Description

task: Interpret and outline major phases in the geologic history of rocks exposed in the footwall of the Salt Lake City segment of the Wasatch fault in the 7.5-minute Fort Douglas quadrangle (see below*) – using maps provided (https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/111_kMaDty1…)

Turn in: An annotated outline of Salt Lake City area geologic history (2 pages), part of which will be incorporated in the Geologic Settings section of your Limekiln Gulch/Red Butte Canyon field report.“Annotated” means that you need to provide the map, cross section, or stratigraphic column evidence for major geologic phases, as well as any evidence constraining timing; for instance, cross-cutting relationships.

Note:

  • Use Roman numerals for each major geologic phase, from oldest to youngest.
  • Your primary source will be the geologic quadrangle maps themselves, along with the accompanying cross-sections, stratigraphic columns, and lithologic descriptions.

 The descending ocean floor plate in the Japan Trench is subducting, or moving down, at a rate of 8 cm/yr. This rate is faster than most plates are moving. It doesn’t actually move straight down, but at more of a slant or slope. Japan is located along the edge of the Eurasian continental plate, and the descending ocean floor plate slopes underneath this continental plate. The worksheet (last page) is a cross-section of Japan and the Japan Trench. The Pacific Ocean is to the right and Asia to the left. Therefore, if radioactive waste material were dropped in the bottom of the Due date Name 9. Imagine a hypothetical city on a coast next to an oceanic trench. Describe how the descending ocean plate is moving with respect to the city. Japan West East 34000 Mt. Fujiyama Tokyo 2000 Sea of Japan Meters above or below sea level 0 -2000 -4000 -6000 -8000 0 100 200 300 400 ers below the trench 500 Kilometers 600 700 800 900 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Kilometers Note: The graph is worth one point. Read the procedure to learn how to make the graph. REFERENCES Frosch, R.A., 1977, Disposing of high level radioactive waste. Oceanus, v. 20, p. 4-17. Hollister, C.D., 1977, The seabed option. Oceanus, v. 20, p. 18-25. Toksoz, M.N., 1974, Consumption of the lithosphere. Oceanus, v. 17, p. 14-19. Wylie, P.J., 1976, The way the earth works. New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 296 p. Due date Name trench at the place marked X, it should move down to the left with the descending plate. It has been figured out that in 3 million years the part of the ocean floor plate now under the trench would move to a position 200 km to the west and 200 km down. Put an X on your graph to show where the radioactive waste would be then. Label that X,“3 million years. In the next 3 million years, it would move another 200 km westward and another 200 km downward. Put another X at that spot, and label it “6 million years.” In the same way, put an X on your graph to show where the waste would be in 9 million years and in 12 million years if it kept moving at the same rate. Draw a line through all these spots (including the X at the bottom of the trench), connecting them all together. We are not too worried about what will happen to the radioactive waste 12 million years from now. Most of the waste will have decayed before then. When an ele decays, it loses some energy and forms another stable element. This new element will be fairly harmless. 1. But wh A common problem with reclamation of tailings is instability due to the high moisture content of the fine grained materials. This instability limits the use of heavy equipment on the surface of the tailings. Initial stabilization of tailings is focused on dewatering. Dewatering practices range from the passive treatment of allowing upper layers to dry out over a long period of time to a Figure 1,15: Tailings embankment construction. more aggressive approach of Kennecott Tailings Facilities. installing underdrains, horizontal drains, and vertical wick drains. The handling of tailings streams to create a paste material is another method of increasing stability of tailings. Paste technology may be utilized during initial deposition of tailings or later in the project life to construct features on or in the tailings impoundment. The toxicity of the tailings may complicate the reclamation process by requiring neutralization and placement of an engineered cap. The purpose of the engineered cap may be to prevent infiltration of moisture, to prevent oxidation of the tailings, or to prevent the escape of radon gas. The solutions recovered from the tailings during reclamation will need to be managed. The solutions may require treatment or simply collection. Dewatering Dewatering is best accomplished during active operations to spread the costs over a longer period of time. Tailings water is ordinarily decanted from water separated from the tailings within the impoundment. A floating barge is commonly used to remove this water. If the operation has the luxury of an extended period of time, the tailings may be allowed to dry out naturally. This passive solar method may not dry the entire depth of tailings, depending on the characteristics and thickness of tailings. 