V O L U M E A American Lit er a ture, Beginnings to 1820 • GUSTAFSON

V O L U M E B American Lit er a ture 1820–1865 • LEVINE

V O L U M E C American Lit er a ture 1865–1914 • ELLIOTT

V O L U M E D American Lit er a ture 1914–1945


V O L U M E E American Lit er a ture since 1945














Robert S. Levine, General Editor professor of en glish and

distinguished university professor and distinguished scholar- teacher

University of Mary land, College Park


B W • W • N O R T O N & C O M P A N Y

N E W Y O R K • L O N D O N

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preface xvii acknowl edgments xxix

Beginnings to 1820

introduction 3 timeline 26

native american oral lit er a ture 29

stories of the beginning of the world 31 The Iroquois Creation Story 31 The Navajo Creation Story 35

Hajíínéí (The Emergence) 36 trickster tales 43

From The Winnebago Trickster Cycle (edited by Paul Radin) 43 oratory 47

From The World Encompassed by Sir Francis Drake 47 Powhatan’s Discourse of Peace and War 52 King Philip’s Speech 53

poetry 54 Cherokee War Song 55 Lenape War Song 57 Two Cherokee Songs of Friendship 57

Christopher Columbus (1451–1506) 58 Letter of Discovery (February 15, 1493) 59 From Letter to Ferdinand and Isabella Regarding the Fourth Voyage

(July 7, 1503) 64

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Bartolomé de las Casas (1474–1566) 66 From An Account, Much Abbreviated, of the Destruction

of the Indies 68

Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (c. 1490–1558) 71 The Relation of Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca 73

[Dedication] 73 [The Malhado Way of Life] 74 [Our Life among the Avavares and Arbadaos] 75 [Pushing On] 76 [Customs of That Region] 77 [The First Confrontation] 78 [The Falling- Out with Our Countrymen] 78

first encounters: early eu ro pean accounts of native amer i ca 80

hernán cortés: From Second Letter to the Spanish Crown 82 thomas harriot: From A Brief and True Report of the New Found

Land of Virginia 87 samuel de champlain: From The Voyages of the Sieur de

Champlain 93 robert juet: From The Third Voyage of Master Henry Hudson 98 john heckewelder: From History, Manners, and Customs of

the Indian Nations 103 william bradford and edward winslow:

From Mourt’s Relation 106

John Smith (1580–1631) 110 The General History of Virginia, New Eng land, and the

Summer Isles 113 The Third Book. From Chapter 2. What Happened till the

First Supply 113 The Fourth Book. [Smith’s Farewell to Virginia] 122

From A Description of New Eng land 122 From New Eng land’s Trials 126

William Bradford (1590–1657) 129 Of Plymouth Plantation 132

Book I 132 From Chapter I. [The En glish Reformation] 132 Chapter IV. Showing the Reasons and Causes of Their

Removal 134 From Chapter VII. Of Their Departure from Leyden 137

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Chapter IX. Of Their Voyage, and How They Passed the Sea; and of Their Safe Arrival at Cape Cod 141

Chapter X. Showing How They Sought Out a Place of Habitation; and What Befell Them Thereabout 144

Book II 149 Chapter XI. The Remainder of Anno 1620 149

[Dif”cult Beginnings] 150 [Dealings with the Natives] 151

Chapter XII. Anno 1621 [The First Thanksgiving] 154 Chapter XIX. Anno 1628 [Mr. Morton of Merrymount] 154 Chapter XXIII. Anno 1632 [Prosperity Weakens Community] 158 Chapter XXV. Anno 1634 [Trou bles to the West] 159 Chapter XXVII. Anno 1636 [War Threats] 161 Chapter XXVIII. Anno 1637 [War with the Pequots] 162 Chapter XXXII. Anno 1642 [A Horrible Truth] 165 Chapter XXXIV. Anno 1644 [Proposed Removal to Nauset] 166

Thomas Morton (c. 1579–1647) 167 New En glish Canaan 169

The Third Book [The Incident at Merry Mount] 169 Chapter XIV. Of the Revels of New Canaan 169 Chapter XV. Of a Great Monster Supposed to Be

at Ma-re Mount 172 Chapter XVI. How the Nine Worthies Put Mine Host of Ma-re

Mount into the Enchanted Castle at Plymouth 175

John Winthrop (1588–1649) 176 A Model of Christian Charity 178 From The Journal of John Winthrop 189

