (remember, he wrote it in 1969) What, according to Habermas, was the primary reason that the public sphere might be in danger? How did DeLuca differ in his vision of the public screen? DEFINING MASS MEDIA “Big-M” Media, or Mass Media, is supposed to be a watchdog of the people Keeping an eye on the state for the protection of the public welfare (Habermasian ideal) Thus, the state/media relationship is supposed to be adversarial. (Exposing corruption) But the relationship is also symbiotic—as each is dependent on the other (media flounders without access, but politicians flounder if media hates them) It’s a fourth pillar of government (legislative, judicial, executive, Media) POLITICAL NEWS AND JOURNALISTIC ETHICS According to the Society of Professional Journalists’ Code of Ethics, Journalists who report on anything, including politics, should… Seek truth and report it Minimize Harm Act Independently Be Accountable and Transparent BUT….WHAT INFORMATION DO WE GET? 90% people get news from electronic/internet sources. (social media growing exponentially) It has a surveillance function Instrumental (new products, etc.) Beware (terrorists, shootings, etc.) News media is also an agenda-setter / gate-keeper. Gate-keeping manifests as a correlation function – i.e. “front page” = “most important” WHAT ARE THE POSITIVE CONSEQUENCES? Access to pressing information we might not otherwise see Access to “multiple sides” of an issue via an “informative” rather than a “persuasive” genre Ability to be persuaded via our own critical thinking after processing information SCR
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