Name: ______________________________ The Geologic history/setting of an area can be interpreted with an understanding of the variation in lateral and vertical facies. The goal of this exercise is to use well log data from the DT Drilling Company to interpret the geologic setting. The DT Drilling Company also has a few questions that need to be answered for a report to the National Association of Facies (NAF). Once you plot the data, use the lateral and vertical changes in facies to answer the questions. Part 1: Stratigraphic cross section of the Ceramic Basin Method: Use the attached core data and plot the stratigraphic position of individual units. There are six facies that have been recognized in these cores. The well log data uses only the abbreviation for the facies. The top of each unit in the well log is given as meters below the surface. Each core ends at 400m below the surface. Be sure to put a legend for your facies somewhere on the core cross section figure. Ceramic Basin Core Facies Cg: Pinkish gray conglomerate, varying from clast to matrix supported. Many of the pebbles and cobbles in this unit are from the underlying granite basement rock. G: Granite basement rock. L: Brownish black lacustrine (lake) claystone with fish fossils and mollusk shells. M: Modern soil and unconsolidated sediments Ms: Mudstone, reddish brown to brown, with root traces and occasional vertebrate fossil throughout. Ss: Trough crossbedded yellowish channel sandstone V: White volcanic ash Well Log Core A: M at 0 m, Cg at 60 m; G at 100 m. Core B: M at 0 m; Ss at 60 m; Cg at 70 m; Ss at 100 m; Cg at 120 m; Ss at 150 m; L at 160 m; Ss at 170 m; Cg at 180 m; Ss at 210 m; L at 230 m; Ss at 240 m; Cg at 250 m; Ss at 280 m; L at 310 m; Cg at 320 m; G at 340 m. Core C: M at 0 m; L at 60 m; Cg at 70 m; Ss at 100 m; L at 120 m; Cg at 130 m; Ss at 160 m; Cg at 180 m; L at 220 m; Ss at 230 m; Cg at 240 m; L at 280 m; Ss at 290 m; G at 320 m. Core D: M at 0 m; Ss at 60 m; Cg at 80 m; Ms at 100 m; Ss at 110 m; Cg at 130 m; L at 160 m; Ms at 170 m; Ss at 175m; Cg at 180 m; Ms at 210 m; Ss at 220 m; L at 240 m; Ss at 250 m; L at 270 m; Ss at 280 m; G at 320 m. Name: ______________________________ Core E: M at 0 m; Ms at 60 m; Cg at 80 m; Ms at 100 m; L at 110 m; Ss at 120 m; Cg at 130 m; Ms at 160 m; Ss at 170 m; Ms at 190 m; Ss at 210 m; L at 220 m; Ss at 230 m; Ms at 250 m; Ss at 260 m; G at 280 m. Core F: M at 0 m; Ms at 60 m; Ss at 80 m; Cg at 90 m; Ms at 100 m; Ss at 120 m; Ms at 130 m; Ss at 140 m; Ms at 150 m; Ss at 170 m; Ms at 180 m; Ss at 200 m; Ms at 210 m; Ss at 220 m; Ms at 230 m; Ss at 240 m; G at 260 m. Core G: M at 0 m; Ms at 60 m; Ss at 80 m; Ms at 90 m; Ss at 120 m; Ms at 130 m; V at 160 m; Ms at ~161 m; Ss at 190 m; Ms at 200 m; G at 240 m. Core H: M at 0 m; Ms at 60 m; Ss at 90 m; Ms at 100 m; V at 140 m; Ms at ~141 m; Ss at 150 m; Ms at 160 m; G at 200 m. Core I: M at 0 m; Ms at 60 m; V at 120 m; Ms at ~121 m; G at 200 m. NAF Questions: 1. Where is the fault located in this basin? Hint: It is between two of the columns. What type of fault is it? Normal, reverse, or thrust? 2. Based on the facies relationships, which end of this basin has the highest subsidence rate? How did you use the facies to determine this, and how has basin subsidence controlled facies distribution? 3. Why does the same volcanic ash layer appear deeper in the cores across the basin? Name: ______________________________ 4. Draw a line on the map to show the approximate position of the fault. Label each side of the fault with either U or D to represent which side moved up/down. Part 2: Building a burial history diagram Burial history diagrams illustrate the evolution of a basin through time. These curves are often used to determine the thermal maturity of a basin during hydrocarbon exploration. In order to assess the quality of a particular unit as a potential hydrocarbon target, we must first understand its thermal (and therefore burial) history. Method: Periods of deposition and erosion have been identified and quantified for you already. Plot the following data on your blank burial history diagram. Period Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous Paleogene Neogene Quaternary Thickness (km) 0.5 1.5 3.0 0.5 -1.0 -0.5 Questions: 1. When are periods of subsidence and deposition? When are periods of uplift and erosion? 2. During what period was subsidence the greatest? What is the subsidence rate during this period? Name: ______________________________ 3. If you were to target this basin for hydrocarbons, would you expect to find primarily natural gas or oil? 10Cm 200 m 400 m 300 m – – West omA – – – – Cm 100 m • 200 m 300 m 400 m B – – – – omC 100 m 200 m 300 r 400 m Om 200 m -700 n – 300 n 400 m D – – – – Om 100 m 200 m 300 a 400 m E – – – – Cm lOOm 200 m 300 m F – – 200 m 400 m 300 n – -100 m Om Ceramic Basin Core Data – – 400 m G * – – Om 100 n 200 c 300 n -400n H – – – Om 100.1 200rn 30Cm -‘ -400n7 I East Age (Ma) 201 252 Triassic 1 Depth (km) 2 3 4 5 145 Jurassic 66 Cretaceous 23 Paleogene 2.6 Neogene 0 Quaternar Which of the following best describes how ice cores are used as proxy indicators of past climates? Question 15 options: Pollen is collected from ice cores and shows the composition of forests of the world through time. Shells record oxygen isotope ratios. Dust detected in ice cores indicates a cooler climate and dust ratios record warming and cooling cycles. The ice traps air bubbles of the past atmosphere and reveal atmospheric composition in annual layers.
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