U.S. Copyright Law (title 17 of U.S. code) governs the reproduction and redistribution of copyrighted material. Downloading this document for the purpose of redistribution is prohibited. PLANNING FOR PUBLIC RELATIONS AND MARKETING 6™ EDITION LAURIE J. WILSON, APR, Fellow PRSA Brigham Young University JOSEPH D. OGDEN Brigham Young University Kendall Hunt publishing company Cover images used under license from Shutterstock, Inc. Kendall Hunt publishing company www.kendallhunt.com Send all inquiries to: 4050 Westmark Drive Dubuque, IA 52004-1840 Copyright 1995,1997, 2000 by Laurie J. Wilson Copyright 2004, 2008, 2015 by Kendall Hunt Publishing Company ISBN 978-1-4652-9774-7 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. Printed in the United States of America 128 5b chapters Messages, strategies and tactics Figure 8.1_________________________________________________ Formula for writing an effective strategy A strategy is an approach, not a list of tasks. Strategies are public-specific and identify a channel or group of related channels you will use to reach a target public to accomplish an objective by appealing to the public’s self-interests. Formula: Action verb the target public through communications channet(s) that the objective will satisfy the target public’s self-interests. Example: Convince the Orange County Commissioners through in-person meetings with company officials and engineers that approving the new plant will have a significant positive economic impact on the community In communicating with an organization’s publics, the strategies are the ap­ proaches to reaching a designated public for a particular purpose with the message that will inform or motivate that public. There are many different ways to craft a strategy. Figure 8.1 provides a proven formula for writing an effective strategy. The tactics that support each strategy identify in greater detail the specific tasks required to send your messages (e.g., blog posts, tweets, employee meetings, newsletter articles, payroll envelope stuffers, special events and emails from the company president). Tactics are strategy-specific because they support a single strat­ egy targeted at a particular public. O O^CHANNEL The conduit or medium through which messages are sent to a specific public to accomplish a specific purpose. As we said earlier, your strategy for message delivery is public-specific. In other words, you don’t determine how you are going to send a message until you know who you are trying to reach and what you are trying to tell them. The strategy inher­ ently identifies the public, and then addresses what you are trying to do in support of your objectives and the channel you propose to use to send the appeal. Informational versus motivational strategies Strategies directly support the objectives by identifying what action or behavior is desired. The action part of a strategy may be informational or motivational. Infor­ mational strategies (also known as awareness or educational strategies) lay a signifi­ cant foundation of information for the motivational strategies that ask the key public to act in some way. As with objectives, it may not be necessary to have a separate informational strategy. If a public is already sufficiently educated and is latently ready to act, necessary information can be carried by the motivational strategy to avoid the risk of fragmenting your strategies and messages. All motivational strategies will con­ tain some information messages either in separate tactics or within each tactic. A tactic that appeals for a citizen’s vote will almost always include some information chapter 8 Messages, strategies and tactics 129 to justify the action. Your job is to determine whether a separate informational strategy is necessary for that public. If there is a significant lack of knowledge and understanding, you probably need an informational strategy to lay a foundation before you can implement strategies to motivate behavior. If the information is already pervasive and people just need to be reminded, the informational tactics within a motivational strategy will be sufficient. For example, many people still do not understand that many mental illnesses — like depression — have a physiological cause that must be addressed with medication. Any effort to motivate people with mental illness to see a doctor would require creat­ ing a better informed public environment. But to motivate people to give blood, you may only need to tell them where and when to show up. Virtually everyone under­ stands the need and the process. As you know, objectives always require a metric of some kind. Each objective must specify improvement that can be measured. The action identified in a public­ specific strategy may also be stated in measurable terms. While not all strategies will detail the action this specifically, it may be necessary for some to do so. If a campaign supporting a local municipal bond requires 55 percent of the vote to pass, public-specific strategies may break that overall percentage down into manageable pieces for each public. A 55 percent overall vote may translate to 85 percent of busi­ ness leaders, 65 percent of white-collar workers, 45 percent of blue-collar workers and 58 percent of stay-at-home parents. The strategies for each public may include these specific measurements to support the overall objective. Determining the right channel or group of channels to send the message in a strategy is dependent upon both the message itself and the public being targeted. Take a look