21 One common method of actively dewatering the tailings is to push vertical wicks into the tailings deposit. These wicks allow vertical flow of solutions between various layers of tailings at depth. Placing a large number of these wicks close together can create a chimney drain effect. During dewatering, the upper surface of the tailings may dry out quickly while the lower layers remain wet for a longer time period. In this case, dust control techniques may be required during the interim until the tailings can be capped and revegetated. Capping The more complex the cap design, the more difficult the actual installation. Placement of capping materials may require the use of low ground pressure equipment and a variety of placement techniques. Techniques may include the placement of capping materials using a track hoe or back hoe on synthetic liners placed on the tailings. These materials are used to construct a ramp or finger dike out onto the tailings to create a working surface. This ramp will probably experience a large amount of settling requiring placement of several lifts before supporting heavy equipment. A wetting front is often formed ahead of this ramp, due to the water being squeezed out of the tailings by the loading. After the ramp is constructed, additional capping material can be placed from the ramp to gradually increase the capped area. Another technique is to construct the ramp as a dike around an area to create an isolated cell. The dike enhances dewatering of the area and provides a platform from which capping materials may be placed. This cell can then be used as a construction platform to construct another isolation dike. Sampling and characterization of the tailings material may provide some information describing the physical properties of the tailings. But most operators still have to resort to trial and error attempts to determine which method of cap construction will work and how fast the work may proceed. The most commonly used capping material is waste rock from the mining operations, although an engineered cap may require Capillary barrier: Air spaces which very specific capping materials such as clay or synthetic liners. A prevent movement of capillary barrier or capillary break may be needed in the cap design water. to prevent plant roots from penetrating into the tailings materials. A capillary barrier may also be utilized to minimize oxidation of tailings below the barrier. A capillary barrier is created by placing fine grained material over larger grained material. The capillary action of the fine-grained material prevents moisture from flowing through the coarse material into the tailings. Some tailings materials may be suitable for revegetation. These tailings may be seeded directly as soon as they are stable and may require the addition of minor amounts of organic materials such as mulch, composted manure, or biosolids. 22 It may be more cost effective to treat the upper layers of tailings to neutralize contaminants or increase the organic content during active operations than to wait until afterward. The treatment materials may be added directly into the tailings stream during the entire operation or during the last years of tailings placement to create the desired capping mixture in the top layer. Figure 1.16: A dike is used to isolate the tailings cell. Seed is placed into amended tailings. Kennecott Tailings Facilities. Revegetation The combined depth of the subsoil and soil layer will need to be sufficient to support vegetation alone if the tailings material is inhospitable to plants. This subsoil layer may range in thickness from several inches to several feet. An engineered cap may be required in addition to the subsoil and soil layer. For tailings materials which are not hostile to plants, direct seeding into the tailings several years in advance of final reclamation may help dewater the upper surface, aid in dust control, and increase the organic content of the tailings. The final surface of the reclaimed tailings area should be graded to divert surface water off of the tailings. The surface should be roughened to enhance seed and moisture retention for vegetation success. Interim measures may be needed to minimize erosion from precipitation until vegetation starts to grow. These interim measures may include the application of a tackifier or mulch during the first growing seasons (Part 2, Section 3). Plugging and Abandonment The owner or operator of an oil, gas, or injection well should consider plugging and abandoning a well when it: 1. 2. 3. Is no longer capable of safe and environmentally sound operations Becomes unprofitable to operate Cannot be operated in accordance with Division rules or permit Figure 1.17: A well is plugged after operations have ceased. 23 Well plugging, abandonment and well site reclamation involves: n n n n n Informing the Division with a proposed procedure Division review, comment, and approval of the procedure Plugging and reclamation work by the owner or operator Inspection by the Division Final inspection by the Division Figure 1.18: Plugged and abandoned well marker. Note: The Division may release a well bond when the proposed work is complete. Well Status Requirements In accordance with Rule R649-3-36 of the Oil and Gas Conservation General Rules, June 2, 1998 Revision, Shut-in and Temporarily Abandoned Wells , wells may be shut-in or temporarily abandoned for twelve months. If the well is to be shut-in or temporarily abandoned for over twelve months, the owner or operator must file a Sundry Notice 9, and provide all of the following information to the Division: n n n Reasons the well is being shut-in or temporarily abandoned. The length of time that the well is expected to be shut-in or temporarily abandoned. An explanation with supporting data showing the integrity of the well. This includes information about the cement, casing, equipment condition, fluid level, pressures, presence or absence of underground sources of drinking water and other factors indicating the well does not pose a risk to public health, safety, or the environment. The Division will review the Sundry Notice and either approve the status extension or require remedial measures be implemented to establish and maintain the integrity of the well. An owner or operator of a Utah well that has been inactive or non-productive for over five years must either plug and abandon the well or provide a showing of good cause as to why the well should not be plugged. The Division may order a well to be plugged that has not established good cause as to why the well should not be plugged. In the event an owner or operator fails to comply with a Division plugging order, bond forfeiture proceedings may be initiated. 