Roads crossing the fault line were impassable, and pipelines were broken, shutting off the water supply to the city. The fires that ignited soon after the onset of the earthquake quickly raged through the city because of the lack of water to control them. They destroyed a large part of San Fran- cisco. Dislocation of fences and roads indicated the amount of ground movement between 3–4.5 m. In Mendocino County, a fence and a row of trees were displaced almost 5 m. Vertical displacement of as much as 0.9 m was observed in Sonoma County. Vertical displacement was not detected toward the south end of the fault. http://www.sfmuseum.org/1906/ew.html 5. What was the intensity of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake? List the evidence you based your answer on. 6. Which of the items you described in your answer above, is related to a secondary hazard? 7. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the Modified Mercalli Scale when studying historical earthquakes? 8. Examine the map of Seismic Hazard for the two zones expressed as percentage of the ground acceleration. Look at the map at https://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3325/pdf/SIM3325_sheet1.pdf Is the hazard comparable? Why is the hazard area so different in size? Part 4: BUILDING DESIGN AND GROUND RESONANCE Resonance is the tendency of a system to oscillate with greater amplitude at some frequencies than at others. The resonant frequency of any given system is the frequency at which the maximum-amplitude oscillation occurs. All buildings have a natural resonance, which is the number of seconds it takes for the building to naturally vibrate back and forth. The taller the building, the longer its resonance period will be. In this section of the exercise you will learn about building resonance and about engineering solutions to minimize the damage from oscillations. Watch the videos and answer these questions Ground and building resonance frequencies https://www.iris.edu/hq/inclass/animation/building_resonance_the_resonant_frequency_of_diff erent_seismic_waves 9. Which type of ground has the higher frequency, hard rocks or softer sediment? ________ If the period of ground motion matches the natural resonance of a building what will happen? Design of safer buildings http://www.iris.edu/hq/inclass/video/build_a_better_wall_demo_why_buildings_fail. 10. After watching the video complete the drawing of this frame for a 4 story building with structures that will make it more resistant during an earthquake.

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