around. Some marketing and communications strategies have become so pervasive in our society that we don’t give them a second thought. What has be­ come the almost exclusive strategy to market beer to an age-segmented male audience? The primary strategy is to use humor and celebrity athletes, and the channel is to use sporting events to deliver beer-drinking messag­ es to that target public. This channel has literally hun­ dreds of potential tactics to carry the message. What is the predominant fundraising strategy of your local United Way? It is an annual campaign that leverages workplace peer pressure. The main channel is work­ place communication from which you can select specific tactics such as personal invitations from management, department competitions, posters and personalized emails. United Way annual campaign messages are focused at a specific public with the ability to give using tactics that overlap and reinforce one another to accomplish the purpose. Another example is an objective to double participation in educational pro­ grams for disabled children. Parents of disabled children would be a key public. They would require an informational strategy to inform them of the resources available and a motivational strategy to persuade them to tap into these resources. © Action Sports Photography/Shutterstock.com Choosing strategic channels NASCAR driver Kasey Kahne watches cars practice at the Food City 500 race in Bristol, Tenn. 130 chapter 8 Messages, strategies and tactics Message design, strategies and tactics Once the Arizona State Department of Health has identified which key publics need to be motivated to meet the challenge faced by the re­ cent outbreak of bubonic plague in rural areas, the state must develop effective message design and delivery for each public. This example will cover message design, strategies and tactics for outdoor recreationalists. OUTDOOR RECREATIONALISTS’ MESSAGE DESIGN Primary message one: You can have many more seasons of outdoor fun by practicing smart plague prevention. Secondary messages: • Bubonic plague is a deadly disease transmitted by fleas that are often carried by animals and rodents in rural areas. This plague is believed to be the cause of the Black Death that swept through Europe in the 14th century. • The plague has been found in rodents living in rural areas of the state. • To stay healthy and safe, always use insect repellent containing DEET applied to both skin and clothing when in the outdoors. Stay away from debris and other areas where rodents may hide. Never touch or handle wild animals or rodents. Wear protective clothing as appropriate. • Tell your friends about the outbreak, and encourage them to prevent the spread of the plague. • Go to www.AZfightsplague.org for more information. Primary message two: Know the symptoms of plague infection and seek immediate medical attention if you have any symptoms. Your life depends upon it. Secondary messages: • Plague manifests itself with flu-like symptoms such as aches, fever and chills. • The most obvious symptom of bubonic plague is an infection of the lymph glands, which become swollen and painful. • Without treatment, bubonic plague kills about two out of three infect­ ed humans. • People potentially infected with the plague need immediate treatment and should be given antibiotics within 24 hours of the first symptoms to prevent death. • Plague can be successfully treated with antibiotics if caught early. • Tell your friends and encourage them to immediately see a doctor if they have symptoms. • Go to www.AZfightsplague.org for more information. chapter 8 Messages, strategies and tactics OUTDOOR RECREATIONALISTS’ MESSAGE DELIVERY Strategy one: Raise awareness among outdoor recreationalists of the bubonic plague threat and prevention through retailers of recreation products and rental equipment outlets. Tactics: 1. Letter from state health director and governor explaining threat and asking for their cooperation and participation in an awareness and prevention campaign. 2. Follow-up calls to retailers and rental outlets to encourage participation in the AZ Fights Plague campaign. 3. Information kits containing: a. Posters to be displayed in stores. b. Flyers to be distributed as bag stuffers with each purchase. c. Fact sheet for employees with suggested preventive measures and a list of suggested products. 4. Links to participating retailers on the www.AZfightsplague.org website and Facebook page. Strategy two: Raise awareness among outdoor recreationalists of the risk of plague in certain areas through targeted recreational venues. Tactics: 1. Signs prominently placed at trailheads, campsites and other recreational venues with QR code link to AZ Fights Plague website. 2. Posters at fee stations and information booths. 3. Flyers distributed by park rangers and venue employees at fee stations, information booths and park shops and restaurants. 4. Information and AZ Fights Plague links on official BLM, Forest Service and state and National Park Services reservation and permit websites as part of the purchase process. Strategy three: Use social media to motivate outdoor recreationalists to employ plague prevention behaviors and seek immediate medical treat­ ment when necessary. Tactics: 1. Launch official Arizona Fights Plague website at www. AZfightsplague.org, which includes: a. Fact sheet about bubonic plague. b. Map showing areas where plague has been confirmed. c. Preventive measures checklist. d. Bubonic plague infection warning signs. e. Medical treatment options. (.Continued’) 131 132 chapter 8 Messages, strategies and tactics Message design, strategies and tactics {continued”) f. g. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Link to YouTube AZ Fights Plague video. Infographic about plague risks, prevention and how to identify symptoms. h. FAQs. i. Participating retailer links with downloadable posters and flyers. j. Links to recreationalists’ blog posts. Set up Facebook page featuring news and information (similar to website) on plague and plague prevention linking to participating retailers and rental outlets. Smart media release to recreational bloggers and local TV/cable recreational shows on plague, symptoms, treatment and prevention. Links to Facebook page and official plague website on state and county venue sites, as well as on websites of groups, clubs and associations organized around outdoor recreational activities such as four-wheeling, rock climbing, hiking and mountain biking. YouTube video about plague prevention and warning signs, which can be shared through social media channels. Infographic about plague risks, prevention and how to identify symptoms. An informational strategy for this public would be to increase awareness of the resources available to parents of disabled children through a health fair sponsored by the state that showcases the services available to them. Tactics would probably include things like printed materials, videos, websites, Facebook groups and other tactics available at or publicized by the fair. A motivational strategy would be to persuade parents of disabled children to sign up for one or more of the state’s free health services through one-on-one con­ sultations with health care professionals. Tactics for this strategy might include email invitations to meet, referrals from health care professionals and an in-home consultation sign-up at the health fair. As we’ve already seen, opinion leader influence is best exerted by people the parents perceive to be operating credibly in a relevant issue environment. In the above example, nurses and other health care providers would have high credibility. Peers — in this case, other parents with disabled children — would also have very high credibility. Volunteer PTA leaders may also wield significant influence with this key public. Design strategies and tactics so that you can use opinion leaders to both inform and motivate your key publics. The channel stipulated in a strategy should be the best way to get the message to the public for the outlined purpose (e.g., health fair, workplace communication or opinion leaders). In order to be sufficiently planned, each strategy requires the de­ velopment of specific tactics within the channel (communication tools like signage chapters Messages, strategies and tactics 133 and T-shirts at staged events, brochures and personalized emails in the workplace and meetings with printed collateral material or tablet presentations for opinion leaders). How channels help focus your tactics The tactics specify the communication tools within the channel more precisely. In the previous example, one of your tactics might be to create an app for par­ ents of disabled children that explains all of the services available to them. Other tactics could be an infographic, video or printed brochure. Perhaps a follow-up tactic would also be helpful, such as an email survey following the fair to see how beneficial it was and what parents learned. By focusing tactics within a specific channel, you ensure that members of the key public will receive the message at least once, but likely more than once. Such focused overlap makes it more certain the message will be selected to be perceived, retained and acted upon. The latest research suggests that a person must be exposed to a message three or four times before it is remembered. The point is that you must carefully consider your public in determining the best ways to reach them. How a particular public best receives a certain type of mes­ sage for a specific purpose is the relevant question. You must also carefully consider the message being sent to ensure the channels and media selected are appropriate for the message. It is critically important to recognize that the effective and extensive use of the mass media to communicate with target audiences mostly belongs to past decades. While mass media can still be highly effective in generating name recognition, their information-disseminating utility is not as great as before because of the prolifera­ tion of options and declining trust. In the Golin/Harris 2002 Trust Index, the communications business sectors all had negative trust scores (Golin, p. 240). Of them all, public relations had the least of the negative scores (-31), followed by journalism (-38) and then advertising/marketing (-41). The situation isn’t much better for the media today. In the 2014 Edelman Trust Barometer, media ranked seventh among eight in­ dustry categories on trust. Only banks came in be­ hind the media. While mass media channels have their place, in an environment where media are not trusted, it is unwise to rely on them too heavily. In fact, with peers or “someone like me” being among the most credible sources of information today, social media has largely overtaken traditional media as the best channel 

Do you have a similar assignment and would want someone to complete it for you? Click on the ORDER NOW option to get instant services at essayloop.com. We assure you of a well written and plagiarism free papers delivered within your specified deadline.