Read the instruction first. All requirements need to complete. There are so many document. I hope you will understand all the documents and make it perfect. Thank you.



Attached Files:

Concerning the content of this assignment, understanding Principle Based Time Management and the  “time management matrix” as well as the other rules for being an efficient time manager will enable you to fulfill this assignment for assessing how effective a time manager you are.

Essentially, this assignment is a self-analysis of how well you manage your time around a central core of principles and goals that you establish for yourself.  You will be judged on the professional appearance of your report, how well you follow instructions, and, of course, how well you organize and communicate your thoughts.

Keep in mind that former students have told me that Time Management (which is really self-management) was one of the most important and useful topics and assignments they had during their four years.  Why?  Because they use it everyday in their career and life – as do I!  Learning to manage your time well is one of the most important skills in becoming an effective person (not just an effective manager).

To clarify my expectations on this assignment, here is an outline you can follow:

page 1 – Cover page and table of contents

page 2 – Introduction – purpose of assignment, process to be followed followed, data collected.

page 3  – Time management matrix and analysis of how you allocate your time

pages 4-5 – Twenty rules for effective time management; extent to which you follow them.

page 6 –  Findings and Conclusions : what you learned; what you plan to do about it

pages 7 – 8 – Appendix containing time management exercise sheet and personal time management log (1 page each)



Attached Files:

Here are my lecture notes with a visualization of the Time Management Matrix.

Make sure that you understand what is meant by principle based time management (or self-management).  Aside for enabling you to do your assignment, you will have to explain it and the matrix on the Midterm Exam.  So, study this well.

Remember, effective time management will help you throughout your life.



Attached Files:


The results of the “exercise” are for “your eyes only,” so be as honest with rating yourself as is humanly possible.

These 2 documents are prerequisites for the class lecture on Time Management (which is actually Self Management).

The links above are the same document but in HTML and Word file versions.  Choose whichever is better for you.



Attached Files:

Complete this exercise after reading the above posted 20 rules.

The results of this “exercise” are for “your eyes only”; therefore, be as honest with rating yourself as is humanly possible.

Both the above 20 rules and this “exercise” are prerequisites for the class lecture on time management .

The links above are the same document but in HTML and Word file versions.  Choose whichever is better for you.


Rule 1

Read selectively.  This applies mainly to individuals who find themselves with too much material they must read such as mail, magazines, newspapers, books, brochures, instructions, etc.  Except for when you read for relaxation or pleasure (or when you are reading material that is totally new to you such as in a textbook used in a college course where you must gain an understanding of a subject you have never studied before), most reading should be done the way you read a newspaper.  In other words, skim most of it, and stop to read what seems most important.  Even the most important articles do not need every word to be read because important points are generally at the beginnings of paragraphs or sections.  Furthermore, if you underline or highlight what is important, you can review it quickly when it is necessary.

Rule 2

Make a list of things to perform each day.  This is a common sense rule that implies that you need to do some advance planning each day and not rely solely on your memory.  (You should make only one list, not multiple lists on multiple scraps of paper.)

Rule 3

Have a place for everything and keep everything in its place.  Letting things get out of place robs you of time in two ways.  More time is required to find something when it is needed, and you are tempted to do something else.  For example, if material for several projects is scattered on top of your desk, you will be tempted to switch from one project to another as you shift your eyes or move the papers.

Rule 4

Prioritize your tasks.  Each day you should focus first on important tasks — and then deal with urgent tasks. [Understanding what is important vs. what is merely urgent represent the two factors that comprise the foundation for a time management matrix, which we will delve into during our discussion on principle centered time management.]

Rule 5

Do one important thing at a time but several trivial things simultaneously.  You can accomplish a great deal by doing more than one thing at a time when tasks are routine, trivial, or require little thought.

Rule 6

Make a list of some 5 or 10 minute discretionary tasks.  This helps use the small bits of time almost everyone has during his or her day (waiting for something to begin, talking on the phone).  However, beware of spending all your time doing these small discretionary tasks while letting high-priority items go unattended.

Rule 7

Divide up large projects.  This helps you avoid feeling overwhelmed by large, important, urgent tasks.  Feeling that a task is too big to accomplish contributes to a feeling of overload and leads to procrastination.

