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Reply to this discussion in approx. 250 words. Do not paraphrase. Our task in this discussion board is to display our critical thinking skills by applying some of the sociological concepts we learned in chapter twelve to contemporary society. To accomplish this we had to find a Youtube clip or website on the internet and apply at least two concepts from the chapter to the content of our selected clip/website in our main post. I will provide the chapter slides so you can have a better understanding on what this chapter consists of. This is the discussion: https://www.habitatforhumanity.org.uk/blog/2018/09/relative-absolutepoverty/#:~:text=Absolute%20poverty%20is%20when%20household,%2C%20ed ucation%2C%20healthcare%2C%20etc.&text=They%20are%20basically%20%E2 %80%9Ctrapped%E2%80%9D%20in%20a%20low%20relative%20income%20bo x. “All societies contain relative poverty, but low-income nations face widespread absolute poverty that is life-threatening” (Macionis 2017:354). Relative poverty is simply defined as someone who makes 50% less than the mean income for that country. This is a problem in every single country in the world. Relative poverty is often a short-term problem but can be a long-term problem for some people. People may lose a job and spend a few years at or below the poverty level, but often once they gain a new or better job, they can regain their wealth and return to living above poverty levels. Even people living at the relative poverty level are often offered the proper help and assistance needed to help them make it through. People living at this level have a hard life, but a livable one. Absolute poverty is simply defined as a person not even making enough money to provide for the basic needs of themselves or their families. 9.2% of all people in the world live at this level of absolute poverty. Macionis (2017:354) says, “Worldwide, about 793 million people are at risk due to poor nutrition. About 9 million people each year die each year from diseases caused by poverty. Throughout the world, women are more likely than men to be poor. Gender bias is strongest in poor societies. At least 20 million men, women, and children live in conditions that can be described as slavery”. Absolute poverty is often an issue that affects nearly a whole country of people due to the lack of government help and lack of proper jobs. Most people who are born into absolute poverty will live their whole lives at this level of poverty. Often their lives are cut very short due to the fact they can not get proper food or water easily. These people are forced to take the worst possible jobs in the worst possible working conditions simply because it is their only option. Poverty is a global issue, and in certain places, it is more than just an issue. But what can we even do? Is there anything that we can easily do that would actually help those who are living such a low quality of life? Reference: Macionis, John. 2017. Sociology. Pearson Learning. Sociology SEVENTEENTH EDITION Chapter 13 Global Stratification Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objectives 13.1 Describe the division of the world into high-, middle-, and low-income countries. 13.2 Discuss patterns and explanations of poverty around the world. 13.3 Apply sociological theories to the topic of global inequality. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Power of Society (1 of 2) • In a world of unequal economic development, how does a child’s country of birth affect the chances of survival? Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Global Stratification: An Overview (1 of 6) 13.1 Describe the division of the world into high-, middle-, and low-income countries. A Word about Terminology • Old terminology – First World: Rich, industrial countries – Second World: Less industrialized, socialist countries – Third World: Nonindustrial poor countries • Problems with old terminology – After the Cold War, the Second World no longer existed. – The Third World is too economically diverse to be meaningful. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 13–1 Distribution of Global Income and Wealth Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Global Stratification: An Overview (3 of 6) • New terminology – High-income: Nations with the highest overall standards of living – Middle-income: Nations with a standard of living about average for the world – Low-income: Nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor • Advantages – Focuses on economic development rather than political structure (capitalist or socialist) – Provides better picture of the relative economic development of various countries Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Global Stratification: An Overview (4 of 6) High-Income Countries • First to develop during Industrial Revolution two centuries ago • Enjoy 62% of the world’s income • Control financial markets, which means control of other countries Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Global Stratification: An Overview (5 of 6) Middle-Income Countries • About 54% of the population lives in or near urban areas and have industrial jobs • About 46% live in rural areas; most are poor and lack access to schools, medical care, and safe water Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Global Stratification: An Overview (6 of 6) Low-Income Countries • Mostly poor, rural economies • Agrarian, with some industry • 36% live in cities • Most live in villages and farms • Hunger, disease, and unsafe housing shape the lives of the world’s poorest people. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Global Map 13–1 Economic Development in Global Perspective Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Global Wealth and Poverty (1 of 8) 13.2 Discuss patterns and explanations of poverty around the world. The Severity of Poverty • Relative poverty – Lack of resources that others take for granted – This sort of poverty exists in every society, rich or poor. • Absolute poverty – A lack of resources that is life-threatening – In low-income countries, almost one-half of the people live on about $1.90 a day and are in desperate need. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 13–2 The Relative Share of Income and Population by Level of Economic Development Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Global Wealth and Poverty (2 of 8) The Extent of Poverty • Every 10 minutes, about 60 people sick and weakened from hunger die, about 15,000 people a day. • 793 million people in the world – about 10.8 percent of the world population – suffer from chronic hunger. • Good news: Extent of global hunger has decreased by about half since 1990. • Bad news: World hunger remains one of the most serious responsibilities facing humanity today. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Global Map 13–2 The Odds of Surviving to the Age of Sixty-Five in Global Perspective Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Global Wealth and Poverty (3 of 8) Poverty and Children • Children in poor countries beg, steal, sell sex, or work for drug gangs. • Many girls become pregnant. Tens of millions of children fend for themselves every day on the streets of poor cities where many fall victim to disease, drug abuse, and violence. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Global Wealth and Poverty (4 of 8) Poverty and Women • In all societies, a woman’s work is unrecognized, undervalued, and underpaid. • Sweatshop workers are mostly women. • Tradition keeps women out of many jobs in low-income nations. • Most women in poor countries receive little or no reproductive health care. • World’s poorest women typically give birth without help from trained health care personnel. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 13–3 Percentage of Births Attended by Skilled Health Staff Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Global Wealth and Poverty (5 of 8) Slavery • Six types of slavery (Anti-Slavery International) – Descent-based slavery: One person owns another and her offspring – Forced labor imposed by the state: Government imposes forced labor on people convicted of crimes or on others simply because the government needs their labor – Child slavery: Children sent out by families to do whatever they can to survive ▪ 10 million children are forced to labor daily in the production of tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, and coffee – Debt bondage: Employers pay wages that are less than what workers are charged for company-provided food and housing – Servile forms of marriage: Women married against their will or forced into prostitution – Human trafficking: Third-largest source of profit to organized crime Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Global Wealth and Poverty (6 of 8) Human slavery continues to exist in the twenty-first century. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Global Wealth and Poverty (7 of 8) Explanations of Global Poverty • Technology – About one-quarter of the people in low-income countries use human or animal power to farm land. • Population growth – Populations for poor countries in Africa double every 25 years. • Cultural patterns – Poor societies are usually traditional and resist change, even change that promises a richer material life. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Global Wealth and Poverty (8 of 8) • Social stratification – Low-income societies distribute wealth very unequally. • Gender inequality – Raising living standards depends on improving social standing of women. • Global power relationships – Historically, wealth flowed from poor societies to rich nations through colonialism. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Theories of Global Stratification (1 of 12) 13.3 Apply sociological theories to the topic of global inequality. Modernization Theory • Model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations • Historical perspective – Centuries ago, the entire world was poor. – Exploration, trade, and the Industrial Revolution transformed Western Europe and North America. – Absolute poverty declined and standard of living jumped in some areas of world. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Theories of Global Stratification (2 of 12) • Weber: Cultural perspective – Protestant Reformation reshaped traditional Christian beliefs. – Wealth became a sign of personal virtue. – Individualism replaced the traditional emphasis on family and community. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Theories of Global Stratification (3 of 12) • Rostow’s Stages of Modernization – Traditional stage ▪ Honor the past; difficult to imagine life could or should be any different – Take-off stage ▪ Use of talents and imaginations – Drive to technological maturity ▪ Diversified economy takes over – High mass consumption ▪ Mass production stimulates consumption Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Theories of Global Stratification (4 of 12) • The role of rich nations – Controlling population ▪ Exporting birth control technology and promoting its use – Increasing food production ▪ Using new hybrid seeds, modern irrigation methods, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides for insect control – Introducing industrial technology ▪ Sharing machinery and information to facilitate shifts in economies – Providing foreign aid ▪ Boosting prospects of poor societies trying to reach Rostow’s take-off stage Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Theories of Global Stratification (5 of 12) • Modernization simply has not occurred in many poor countries. – Theory fails to recognize how rich nations benefit from the status quo of poor nations. • Theory fails to recognize that international relations affect all nations. • Ethnocentric approach holds up the richest nations as the standard to judge other societies. • Blames global poverty on the poor societies. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Theories of Global Stratification (6 of 12) Dependency Theory • Model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones • Historical perspective – People living in poor countries were better off in the past than they are now. – Economic position of rich and poor are linked. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Theories of Global Stratification (7 of 12) • Economic positions of rich and poor nations of the world are linked and cannot be understood apart from each other. • Some nations became rich only because others became poor. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Theories of Global Stratification (8 of 12) • Importance of colonialism – Europeans colonized much west, south, and east. – African slave trade is the most brutal form of human exploitation. – Neocolonialism is the heart of the modern capitalistic world economy. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 13–4 Africa’s Colonial History Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Theories of Global Stratification (9 of 12) • Wallerstein’s capitalist world economy • Today’s global economy is rooted in the colonization that began 500 years ago. – Rich nations: Form the core of the world economy and are enriched by raw materials from around the world. – Low-income countries: Are the periphery by providing inexpensive labor and a market for industrial products. – Middle-income countries: Form the semiperiphery, having a closer tie to the core Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Theories of Global Stratification (10 of 12) • Narrow, export-oriented economies – Poor nations produce only a few crops for export to rich countries. • Lack of industrial capacity – Poor countries sell raw materials to rich countries, then buy finished products at high prices. • Foreign debt – Poor countries owe rich countries $6.7 trillion dollars, including hundreds of billions to the United States. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Theories of Global Stratification (11 of 12) • Dependency theory – Wrongly treats wealth as zero-sum game. – Wrongly blames rich nations for global poverty. – Wrongly presents a simplistic by citing capitalism as the single factor. – Offers inaccurate claim that global trade always benefits rich nations. – Offers only vague solutions to global poverty. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Theories of Global Stratification (12 of 12) The Future of Global Stratification • Greatest concern is economic inequality – Concentration of wealth may be the biggest problem facing humanity • Good news – Living standards are rising in absolute terms Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Applying Theory: Global Poverty Global Poverty Blank Modernization Theory Dependency Theory Which theoretical approach is applied? Structural-functional approach Social-conflict approach How did global poverty come about? The whole world was poor until some countries developed industrial technology, which allowed mass production and created affluence. Colonialism moved wealth from some countries to others, making some nations poor as it made other nations rich. What are the main causes of global poverty today? Traditional culture and a lack of productive technology. Neocolonialism—the operation of multinational corporations in the global, capitalist economy. Are rich countries part of the problem or part of the solution? Rich countries are part of the solution, contributing new technology, advanced schooling, and foreign aid. Rich countries are part of the problem, making poor countries economically dependent and in debt. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 13–5 The World’s Increasing Economic Inequality Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Photo Credits 330: John Miles/The Image Bank/Getty Images; 332: ZUMA Press, Inc./Alamy; 334: Instants/iStock/Getty Images; 334: Jake Lyell/Alamy Stock Photo; 334: Norbert Michalke/imageBROKER/Alamy Stock Photo; 336: Alison Wright/Encyclopedia/Corbis/Getty Images; 337: sippl sipa/AP Images; 341: Aijaz Rahi/AP Images; 342: Malcolm Linton/Hulton Archive/Getty Images; 343: Diego Herculano/NurPhoto via Getty Images; 345: Joe McDonald/Encyclopedia/Corbis/Getty Images; 345: Robert van der Hilst/Encyclopedia/Corbis/Getty Images; 345: Justin Eckersall/Alamy Stock Photo; 346: ton koene/Alamy Stock Photo; 349: Jan Sochor/Alamy Stock Photo; 352: Kamran Jebreili/AP Images; 352: Kamran Jebreili/AP Images; 353: Matt Shonfeld/Redux Pictures. Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Copyright Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

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