24 State Plugging Requirements Sundry Notice of Intent The State of Utah specifications for plugging and abandonment of regulated wells are contained in Rule R649-3-24. Prior to commencing field operations, the owner or operator is required to submit a Notice of Intent to the Division requesting approval for the proposed plugging procedure. The Notice of Intent must be filed on Form 9, Sundry Notice and Report on Wells. For wells located on Federal or Indian land, the operator must file with the Division an Approved Procedure/Notice of Intent on the appropriate Federal or Tribal form. The following information is required in the Intent Sundry Notice: n n n n n Location and status of the well Description of the well bore configuration, indicating casing sizes and depths, cement tops, existing equipment, and completions Depth to the top of known geologic markers or formations Depths of coal or potash beds or oil shale zones encountered Any other information that may have a bearing in determining the adequacy of the proposed procedure Plugging Procedures The Division does not generally advocate one specific plugging technique or cementing method over another. The Division recognizes techniques as recommended by the American Petroleum Institute (API) as being acceptable for use in Utah. Division Rule R649-3-24, Plugging and Abandonment of Wells, establishes several specific requirements for fee and state lease wells. Specific Requirements for Fee and State-Leased Wells 1. Bottom Plug–The bottom of the hole should be sealed with a solid cement or bridge plug. 2. Formation Isolation Plugs–100-foot solid cement plugs must be placed above each producing formation open to the well bore. 3. Perforated Interval Plug–Perforated intervals need to be plugged with cement. 4. Cut Casing Stub/Shoe Plug–If the casing is pulled, a 100-foot solid cement plug should be centered across the casing stub. In addition, a 100-foot cement plug must be centered across the casing shoe of the next larger casing string. 5. Fresh Water Zone Plug–A solid cement plug should be placed from fifty feet below to fifty feet above the fresh water zone; or, a 100-foot solid cement plug should be centered across the base and top of the fresh water zone. Surface Casing Shoe Plug–A fifty-foot solid cement plug must be placed 6. 25 from the base of the surface casing up the hole. 7. Open Hole Plug–Any porous section of open hole shall be isolated to prevent fluid migration. 8. Surface Plug–At least ten sacks (preferably 100 feet) of cement shall be placed at the surface to seal all annuli open at the surface. Acceptable techniques for filling surface casing annuli include perforation and circulation or filling bottom up with small-diameter tubing. 9. Plugging Fluid–The space between cement plugs within the well bore must be filled with a non-corrosive fluid dense enough to prevent water migration into or up the well bore. 10. Placement of Plugs–Cement plugs should be placed so that the well bore and all casing-to-casing and casing-to-hole annuli are completely sealed with cement. Mechanical devices should be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendation. Cement plugs placed without the conjunctive use of a bridge plug or cement retainer should be tagged to verify correct placement depth. Subsequent Sundry Notice The owner or operator is required to submit a subsequent report of the work within thirty days after completion of well plugging. Form 9, Sundry Notice and Report on Wells, includes: n n n n n A complete description of the plugging work, including techniques used, cement characteristics, and depths. Records of any tests conducted and measurements made, such as pressure tests. A description of the amount, size, location, and depth of all casing left in the well. A statement of the amount of mud or plugging fluid used. A complete report of the method used and the results obtained for any attempts to part or salvage casing. Well Site Restoration Specific requirements for well site restoration in Utah are contained in Rule R649-3-34. For federal, Indian, or state surface ownership, the owner or operator shall meet the requirements of the appropriate surface management agency, such as the School and Institutional Trust Land Administration or the Bureau of Land Management. In the case of fee or private surface ownership, the owner or operator shall meet the well site restoration requirements of the surface owner, as stipulated in the surface use agreement. In cases when no surface use agreement can be established, the Division shall establish minimum well site restoration requirements for the purposes of final bond release. The 26 Division’s surface use agreement may state requirements for grading, contouring, reseeding, and abandonment of any equipment or facilities for which the landowner agrees to accept liability. The Division surface use agreement shall not address operations that are under the jurisdiction of the rules and orders of the Board of Oil, Gas, and Mining including but not limited to the disposal of drilling fluid, produced fluid, or other produced waste, or the reclamation or treatment of waste crude oil. When establishing minimum well site reclamation requirements, the Division will follow the guidelines established in this manual. Additional Sources of Information As previously mentioned, API publishes numerous recommended practice manuals textbooks and other specific guidance for oilfield operations. References provided by API, the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), and others that may prove to be useful with regards to well plugging and well site restoration include: n n n n n n Environmental Guidance Document: Well Abandonment and Inactive Well Practices for U.S. Exploration and Production Operations, API Bulletin E3, First Edition, January 31, 1993. Onshore Solid Waste Management in Exploration and Producing Operations, API, 1989. Worldwide Cementing Practices, API, 1991. Cementing, Dwight K