Rule 8

Determine the critical 20% of your tasks.  It has been said that only 20% of the work produces 80% of the results.  Therefore, it is important to determine the most important 20% of the work and spend the bulk of your time on those.

Rule 9

Save your best time for important matters.  Reserve your high-energy time for accomplishing the  most important and urgent tasks. Trivial tasks should not be done during your “best time.”  Save the trivial tasks for when your energy-level is low, your mind is not at its sharpest, or you are not “on top of things.”  When you are working at your peak on those important tasks, do not let others interrupt you with unwanted demands.  You, not others, should control your time.

Rule 10

Reserve some time during the day when others do not have access to you.  Use this time to accomplish important but not urgent tasks — or spend it just thinking.  This might be the time before others in the household get up, after everyone else is in bed, or at a location where no one else comes.

Rule 11

DO NOT PROCRASTINATE.  If you do certain tasks promptly, they will require less time and effort than if you put them off; that is, the more you delay a task, the more effort it will take to get it done.

Rule 12

Keep track of time use.  This is one of the best time management strategies.  It is impossible to improve your management of time or decrease time stress unless you know how your time is spent.  You should keep time logs in short enough intervals to know what the essential activities are, but not too short or it will create a recording burden.

Rule 13

Set deadlines.  This helps improve your efficient use of time.  Work always expands to fill the time available (Parkinson’s Law); therefore, if you do not specify a termination time, tasks tend to take longer than they should. 

Rule 14

Do something productive while waiting.   Some estimate that up to 20% of an average person’s time is spent in waiting.  During such time, try reading, planning, preparing, rehearsing, reviewing, outlining, or doing other things that help accomplish your work.

Rule 15

Do “busy work” at one set time during the day.  Because it is natural to do simple tasks before difficult ones, specify a certain period of time to do “busy work.”  Answering mail or reading the newspaper at a specified time of the day, for example, can assure that those activities don’t interfere with priority ones.

Rule 16

Reach closure on at least one thing every day.  Reaching the end of the day with nothing completely finished increases a sense of stress and overload.  Finishing a task, on the other hand, produces a sense of relief and releases the tension that produces “bad” stress.

Rule 17

Schedule some personal time.  You need some time when no interruptions will occur, when you can get off the “fast track” for awhile and be alone.  This time should be used to plan, prioritize, take stock, pray, meditate, or just relax.  Among other advantages, personal time also helps  maintain self-awareness.

Rule 18

Do not worry about anything continually.  Allow yourself to worry only at a specified time and avoid dwelling on a worrisome issue at other times.  This keeps your mind free and your energy focused on the task at hand.

Rule 19

Have long-term objectives.  This helps you maintain consistency in activities and tasks.  One can be efficient and organized yet still accomplish nothing — unless one has a clear direction in mind.  [This relates to principle centered time management which enables one to determine what is truly important.  This topic and the time management matrix will be covered in class and distributed via an online handout after it is covered in class.]

Rule 20

Be on the alert for ways to improve your management of time.   Make continuous improvement in time use a part of your lifestyle.


1. Rules are modified from the following source: David A. Whetten and Kim S. Cameron, Developing Management Skills, 4th Ed., (New York: Addison Wesley Educational Publishing Inc., 1998).



Carefully following the directions in this document for how to organize and format your report will be critical to accomplishing the objectives of this assignment. 

  • Make sure that you have followed the directions.  Read and re-read them – and make a checklist.  [A minimum of 20% of your grade for any course is based on how well you follow directions.]
  • Make sure that there are no grammatical (punctuation, syntax, etc.) and no typographical errors (always proofread your submissions). 
  • Make sure that your analysis is expressed in a manner that achieves a high level of insight about what you have learned about yourself, your ability to manage your time, and what steps you might take to improve. 
  • Be concise in your writing, and be specific in your examples.  Avoid vague generalities.