The Bay Psalm Book 198 Psalm 2 [“Why rage the Heathen furiously?”] 199 Psalm 19 [“The heavens do declare”] 200 Psalm 23 [“The Lord to me a shepherd is”] 201 Psalm 100 [“Make ye a joyful sounding noise”] 202

Roger Williams (c. 1603–1683) 203 A Key into the Language of Ame rica 205

To My Dear and Well- Beloved Friends and Countrymen, in Old and New Eng land 205

Directions for the Use of Language 208 An Help to the Native Language 209

From Chapter I. Of Salutation 209 From Chapter II. Of Eating and Entertainment 209 From Chapter VI. Of the Family and Business of the House 210 From Chapter XI. Of Travel 210

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From Chapter XVIII. Of the Sea 210 From XXI. Of Religion, the Soul, etc. 211

Poem [“Two sorts of men shall naked stand”] 214 From Chapter XXX. Of Their Paintings 214

From Christenings Make Not Christians 215

Anne Bradstreet (c. 1612–1672) 217 The Prologue 219 In Honor of that High and Mighty Princess Queen Elizabeth of

Happy Memory 220 To the Memory of My Dear and Ever Honored Father Thomas

Dudley Esq. 224 To Her Father with Some Verses 226 Contemplations 226 The Flesh and the Spirit 233 The Author to Her Book 236 Before the Birth of One of Her Children 236 To My Dear and Loving Husband 237 A Letter to Her Husband, Absent upon Public Employment 238 Another [Letter to Her Husband, Absent upon Public Employment] 238 In Reference to Her Children, 23 June 1659 239 In Memory of My Dear Grand child Elizabeth Bradstreet 241 In Memory of My Dear Grand child Anne Bradstreet 242 On My Dear Grand child Simon Bradstreet 242 For Deliverance from a Fever 243 Here Follows Some Verses upon the Burning of Our House 243 As Weary Pilgrim 245 To My Dear Children 246

Michael Wigglesworth (1631–1705) 249 From The Day of Doom 250

Mary Rowlandson (c. 1637–1711) 267 A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of

Mrs. Mary Rowlandson 269

Edward Taylor (c. 1642–1729) 301 Preparatory Meditations 302

Prologue 302 Meditation 8 (First Series) 303

God’s Determinations 304 The Preface 304

Upon Wedlock, and Death of Children 306 Upon a Wasp Chilled with Cold 307 Huswifery 308

Samuel Sewall (1652–1730) 309 From The Diary of Samuel Sewall 310 The Selling of Joseph: A Memorial 317

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Cotton Mather (1663–1728) 321 The Won ders of the Invisible World 322

[A People of God in the Dev il’s Territories] 322 [The Trial of Martha Carrier] 325

Magnalia Christi Americana 328 Galeacius Secundus: The Life of William Bradford, Esq., Governor of

Plymouth Colony 328 Nehemias Americanus: The Life of John Winthrop, Esq., Governor of

the Mas sa chu setts Colony 334 A Notable Exploit: Dux Fœmina Facti 349

Bonifacius 351 From Essays to Do Good 351

Jonathan Edwards (1703–1758) 356 Personal Narrative 358 On Sarah Pierpont 368 Sarah Edwards’s Narrative 369 A Divine and Supernatural Light 377 Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God 390

american lit er a ture and the va ri e ties of religious expression 403

the jesuit relations 405 JÉRÔME LALEMANT: From How Father Isaac Jogues Was Taken by the

Iroquois, and What He Suffered on His First Entrance into Their Country 406

P. F. X. DE CHARLEVOIX: From Catherine Tegahkouita: An Iroquois Virgin 410

SOR JUANA INÉS DE LA CRUZ: 415 Love Opened a Mortal Wound 415 Suspend, Singer Swan 416

FRANCIS DANIEL PASTORIUS: [In These Seven Languages] 416 ELIZABETH ASHBRIDGE: From Some Account of the Early Part of the

Life of Elizabeth Ashbridge 417 JOHN WOOLMAN: From The Journal of John Woolman 423 JOHN MARRANT: From A Narrative of the Lord’s Wonderful Dealings

with John Marrant, a Black 428 REBECCA SAMUEL: Letters to Her Parents 433 SAGOYEWATHA: Reply to the Missionary Jacob Cram 436

Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790) 439 The Way to Wealth 442 The Speech of Miss Polly Baker 449 Rules by Which a Great Empire May Be Reduced to a Small One 451

