Gender • Class QUESTIONS WHEN TO USE PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS • When quoting a text verbatim • When summarizing facts & ideas from a source • When paraphrasing a source PARENTHETICAL CITATION • In MLA documentation style, you acknowledge your sources by keying brief parenthetical citations in your text to an alphabetical list of works that appears at the end of the paper. • The parenthetical citation that concludes the following sentence is typical of MLA style … In-text citation when the author has not been mentioned … “Notes of a Native Son” (1955), opens with a declarative sentence: “On the 29th of July, in 1943, my father died” (Baldwin 50). The author’s creative nonfiction or his essay weaves his relationship with his father alongside the troubles in Harlem alongside the author’s relationship with his nation. Rather than offering a solution, the author appears to pose a concept or an idea: “The first idea was acceptance, the acceptance, totally without rancor, of life as it is, and men as they are: in the light of this idea, it goes without saying that injustice is a commonplace” (Baldwin 70). In-text citation when the author has been mentioned … In “Notes of a Native Son” (1955), James Baldwin opens with a declarative sentence: “On the 29th of July, in 1943, my father died” (50). Baldwin’s creative nonfiction or his essay weaves his relationship with his father alongside the troubles in Harlem alongside Baldwin’s relationship with his nation. Rather than offering a solution, Baldwin appears to pose a concept or an idea: “The first idea was acceptance, the acceptance, totally without rancor, of life as it is, and men as they are: in the light of this idea, it goes without saying that injustice is a commonplace” (70). • A citation in MLA style contains only enough information to enable readers to find the source in the works-cited list. • If the author’s name is mentioned in the text, only the page number appears in the citation. • For the in-text citation used from Baldwin’s creative nonfiction article “Notes of a Native Son” the works cited would look like … Works Cited Baldwin, James. “Notes of a Native Son.” 1955. 50 Essays: A Portable Anthology. Fourth Edition. Ed. Samuel Cohen. New York: St. Martin’s, 2011: (50-71). Print. WHEN SUMMARIZING FACTS AND IDEAS FROM A SOURCE (OR PARAPHRASING): • It was the spring in 1963 when Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested in Birmingham, Alabama during a demonstration that he organized (“Martin Luther King Jr.” n. pag.). While in the Birmingham jail, “King was personally criticized by black and white clergy alike for taking risks and endangering the children who attended the demonstration” (“Martin Luther King Jr.” n. pag.). It was during this time-period while in the Birmingham jail that King wrote “Letter from Birmingham Jail” (1963). Works Cited “Martin Luther King Jr.” Bio. A&E Television Networks, 2015. Web. 15 January 2015. FORMAT OF THE LIST OF WORKS CITED • The works cited appears at the end of the paper • Begin the list on a new page and number each page, continuing the page numbers of the text • For example, if the text of your research paper ends on page 10, the works-cited list begins on page 11 • Centre the title: Works Cited • Begin each entry flush with the left margin; if an entry runs more than one line, indent the subsequent line or lines one-half inch (or five spaces from the left margin) • Alphabetize entries in the list of works cited by the author’s last name QUESTIONS CONCLUSION • The conclusion will often reiterate some of the points in the first paragraph— reminding your reader what you set out to do, how you set out to do it, and closing with how you were successful in proving, discussing, arguing, comparing, etc. QUESTIONS WRITING A UNIVERSITY ESSAY— • What may be new to the students is the expectation that the essay should be, above all, an exercise in thinking. • The purpose of an essay is to examine and interpret a body of material. • The essay will usually examine the why and how of the subject. COMMON ERRORS IN UNDERGRADUATE PAPERS • Wandering Away from your Primary Material • Ensure that your essay remains on track • Do not stray from your material • Root yourself within the material • Wandering Away from your topic or thesis • Ensure that you do not leave your topic or thesis behind COMMON GRAMMATICAL ERRORS • ALWAYS READ & RE-READ YOUR ESSAY • Run-ons • Fragments • Spelling and/or typos • WATCH FOR ERRORS, WHICH YOU CAN EASILY CATCH • Does your sentence go on for four or more lines? Why? • Does your sentence have a subject, a noun, and a verb? • Are you spelling the names of authors and places correctly? • Watch typographical errors that your computer program will not catch (there, their, they’re or two, too, to) COMMON ERRORS IN PUNCTUATION • Semi-colons • A semi-colon separates a long list of words which also contain commas to enable the read to follow the sentence easily • A semi-colon separates two complete sentences that are linked by thought or theme • Apostrophes • Contractions are not permissible in academic papers DO NOT use them (can’t, won’t, isn’t) • Ensure you are using possessives and plurals correctly (the boy’s hat, the boys’ hats, the baby’s bib, the babies’ bibs) AVOID • Blanket statements • The Hells Angels Motorcycle Club is dangerous and violent. • Generalizations • Lana Del Rey’s “Ride” relies upon a questionable depiction of bikers as outlaws, as living within the margins of society, and as affectionate and caring towards young women. • Lana Del Rey masters the use of symbols, and her references to wavering cigarette smoke, majestic war bonnets, and the American flag resound throughout her thought-provoking video. • The gut-wrenching tragedy of the young, broken, Indigenous woman as portrayed by Lana Del Rey in “Ride” reverberates throughout her official music video from 2012. Indeed, we can still see her pensive sadness as she wraps herself in the symbol of her country. • Is Lana Del Rey aware that her music video “Ride” (Anthony Mendler, director) suggests that cigarettes, cheap beer, riding on the back of a Harley Davidson with a washed-up old guy is romanticized? • Comments that are more suitable for a book review • Melodramatic sentiments and/or statements • Open-ended questions that you will not or cannot answer CONSIDER • General Statement • Lana Del Rey’s “Ride” (2012) is about bad choices. • What about? • Lana Del Rey’s official music video “Ride” (2012) exposes a romantic vision of inequities between men and women especially between older men and young women implying young, Indigenous women have choices rather than a marked imbalance based upon intergenerational trauma, physical and sexual abuse, mental and emotional abuse, and poverty. REMEMBER The purpose of your essay is to examine and interpret a body of material QUESTIONS NEXT WEEK (REMOTE) Research Essay Assignment is due 14 April 2100 (9PM) | 30%
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