1. Humanists did not reject Christian traditions but were more focused on the material world and human potential in this lifetime rather than a Christian afterlife. Examine how this is shown through the works of Petrarch, Machiavelli, or Rabelais.

2. Fortune is compared to a woman in Machiavelli’s The Prince. He says that she plays only half a role in a leader’s success or failure, while the other half remains in the ruler’s hands. Examine how this is shown through the section titled Fortune is a Woman.

3. Don Quixote is a picaresque story. This means that the world is shown more with caricatures, comic episodes, and graphic depictions of suffering. Explain how this is shown throughout the story.

4. Don Quixote and Sancho are foil characters. They are the complete opposites of one another and, because of this, they complement each other (work well together). Give an example from the text that demonstrates how they are opposites and complement each other.

5. Epic poems contain several conventions, including an opening invocation to a muse or God, an epic hero who possesses a serious character flaw or physical weakness and must overcome several trials and tribulations, and a moral or cultural lesson to be learned. Based on this description is Milton’s Paradise Lost an epic poem? Support your answer with two citations from the text that show how it is or is not an epic poem.

6. Free will is defined as that which “obeys reason.” Adam and Eve commit the “Fall” or original sin because they follow temptation rather than reason. Does Milton appear to glorify or criticize Adam and Eve’s decisions surrounding temptation and the Fall? Cite an example from the text to support your answer.

*Short Essay. Your essay should be 1 full page to 2 pages, typed, double spaced, Times New Roman, 12 pt Font. 7. Required: Write an essay that explores how social context influences an author’s work. In other words, how do the real-world political, religious, or social events taking place and/or the author’s own political, religious, or social viewpoint affect the story and message of a literary work. You may discuss as few or as many of the selections read throughout this course, but you must include at least four citations from the text. Write your essay using the same AEC (Assertion, Evidence, Commentary) format as you have used for the other questions. Make sure to include transitions between examples (Another example, In addition, Furthermore) so that your essay flows properly.

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