How to begin:
            Keep a time log for at least 2 days. Record in this log how you spend each hour from the time you get out of bed until the time you go to sleep. Do not evaluate the time you slept.  Use the following format as a guide:

TimeActivity  [Describe Activity]Required or Discretionary (R/D)Productive or Unproductive (P/U)
7 – 8 AMMorning RegimenR4
8 – 9 AMMorning CommuteR1 (-8:20)  3 (-9:00)
9 – 10 AMConsumer Behavior ClassR4
10 – 11 AM                “R4 (-10:20) (2-11:00)
6 – 7 PMMarketing 250 ClassR1 (-6:30)  2 (-7:00)
7 – 8 PM                “R4 (- 7:30) 1 (-8:00)
8 – 9 PM Office HoursD2 (- 8:20) 4 (-9:00)

1. The first part of the assignment is modified from the following source: David A. Whetten and Kim S. Cameron, Developing Management Skills, 4th Ed., (New York: Addison Wesley Educational Publishing Inc., 1998).

Under the heading “Required or Discretionary,” place an “R” in the column if the time spent was required by someone other than you or by some situation that occurred.  Place a “D” in the column if the activity was discretionary: that is, if it was something you chose to do on your own.  In other words, you determine your productivity, and you determine what is discretionary and what is not.

In the “Productive or Unproductive” column, rate how wisely you used the time using the scale below.

4 = Used Productively.
3 = Used Somewhat Productively.
2 = Used Somewhat Unproductively.
1 = Used Unproductively.

The Submission:

            This is a brief written assessment of your time management over the period that you kept this log. [Do NOT submit the log itself.  In fact, I will take off points if you submit the log.  The point is that you are to analyze your time and interpret the results in a written report.]  This assignment is essentially a self-analysis, and you should endeavor to be as honest with yourself as possible.  In other words, your report should reflect whatever insights you gained about your self-management habits; that is, whatever you have learned about yourself over the period of time you have kept the log.  In addition, you should compare those insights to the evaluation you made of yourself from the Time Management Exercise you did that rated how efficient a time manager you are.

            As already mentioned, your submission will be judged on the logic you employ in making your conclusions about yourself, how well you follow the instructions, and, of course, how well you communicate your thoughts.  Also, although brief (about 4 to 5 content pages), this is a report, and it must be in the proper format for a report: double spaced, cover page, table of contents, section headings that explain what topics are about to be discussed, all pages numbered, etc.  Obviously, the cover page, table of contents, and any other front matter are not included in the 4 to 5 content page count. Neither are any exhibits (for example, a graph or chart) included in the content page count.  [See “Supplement to Syllabus” for details.  The “Supplement” provides details on formatting requirements for all course assignments; also, it should be referred to for how to cite sources as well as some tips on how to avoid common grammatical mistakes.]

How to Proceed:
In doing your analysis, consult your log to see where you have and where you have not used your time well.  Think about why your time was used wisely in some instances and why it was not in others.  Assess yourself in terms of both efficiency and effectiveness.  For assessing whether or not you have been efficient, use the “Time Management Rules” handout and how you rated yourself when doing the Time Management Exercise.  In addition, you MUST use Covey’s Time Management Matrix in order to assess how effective you have been – and to make a comparison between your efficiency, which you rated prior to maintaining the log, and your effectiveness as based on what Quadrants of the Matrix you found yourself in during the time you were keeping the log.

      For evaluating your effectiveness, ask yourself how well you match up to the ideal.  What is the ideal?  Look at the Time Management Matrix and evaluate whether you have been an effective time manager by placing the activities in the quadrants of the Matrix that you honestly believe they belong.  Ideally, you should have completed any crises or deadline projects first since these are Quadrant I activities.  Quadrant II activities should have been where you spent most of your time.  So, what percentage of the time that you were awake during a day was spent there?   If it is over 50%, you are doing pretty well.  Less than 25% means you ought to think about reassessing your priorities.   Although you might have spent some time on those “urgent” activities you placed in Quadrant III, you should have minimized the time spent on them since you have clearly labeled them as “unimportant” — that is, not contributing to your overall goals or well-being.  Obviously, Quadrant IV activities should have been avoided.   [See the Time Management lecture handout for more details.]