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Information to Those Who Would Remove to Amer i ca 456 Remarks Concerning the Savages of North Amer i ca 462 The Autobiography 466

Samson Occom (1723–1792) 585 From An Account of the Mohawk Indians, on Long Island 588 A Short Narrative of My Life 589 From A Sermon at the Execution of Moses Paul, an Indian 595 Hymns 606

The Sufferings of Christ, or Throughout the Saviour’s Life We Trace 606

A Morning Hymn, or Now the Shades of Night Are Gone 607 A Son’s Farewell, or I Hear the Gospel’s Joyful Sound 608

ethnographic and naturalist writings 609

sarah kemble knight: From The Private Journal of a Journey from Boston to New York in the Year 1704 610

william byrd: From The Secret Diary of William Byrd of Westover 1710–1712 616 From The History of the Dividing Line 618

alexander hamilton: From Hamilton’s Itinerarium 622 william bartram: Anecdotes of an American Crow 625 hendrick aupaumut: From History of the Muh- he- con- nuk Indians 629

J. Hector St. John de CrÈvecoeur (1735–1813) 634 Letters from an American Farmer 636

From Letter III. What Is an American? 636 From Letter IX. Description of Charles- Town; Thoughts on Slavery;

on Physical Evil; A Melancholy Scene 645 From Letter X. On Snakes; and on the Humming Bird 650 From Letter XII. Distresses of a Frontier Man 651

Annis Boudinot Stockton (1736–1801) 657 A Hymn Written in the Year 1753 659 An Elegiak Ode on the 28th Day of February [1782]. The Anniversary

of Mr. [Stockton’s] Death 660 On a Little Boy Going to Play on a Place from Whence He Had

Just Fallen 662 Addressed to General Washington, in the Year 1777, after the Battles

of Trenton and Prince ton 662 [L]ines on Hearing of the Death of Doctor Franklin 664

John Adams (1735–1826) and Abigail Adams (1744–1818) 664 The Letters 666

Abigail Adams to John Adams (Aug. 19, 1774) [Classical Parallels] 666

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John Adams to Abigail Adams (Sept. 16, 1774) [Prayers at the Congress] 667

John Adams to Abigail Adams (July 23, 1775) [Dr. Franklin] 668

John Adams to Abigail Adams (Oct. 29, 1775) [Prejudice in Favor of New Eng land] 669

Abigail Adams to John Adams (Nov. 27, 1775) [The Building Up a Great Empire] 670

Abigal Adams to John Adams (March 31, 1776) [Remember the Ladies] 672

John Adams to Abigail Adams (July 3, 1776) [ These colonies are free and in de pen dent states] 674

John Adams to Abigail Adams (July 3, 1776) [Redections on the Declaration of In de pen dence] 675

Abigail Adams to John Adams (July 14, 1776) [The Declaration. Smallpox. The Grey Horse] 677

John Adams to Abigail Adams (July 20, 1776) [Do My Friends Think I Have Forgotten My Wife and

Children?] 678 Abigail Adams to John Adams (July 21, 1776)

[Smallpox. The Proclamation for In de pen dence Read Aloud] 679

Thomas Paine (1737–1809) 681 Common Sense 682

Introduction 682 From III. Thoughts on the Pres ent State of American Affairs 683

The Crisis, No. 1 689 The Age of Reason 695

Chapter I. The Author’s Profession of Faith 695 Chapter II. Of Missions and Revelations 697 Chapter XI. Of the Theology of the Christians,

and the True Theology 698

Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826) 702 The Autobiography of Thomas Jefferson 704

From The Declaration of In de pen dence 704 Notes on the State of Virginia 711

From Query V. Cascades [Natu ral Bridge] 711 From Query XIV. Laws [Slavery] 712 Query XVII. [Religion] 717 Query XIX. [Manufactures] 720

The Federalist 721 No. 1 [Alexander Hamilton] 723 No. 10 [James Madison] 726

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Olaudah Equiano (1745?–1797) 731 The In ter est ing Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano,

or Gustavas Vassa, the African, Written by Himself 733 From Chapter 1 733 Chapter II 735 From Chapter III 745 From Chapter IV 747 From Chapter V 751 From Chapter VI 755 From Chapter VII 763 From Chapter IX 767

Judith Sargent Murray (1751–1820) 770 On the Equality of the Sexes 772

Philip Freneau (1752–1832) 780 The Wild Honey Suckle 781 The Indian Burying Ground 782 To Sir Toby 783 On Mr. Paine’s Rights of Man 785 On the Religion of Nature 786

