According to a common platitude, “You can’t judge a book by its cover.” According to Johann Lavater, an early psychological theorist in the mid- to late-1700s, however, it was possible to judge an individual’s personality by his or her facial features. Lavater originated the psychological practice of physiognomy, which attempted to pinpoint personality traits through examination of such features as the shape of the nose (Benjamin, 2019). Lavater’s theory gained some popularity, spurring others such as Cesare Lombroso to write about what facial features constituted a “criminal type,” among other assertions. Yet, by the early 1900s, the study of physiognomy was on the wane and even incited controversy over allegations of racial profiling. What challenges did these theorists face, and why did they fail to see the shortcomings inherent in their theories? Ana Client age: 24 Gender: F Presenting Problem Client states, “I recently lost my job and feel hopeless. I can’t sleep and don’t feel like eating.” Client also reports she has lost 10 pounds during the last two months. Client states that she is a solo parent and is worried about becoming homeless. Client states, “I worry all the time. I can’t get my brain to shut off. My husband is in the military and currently serving in an overseas combat zone for the next eight months. I worry about him all the time.” Behavioral Observations Client arrived 30 minutes early for her appointment. Client stated that she had never been in counseling before. Client depressed and anxious, as evidenced by shaking hands and tearfulness as she filled out her intake paperwork. Ana made little eye contact as she described what brought her into treatment. Client speech was halting. Client affect flat. Client appeared willing to commit to eight sessions of treatment authorized by her insurance company. General Background Client is a 24-year-old first-generation immigrant from Guatemala. Ana was furloughed from her job as a loan officer at local bank three months ago. Client reported that she was from a wealthy family in Guatemala, but does not want to ask for help. Client speaks fluent Spanish. Education Client has completed one year of college with a major in business. Client states that she left college after her son was born as she found it difficult to manage a baby, college, and a full-time job. Family Background Client is the middle of four siblings. Client has two older brothers and one younger sister. Client’s parents have been married for 27 years. Client states that she has had a “close” relationship with her family, although she states that her father is a “heavy drinker.” Client states that all her brothers and sisters have graduated from college and have professional careers. Client states that her father is a banker and her mother is an educator. Client states that she has not seen her family for 1 year. Client has a 1

For this Discussion, select one individual or group of individuals who changed the paradigm of psychology between ancient times and the early 1800s. Consider challenges these individuals faced in developing the new paradigm. Focus on the inherent irony that a discipline focused on human behavior through scientific inquiry sometimes failed to see its own shortcomings and overcome challenges.

BY DAY 3

Post by Day 3 a brief description of your chosen individual and the new paradigm of psychology he or she introduced. Then, explain challenges your selected individual or individuals faced in developing this new paradigm of psychology.

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