Showing the Data and Turning it into Information:

Remember, this is a Report and Analysis, and often showing information supported by written analysis is a great way to communicate your thoughts.  Therefore, regarding your effectiveness, you should provide information on how you spent time by categorizing the time spent into quadrants and showing a graph or chart (your choice of which type(s)) that indicates percentages of time spent for each day in each quadrant and any other information you find pertinent.  Also, you might provide a table that classifies your Strengths vs. your Weaknesses.  Here, you might use the list of Rules for Efficient Time Management and indicate whether your efficiency in the use of a particular rule is also effective. Be sure you write what the information shown means.  In analytical terms, what you write should indicate your finding – in other words, the insight or conclusion you have made.

How you do all this is entirely up to you, but it must be done professionally and with great accuracy of reporting, meaning that what you show (graphs, tables, charts, etc.) and what you write is immediately clear and logical to the reader.  Remember, all reports require an introduction (do not assume that the reader knows what you are doing and why) and a conclusion (that is, what you conclude from your findings).

How to Do Well on this Assignment:
            In order to do well on this assignment, you must have understood the points that I have made during the lecture on Principle Based Time Management.  For that reason, I have given you a written handout of the points made during that lecture.  Make sure you refer to it when you are assessing yourself on how effective a self-manager you are – and be sure you compare your effectiveness to the self-assessment of your time management efficiency. 

Toward the end of your report where you write the conclusions about yourself, summarize where you have been managing your time well and where you believe you need improvement.  Conclude your report by comparing how you thought of yourself as a time manager both before and after keeping your daily log.

Remember, this is a report – not an essay.  It must be written in a business report writing style.  Consult the “Supplement to Syllabus” for the formatting of reports, which I have detailed earlier in these instructions.  In addition, and as I state in class, always “write for the reader”; that is, always make it easy for the reader.  No excessively long paragraphs that seem to go on and on.  Break them up so that it is easy on the eyes.  Each page of your report should look inviting to the reader. 

IMPORTANT!  A reader of a report should know what (s)he is about to read before actually reading it.  How?  By the use of titled section headings and sub-headings, each of which will be indicated in the Table of Contents with the page on which they are to be found. For example, certainly there will be an opening section that indicates what is being reported on.  Whether you call that section simply “Introduction” or some more creative title is up to you.  And, certainly, there will be closing section for your conclusions about yourself.  A simple title for that section would be “Summary and Conclusion,” but once again you might have a better title, depending on what you have been reporting.  In between the opening and closing sections of your report will be other titled sections, and those will depend on how you organize your report and on how well integrated your insights and conclusions are about yourself.

            Lastly, the entire hard copy submitted in class in the proper business report format is to be stapled in the upper left hand corner.  No report binders are to be used for this assignment.  This and all submissions are to be printed on one side of a page.  No two sided printing allowed

Refer to the Grading Guide on Blackboard and in the Syllabus for how assignments are graded.

Again, refer to the Time Management Matrix Lecture (digital handout on Blackboard) for how to assess your effectiveness.   Use the “Time Management Rules” for assessing your efficiency.


Use this exercise to assess your current time management skills.  Assess your behavior as it is, and not as you would like it to be.  BE HONEST so that you can accurately rate yourself.  This assessment is for your information only.  It will, however, aid you when you do the Time Management Assignment.

For each statement below, fill in the blank space next to it with a number from the rating scale, which shows the frequency with which you do each activity.


0 = Never     1 = Seldom    2 = Sometimes   3 = Usually    4 = Always

_____   1.  I read selectively, skimming the material until I find what is important, then highlighting it.

_____   2.  I make a list of tasks to accomplish each day.

_____   3.  I keep everything in its proper place where I live and/or work.

_____   4.  I prioritize the tasks I have to do according to their importance and urgency.

_____   5.  I concentrate on only one important task at a time, but I do many trivial tasks at the same time.

_____   6.  I make a list of short five- or ten-minute tasks to do.

_____   7.  I divide larger projects into smaller, separate stages.

_____   8.  I identify which 20 percent of my tasks will produce 80 percent of the results.

_____   9.  I do the most important tasks at my “best time” during the day.

_____   10.  I have some time during each day when I can work uninterrupted.

_____   11.  I do not procrastinate.  I do today what needs to be done today.

_____   12.  I keep track of the use of my time with devices such as a time log.

_____   13.  I set deadlines for myself.

_____   14.  I do something productive whenever I am waiting.

_____   15.  I do low priority “busy work” at one set time during the day.

_____   16.  I finish at least one thing every day.

_____   17.  I schedule some time during the day for personal time alone (for planning, meditating, prayer, exercise, etc.)