Phillis Wheatley (c. 1753–1784) 787 On Being Brought from Africa to Amer i ca 789 To the Right Honourable William, Earl of Dartmouth 789 To the University of Cambridge, in New Eng land 790 On the Death of the Rev. Mr. George White”eld, 1770 791 Thoughts on the Works of Providence 792 To S. M., a Young African Painter, on Seeing His Works 795 To His Excellency General Washington 796 Letters 798

To John Thornton (Apr. 21, 1772) 798 To Rev. Samson Occom (Feb. 11, 1774) 798

Royall Tyler (1757–1826) 799 The Contrast 801

Hannah Webster Foster (1758–1840) 841 The Coquette; or, The History of Eliza Wharton 843

Charles Brockden Brown (1771–1810) 941 Memoirs of Carwin the Biloquist 943

native american eloquence: negotiation and re sis tance 985

canassatego: Speech at Lancaster 986 pontiac: Speech at Detroit 989 logan: From Chief Logan’s Speech 991

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cherokee women: To Governor Benjamin Franklin 993 tecumseh: Speech to the Osages 994

Washington Irving (1783–1859) 996 A History of New- York from the Beginning of the World

to the End of the Dutch Dynasty, by Dietrich Knickerbocker 998 Book II, Chapter I [Hudson Discovers New York] 998

Rip Van Winkle 1003

selected Bibliographies A1 permissions Acknowledgments A11 index A13

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Preface to the Ninth Edition

The Ninth Edition of The Norton Anthology of American Lit er a ture is the “rst for me as General Editor; for the Eighth Edition, I served as Associate General Editor under longstanding General Editor Nina Baym. On the occasion of a new general editorship, we have undertaken one of the most extensive revisions in our long publishing history. Three new section editors have joined the team: Sandra M. Gustafson, Professor of En glish and Con- current Professor of American Studies at the University of Notre Dame, who succeeds Wayne Franklin and Philip Gura as editor of “American Lit er a ture, Beginnings to 1820”; Michael A. Elliott, Professor of En glish at Emory University, who succeeds Nina Baym, Robert S. Levine, and Jeanne Campbell Reesman as editor of “American Lit er a ture, 1865–1914”; and Amy Hungerford, Professor of En glish and American Studies at Yale Uni- versity, who succeeds Jerome Klinkowitz and Patricia B. Wallace as editor of “American Lit er a ture since 1945.” These editors join Robert S. Levine, editor of “American Lit er a ture, 1820–1865,” and Mary Loeffelholz, editor of “American Lit er a ture, 1914–1945.” Each editor, new or continuing, is a well- known expert in the relevant “eld or period and has ultimate responsi- bility for his or her section of the anthology, but we have worked closely from “rst to last to rethink all aspects of this new edition. Volume introduc- tions, author headnotes, thematic clusters, annotations, illustrations, and biblio graphies have all been updated and revised. We have also added a number of new authors, se lections, and thematic clusters. We are excited about the outcome of our collaboration and anticipate that, like the previous eight editions, this edition of The Norton Anthology of American Lit er a ture will continue to lead the “eld.

From the anthology’s inception in 1979, the editors have had three main aims: “rst, to pres ent a rich and substantial enough variety of works to enable teachers to build courses according to their own vision of American literary history (thus, teachers are offered more authors and more se lections than they will prob ably use in any one course); second, to make the anthol- ogy self- suf”cient by featuring many works in their entirety along with extensive se lections for individual authors; third, to balance traditional interests with developing critical concerns in a way that allows for the com- plex, rigorous, and capacious study of American literary traditions. As early as 1979, we anthologized work by Anne Bradstreet, Mary Rowlandson, Sarah Kemble Knight, Phillis Wheatley, Margaret Fuller, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Frederick Douglass, Sarah Orne Jewett, Kate Chopin, Mary E. Wilkins Freeman, Booker T. Washington, Charles W. Chesnutt, Edith Wharton,

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W. E. B. Du Bois, and other writers who were not yet part of a standard canon. Yet we never shortchanged writers— such as Franklin, Emerson, Whitman, Hawthorne, Melville, Dickinson, Hemingway, Fitzgerald, and Faulkner— whose work many students expected to read in their American lit er a ture courses, and whom most teachers then and now would not think of doing without.