Smith, Monograph Volume 4 of the Henry L. Doherty Series, SPE, 1976. Applied Drilling Engineering, SPE Textbook Series, Volume 2, 1991. Oil and Gas Surface Operating Standards for Oil and Gas Exploration and Development, United States Bureau of Land Management and the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Third Edition, January 1989. Waste Minimization Historically, oil and gas exploration and production activities, also known as E&P, have resulted in large volumes of waste that had to be discarded. Wastes are generated at almost every level or stage of development, including drilling, processing, transportation, and storage. These wastes have been categorized as Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) exempt or nonexempt, according to the Figure 1.19: Oil well production site. Altamont RCRA exemption for Exploration and Bluebell Field Marker. Production Wastes. Some of the more abundant wastes are produced salt water, waste crude oil, tank bottoms, oily soils, pipe and tank scale, drilling mud, drill cuttings, and gas plant wastes such as spent glycol, filters, gas sweetening compounds, cooling tower 27 blowdown, and pigging wastes from pipelines. Today, 98% of the generated waste is produced water. Waste Management Over the past several years, changes in laws, regulations, and company perspectives have resulted in a more direct and preventive approach to waste management. This change has resulted from changes in technology, liabilities, and the rising costs of disposal. The new, preventative approach results in waste minimization. Companies are able to reduce costs through better management Figure 1.20: E&P wast facility. San Juan County. and waste minimization during operations and at abandonment. Good waste management helps lead to lower cleanup costs when it is time to plug and abandon a well or close a facility such as a tank battery, compressor site, or gas plant. Implementing Minimization Program Figure 1.21: Reserve pit containing drilling fluids. The potential benefits a company receives by implementing a waste minimization program include: n n n n n n Increased revenue Reduced costs of operating, materials, waste disposal, energy, and facility cleanup Improved operating efficiency Reduced regulatory compliance concerns Reduced potential for civil and criminal liability Enhanced public perception of the company and the industry as a whole The Oil and Gas Conservation Act 40-6-5 UCA gives the Board authority to regulate the disposal of oil-field wastes. It is the intent of the Board and Division to regulate E&P wastes and facilities in a manner that protects the environment, limits liability to producers, and minimizes the volume of waste. Oil and Gas Conservation General Rule R649-9-2 requires each operator to file an Annual Waste Management Plan. A good waste management plan should include procedures and practices that result in waste minimization. In order to achieve the desired results, the focus of waste management must shift from the end of a process to the beginning. The first step in shifting the focus is for 28 individual waste generators to adopt the Waste Management Hierarchy of Preference endorsed in the federal Pollution Prevention Act of 1990. The overriding principle of the hierarchy is the reduction or elimination of both the volume and toxicity of waste that is introduced into the environment. From an environmental perspective, disposal is the least preferred option. To the extent practicable, waste management choices should be based upon the following hierarchy of preference, which range from the most preferred option to the least preferred option. n n n n Source Reduction Recycling Treatment Disposal The American Petroleum Institute (API) and others have published guidelines for developing waste management plans that include minimization as an integral part. At abandonment or closure, soils at a well or facility site must meet regulatory cleanup levels. The Division or other appropriate regulatory agency should be contacted for clarification of applicable cleanup standards. The Division must approve a plan for final closure of a disposal facility. Any reclamation carried out as part of the closure plan must take into consideration the post-disposal land use and landowner requests. This manual can also be used as a resource in reclamation techniques. Additional References API Environmental Guidance Document; Onshore Solid Waste Management in Exploration and Production Operations. 1989. 1st Edition, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC. Clarification of the Regulatory Determination for Wastes from the Exploration, Development and Production of Crude Oil, Natural Gas and Geothermal Energy. 1993. 58 Federal Register 15284-15287. Deuel, L. E. Jr. and H. H. George. 1994. Soil Remediation for the Petroleum Extraction Industry, PennWell Publishing Company, Tulsa Oklahoma. DeVaull, G., et. al. Risk Based Corrective Action Tools for Exploration and Production Facilities. Gas Research Institute, www.gri.org. Developing Area-Specific Waste Management Plans for E&P Operations. 1991. 1st Edition, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC. Generic Hazardous Chemical Category List and Inventory for the Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Industry. 1988. American Petroleum Institute and the Independent Petroleum Association of America. Guidance to Hazardous Waste Generators on the Elements of a Waste Minimization Program. 1993. 58 Federal Register 31114-31120. Guidelines for Waste Minimization in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production. 1999. A Publication of the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. Robb III, A., and P. Hoggatt. 1995. A Cost Effective Bioremediation Strategy Using Low Technology Resources for Reclamation of Dry Land Hydrocarbon Contamination: A Case Study. SPE 29759,1995. Shaw, B., et al. 1995. Microbes Safely, Effecti

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