_____   18.  I allow myself to worry about things only at one particular time during the day, not all the time.

_____   19.  I have clearly defined long-term objectives toward which I am working.

_____   20.  I continually try to find little ways to use my time more efficiently.


To determine how effective you are as a manager of your time, add up all the points you have given yourself in items 1 through 20.  Multiply the result by 2.

If you scored 120 or above, you are an excellent manager of your time.  If you scored between 100 and 120, you are doing a good job of managing your time, and making a few refinements will help you achieve excellence.  If you scored between 80 and 100, you should consider improving your time management skills.  If you scored below 80, training in time management will considerably enhance your efficiency.


1. Rules are modified from the following source: David A. Whetten and Kim S. Cameron, Developing Management Skills, 4th Ed., (New York: Addison Wesley Educational Publishing Inc., 1998).


We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit. – Aristotle  

Things which matter most must never be at the mercy of things which matter least.
— Goethe

These are two quotations that Stephen R. Covey uses in his best selling and classic book, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. I highly recommend this book to all my students. It deals not only with time management (which he refers to more properly as personal management), but with 6 other principles and the consequences they can have on one’s life. The book is in paperback and is not particularly expensive. In fact, considering the practical impact it can have on your life, it may be the “best deal in town.”

Concerning time management, Covey describes the evolution of time management theory — from simple “notes and checklists” to “calendars and appointment books” and, then, to the third generation of time management, “the important idea of prioritization, of clarifying values, and of comparing the relative worth of activities based on their relationship to those values.”

He goes on to describe how many people began to feel “that ‘efficient’ scheduling and control of time are often counterproductive.” These individuals found that their efficient use of time (i.e., not wasting time) was removing them from the interpersonal relationships that mattered to them and from the joy often discovered in the spontaneity of life. However, the answer is not in reverting from this third level to simple planners and calendars, but, rather, to shift the paradigm (an outstandingly clear model or example) to a higher level, which Covey relates as the third habit of highly effective people; i.e, “putting first things first.” [Note that the emphasis is on being effective not simply efficient.]

This fourth generation paradigm does not simply focus on things to do and the time involved. Rather, it focuses on “preserving and enhancing relationships and on accomplishing results” (i.e., being effective as opposed to being merely efficient). But what results? Covey makes clear that the effective self-manager establishes goals that are based on personal and ethical principles. He counsels to “begin with the end in mind” and to develop a personal mission statement or philosophy or creed that “focuses on what you want to be (character) and to do (contributions and achievements) and on the values or principles upon which being and doing are based.”

Once you have established your personal vision of yourself, you can manage time around a decision-making core of what is truly important vs. what is simply urgent. The essence of this idea is illustrated by the following time management matrix consisting of four quadrants.

                                                                                                             Urgent                                 Not Urgent

    ImportantI. Important/Urgent Crises; Pressing problems; 
Deadline-driven projects.
II. Important/Not Urgent Principle Centered Activities; Planning; Prevention; Relationship building; Opportunity Recognition;
True Recreational Activities.
III. Not Important/Urgent     
Imminent pressing matters; “Popular” Activities (i.e., activities that you think will make you popular with others); Personal Interruptions; Some calls and mail;  Certain meetings and reports.
IV. Not Important/Not Urgent      Time wasters; So called “Pleasant” activities that are not really pleasant (e.g., drinking to excess) that are actually escapes from responsibilities.  Trivia, busy work. Some types of mail/phone calls.

Urgent matters require immediate attention. They are usually visible and pressing on us. On the other hand, importance has to do with results. Important matters contribute “to your mission, your values, your high priority goals.” In this model for managing your time and controlling your life, one should strive for being a quadrant II dweller. It is in this quadrant that one gains control and becomes an effective user of time — not merely an efficient one.