The so- called canon wars of the 1980s and  1990s usefully initiated a review of our understanding of American lit er a ture, a review that has enlarged the number and diversity of authors now recognized as contributors to the totality of American lit er a ture. The traditional writers look dif fer ent in this expanded context, and they also appear dif fer ent according to which of their works are selected. Teachers and students remain committed to the idea of the literary— that writers strive to produce artifacts that are both intellectually serious and formally skillful— but believe more than ever that writers should be understood in relation to their cultural and historical situations. We address the complex interrelationships between lit er a ture and history in the volume introductions, author headnotes, chronologies, and some of the footnotes. As in previous editions, we have worked with detailed suggestions from many teachers on how best to pres ent the authors and se lections. We have gained insights as well from the students who use the anthology. Thanks to questionnaires, face- to- face and phone discus- sions, letters, and email, we have been able to listen to those for whom this book is intended. For the Ninth Edition, we have drawn on the careful commentary of over 240 reviewers and reworked aspects of the anthology accordingly.

Our new materials continue the work of broadening the canon by repre- senting thirteen new writers in depth, without sacri”cing widely assigned writers, many of whose se lections have been reconsidered, reselected, and expanded. Our aim is always to provide extensive enough se lections to do the writers justice, including complete works wherever pos si ble. Our Ninth Edition offers complete longer works, including Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter and Kate Chopin’s The Awakening, and such new and recently added works as Margaret Fuller’s The Great Lawsuit, Abraham Cahan’s Yekl: A Tale of the New York Ghetto, Nella Larsen’s Passing, Katherine Anne Porter’s Pale Horse, Pale Rider, Nathanael West’s The Day of the Locust, and August Wilson’s Fences. Two complete works— Eugene O’Neill’s Long Day’s Journey into Night and Tennessee Williams’s A Streetcar Named Desire— are exclu- sive to The Norton Anthology of American Lit er a ture. Charles Brockden Brown, Louisa May Alcott, Upton Sinclair, and Junot Díaz are among the writers added to the prior edition, and to this edition we have introduced John Rollin Ridge, Constance Fenimore Woolson, George Saunders, and Natasha Tretheway, among others. We have also expanded and in some cases recon”gured such central “gures as Franklin, Hawthorne, Dickin- son, Twain, and Hemingway, offering new approaches in the headnotes, along with some new se lections. In fact, the headnotes and, in many cases, se lections for such frequently assigned authors as William Bradford, Wash- ington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, William Cullen Bryant, Lydia Maria Child, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Mark Twain, William Dean Howells, Henry James, Kate

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Chopin, W. E. B. Du Bois, Edith Wharton, Willa Cather, and William Faulkner have been revised, updated, and in some cases entirely rewritten in light of recent scholarship. The Ninth Edition further expands its se lections of women writers and writers from diverse ethnic, racial, and regional backgrounds— always with attention to the critical acclaim that recognizes their contributions to the American literary rec ord. New and recently added writers such as Samson Occom, Jane Johnston Schoolcraft, John Rollin Ridge, and Sarah Winnemucca, along with the “gures repre- sented in “Voices from Native Amer i ca,” enable teachers to bring early Native American writing and oratory into their syllabi, or should they pre- fer, to focus on these se lections as a freestanding unit leading toward the moment after 1945 when Native writers fully entered the mainstream of literary activity.

We are pleased to continue our popu lar innovation of topical gatherings of short texts that illuminate the cultural, historical, intellectual, and literary concerns of their respective periods. Designed to be taught in a class period or two, or used as background, each of the sixteen clusters consists of brief, carefully excerpted primary and (in one case) secondary texts, about six to ten per cluster, and an introduction. Diverse voices— many new to the anthology— highlight a range of views current when writers of a par tic u lar time period were active, and thus allow students better to understand some of the large issues that were being debated at par tic u lar historical moments. For example, in “Slavery, Race, and the Making of American Lit er a ture,” texts by David Walker, William Lloyd Garrison, Angelina Grimké, Sojourner Truth, James M. Whit”eld, and Martin R. Delany speak to the great paradox of pre– Civil War Amer i ca: the contradictory rupture between the realities of slavery and the nation’s ideals of freedom.

