Underground pipe lines completely out of service. Earth slumps and land slips in soft ground. Rails bent greatly. Damage total. Waves seen on ground surfaces. Lines of sight and level distorted. Objects thrown upward into the air. CASE STUDY 1: December 16, 1811: New Madrid Fault estimated Richter Magnitude: 8.0 Historical documents from eyewitness report that at the onset of the earthquake the ground rose and fell—bending the trees until their branches intertwined and opening deep cracks in the ground. Landslides swept down the steeper bluffs and hillsides; large areas of land were uplifted; and still larger areas sank and were covered with water that emerged through fissures. Huge waves on the Mississippi River overwhelmed many boats and washed others high on the shore. High banks caved and collapsed into the river; sand bars, and points of islands gave way; whole islands disappeared. Local uplifts of the ground and water waves moving upstream gave the illusion that the river was flowing upstream. Ponds of water also were agitated noticeably. Surface rupturing did not occur, however. The region most seriously affected was characterized by raised or sunken lands, fissures, sinks, sand blows, and large landslides that covered an area of 78,000–129,000 square kilometers, extending from Cairo, Illinois, to Memphis, Tennessee, and from Crowley’s Ridge to Chickasaw Bluffs, Tennessee. Although the motion during the first shock was violent at New Madrid, Missouri, it was not as heavy and destructive as that caused by two aftershocks about 6 hours later. Only one life was lost in falling buildings at New Madrid, but chimneys toppled and log cabins were thrown down as far distant as Cincinnati, Ohio; St. Louis, Missouri; and in many places in Kentucky, Missouri, and Tennessee. In Lake County uplift the Mississippi River valley was upwarped in several topography bulges. Other areas subsided by as much as 5 m, although 1.5–2.5 m was more common in Arkansas. https://www.usgs.gov/natural-hazards/earthquake-hazards/science/1811-1812-new-madridmissouri-earthquakes?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects 3. By reading the text above and comparing the testimonials with the degree of the Mercalli Scale you will be able to estimate the intensity. Use the highest level of damage for your estimate. What was the intensity of the New Madrid Earthquake? Provide the answer and list the evidence you based your answer on. 4. Which of the items you described in your answer is related to a secondary hazard? CASE STUDY 2: April 18, 1906; San Francisco. Estimated Richter Magnitude: 7.8 The earthquake damaged buildings and structures in all parts of the city and county of San Francisco, although over much of the area, the damage was moderate in amount and character. Most chimneys toppled or were badly broken. The business district was built on ground filled in over Yerba Buena cove. Pavements were buckled, arched, and fissured; brick and frame houses were damaged extensively or destroyed; sewers and water mains were broken; and streetcar tracks were bent into wavelike forms. On or near the San Andreas fault, buildings were destroyed and trees were knocked to the ground. The surface of the ground was torn and heaved into furrow-like ridges

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