Quadrant I (upper left) is where one classifies crises and deadline-driven projects: matters both important and urgent. Quadrant II (upper right) is where one classifies planning, innovating and developmental opportunities: matters of extremely high importance — but not urgent. By spending as much time as we can in these activities, we not only avoid wasting time, we learn better how to deal with Quadrant I and contribute to preventing occurrences that force us into Quadrant III where time is spent on unimportant matters that are “urgent” simply because others make it appear that these matters are important.

Those who spend their time on Quadrant III activities usually think they are in Quadrant I. However, because they are not working from a sense of their own principle based vision, they are actually basing this “sense of urgency” on the priorities and expectations of others. It may even feel to them as if what they are doing is important, but spending inordinate time dealing with matters that do not contribute to results (such as handling interruptions and phone calls of low importance or dwelling on the daily mail or going to meetings of dubious value) only takes time away from the truly important activities of Quadrant II.   And one should assess if one’s “recreational time” is truly something they want to do or something that others want them to do.  If it is true recreation based on what you think is important, then it belongs in Quadrant II (Important, but Not Urgent.).  On the other hand, if it is an activity that you are doing because you are being influenced by others or because you wish to be popular despite the fact that you don’t really think the activity is important, then it is a “popular” activity and belongs in Quadrant III.

Quadrant IV activities should be avoided at all costs. Listing excessive drinking and gambling here would be an easy way to visualize the unimportant and not urgent. However, trivial matters of all types fall into this category including such activities as arguing for no purpose and doing routine busy work in order to avoid more important matters which call for mature decision-making. Quadrant IV activities often can be mistaken for “pleasant” activities that every person needs in order to avoid stress. How often have we heard the alcoholic claim that he is only a social drinker, or the compulsive gambler claim that his compulsion is a way of relaxing.   But if activities are being done to escape from one’s responsibilities or, even worse, as an escape from reality, then they are harmful in the long-run and belong in Quadrant IV.

Every person needs to relax and avoid “bad” stress. [“Good” stress is needed because it drives us to take on those challenges which give meaning to our lives.] True recreational activities contribute to the well-being of our lives and belong in Quadrant II; i.e., they are not urgent, but they are of high importance.

This brief summary cannot truly capture the essence of the skill required for and the philosophy behind becoming a highly effective person. It is hoped that this simple handout will inspire you to look more deeply into self-management as a means to living a productive and joyous life. Again, I highly recommend reading Stephen Covey’s book.

Report and Analysis of Personal Time Management

As you know, part of your report will analyze how you handled your activities over a two day period, comparing the manner and order in which you accomplished them as compared to the ideal way you think they should have been accomplished according to Covey’s Principle-Based Time Management Matrix for effective use of time.

What is the ideal? 

Well, one should ideally complete any activities in Quadrant I first. Quadrant II activities should be where you spend most of your time. Although you may have to spend some time on those activities you placed in Quadrant III, you should minimize the time spent on them since you have clearly labeled them as “unimportant” — that is, not contributing to your overall goals or well-being.  Remember, Quadrant III is where others have more control over your time than you do.  The poet Carl Sandburg put it well in terms of how one perceives what I would call “a successful or effective life.”  He wrote the following:

“Time is the coin of your life. It is the only coin you have, and only you can determine how it will be spent. Be careful lest you let other people spend it for you.”

So, keep that in mind as it relates to Quadrant III.  Obviously, Quadrant IV activities should be avoided altogether.

You are the arbiter of whether you think your activity was effective or not; that is, what Quadrant it belongs in.  Was it an activity that belongs in Quadrant II such as planning or developing new opportunities or relationship building, or was it something that you did to make yourself more popular with your peers, which belongs in Quadrant III.  It’s your call.  Be honest with yourself.  For example, did you stop doing some homework and go out with the “guys and gals” for some “true rest and relaxation” that was earned (Quadrant II), or did you go out with them because they pressured you and you wanted to be “popular” with them despite the fact that you really wanted to finish your work (Quadrant III) or was this an activity just to avoid doing your homework because you became frustrated with not understanding how to do the work (Quadrant IV – an escape from responsibility).

            Please refer to the instructions for doing the assignment for more details about both the effectiveness aspects of the assignment as well as the efficiency aspects.

            Good luck.

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