The Ninth Edition strengthens this feature with eight new and revised clusters attuned to the requests of teachers. To help students address the controversy over race and aesthetics in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, we have revised a cluster in Volume C that shows what some of the leading critics of the past few de cades thought was at stake in reading and interpret- ing slavery and race in Twain’s canonical novel. New to Volume A is “American Lit er a ture and the Va ri e ties of Religious Expression,” which includes se lections by Elizabeth Ashbridge, John Woolman, and John Marrant, while Volume B offers “Science and Technology in the Pre– Civil War Nation.” Volume C newly features “Becoming American in the Gilded Age,” and we continue to include the useful “Modernist Manifestos” in Volume D. We have added to the popu lar “Creative Non”ction” in Volume E new se lections by David Foster Wallace and Hunter S. Thompson, who join such writers as Jamaica Kincaid and Joan Didion.

The Ninth Edition features an expanded illustration program, both of the black-and-white images, 145 of which are placed throughout the volumes, and of the color plates so popu lar in the last two editions. In selecting color plates— from Elizabeth Graham’s embroidered map of Washington, D.C., at the start of the nineteenth century to Jeff Wall’s “After ‘Invisible Man’ ” at the beginning of the twenty- “rst— the editors aim to provide images relevant to literary works in the anthology while depicting arts and artifacts representa- tive of each era. In addition, graphic works— segments from the colonial

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children’s classic The New- Eng land Primer and from Art Spiegelman’s canonical graphic novel, Maus, and a facsimile page of Emily Dickinson manuscript, along with the many new illustrations— open possibilities for teaching visual texts.

Period- by- Period Revisions

Volume A, Beginnings to 1820. Sandra M. Gustafson, the new editor of Volume A, has substantially revised the volume. Prior editions of Volume A were broken into two historical sections, with two introductions and a dividing line at the year 1700; Gustafson has dropped that arti”cial divide to tell a more coherent and duid story (in her new introduction) about the variety of American lit er a tures during this long period. The volume continues to feature narratives by early Eu ro pean explorers of the North American continent as they encountered and attempted to make sense of the diverse cultures they met, and as they sought to justify their aim of claiming the territory for Eu ro pe ans. These are precisely the issues foregrounded by the revised cluster “First Encounters: Early Eu ro pean Accounts of Native Amer i ca,” which gathers writings by Hernán Cortés, Samuel de Champlain, Robert Juet, and others, including the newly added Thomas Harriot. In addition to the standing material from The Bay Psalm Book, we include new material by Roger Williams; additional poems by Annis Boudinot Stockton; Abigail Adams’s famous letter urging her husband to “Remember the Ladies”; an additional se lection from Olaudah Equiano on his post- emancipation travels; and Charles Brockden Brown’s “Memoirs of Carwin the Biloquist” (the complete “prequel” to his “rst novel, Wieland). We continue to offer the complete texts of Rowlandson’s enormously induential A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, Benjamin Franklin’s Autobiography (which remains one of the most compelling works on the emergence of an “American” self), Royall Tyler’s popu lar play The Contrast, and Hannah Foster’s novel The Coquette, which uses a real- life tragedy to meditate on the proper role of well- bred women in the new republic and testi”es to the existence of a female audience for the popu lar novels of the period. New to this volume is Washington Irving, a writer who looks back to colonial history and forward to Jacksonian Amer i ca. The inclusion of Irving in both Volumes A and B, with one key overlapping se lection, points to con- tinuities and changes between the two volumes.

Five new and revised thematic clusters of texts highlight themes central to Volume A. In addition to “First Encounters,” we have included “Native American Oral Lit er a ture,” “American Lit er a ture and the Va ri e ties of Reli- gious Expression,” “Ethnographic and Naturalist Writings,” and “Native American Eloquence: Negotiation and Re sis tance.” “Native American Oral Lit er a ture” features creation stories, trickster tales, oratory, and poetry from a spectrum of traditions, while “Native American Eloquence” collects speeches and accounts by Canassatego and Native American women (both new to the volume), Pontiac, Chief Logan (as cited by Thomas Jefferson), and Tecumseh, which, as a group, illustrate the centuries- long pattern of initial peaceful contact between Native Americans and whites mutating into bitter and violent condict. This cluster, which focuses on Native Americans’ points of view, complements “First Encounters,” which focuses on Eu ro pean

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colonizers’ points of view. The Native American presence in the volume is further expanded with increased repre sen ta tion of Samson Occom, which includes an excerpt from his sermon at the execution of Moses Paul, and the inclusion of Sagoyewatha in “American Lit er a ture and the Va ri e ties of Religious Expression.” Strategically located between the Congregational- ist Protestant (or late- Puritan) Jonathan Edwards and the Enlightenment “gure Franklin, this cluster brings together works from the perspectives of the major religious groups of the early …Read more

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