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each answer must be in own words and 1 or 2 paragraphs:

1. In class we discussed the three main characteristics of the Culture Industry. The third characteristic is: “Popular Culture can keep oppositional cultures at bay by incorporating resistance before it can find traction”. Explain what this means, and how it works, using an example from mass culture or pop culture to illustrate your point

2. In class, we discussed the importance of encoding and decoding. Explain polysemy, and how it impacts the negotiated decoding position. Give at least one example

3. In class and your readings we discussed Kingwell’s “8 Myths of Television”. In your answer 1) explain what Kingwell means by “Television is a Neutral Medium“, then 2) discuss how the myth has been changed due to technological convergence. (For example: has it been enhanced or demystified?).

4. In our discussion of Political Economy of Communications, we looked at three Canadian Laws aimed at balancing globalization and globalism. Explain how the Investment Canada Act relates to globalism.

links to influence/leadership online • Blurred boundaries of cultural consumption and cultural production as forms of communication. Reshapes how we understand roles of identity construction and representation. Behavior and social settings • Examine relationships in and between social networks for culture-level examinations of behaviours, trends, attitudes • IE – do members of political network suggest relational connection to other social issues? Relational Patterns Influence and Leadership • What is needed to secure and amplify influence within networked environment? • Examine relationship between need to ground influence or momentum within virtual communities to live material events • Performative vs. substantial activism using social media communication? Memes are thought to compete for attention through imitation and iteration: Memes (more next week!) • Memes are “understood as cultural information that passes along from person to person, yet gradually scales into a shared social phenomenon.” • They “reproduce by various means of imitation.” • They are interesting because of “their diffusion through competition and selection.” POWER AND SOCIAL CHANGE Social media and Action Collective Action • Communication technologies historically connected to sites of revolution • They change the game of who, how and when people can communicate • Think of mobility (radio, phones) and potential for collective action Census flash mob dance on Times Square COURTNEY GUARINO • SEPTEMBER 24, 2020 “ These networks suggest that digital activism has entered a second act, in which the tools of the Internet have been increasingly integrated into the hard-won structure of older movements. Though, as Jane Hu, Aug 2020 networked protest grows in scale and popularity, it still risks being hijacked by the mainstream . Any urgent circulation of information —the same memes filtering through your Instagram stories, the same looping images retweeted into your timeline —can be numbing , … You know something has gone wrong when the San Francisco 49ers post a #BlackoutTuesday box. … the discourse of Black struggle remains open to aggressive co-optation. “The Second Act of Social-Media Activism Has the Internet become better at mediating change?” “SOCIAL MEDIA IS THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE OF THE NEW BODY POLITIC” Hashtags as “connective structure” • Sites of identification and connection • But also sites of contest and negotiation • Have to be managed and controlled Cdn Left Media: “movement demanding greater economic equality” Alternate Narratives Occupy Cdn Right Media: Social media: “rag-tag ne’er do Citizen stories of wells with vague concerns about invalid goals” wealth gap Shared Awareness = Shared Power “ There is power in the knowledge that there are others who are willing to take a stand. It is a common thread in movements such as Occupy ” … (190) “social media does not replace taking to the streets” “Click to Like:” Slacktivism or Empowering Signal to Support Action Of ten energy and volume of voice and attention on social media does not Voice without action? translate into action or change • Potential gap or slippage in the interests driving the resonance online (Iran example) • Lack of back door organization and infrastructure to translate to active change (Occupy) • Social Media Communication allows for velocity of protest – from local issue to international attention very quickly Limits of a Shared Story • Gives huge momentum but limited resilience as social media conversations move on fast • How to tap into /contain this f lash of connection so it leads to real change? • Lack of leadership at Occupy was both empowering and limiting feature – movement held up by logic of spreadability Tufekci argued, “modern networked movements can scale up quickly and take care of all sorts of logistical tasks without building any substantial organizational capacity before the first protest or march.” The speed afforded by such protest is, however, as much its peril as its promise. After a swift expansion, spontaneous movements are often prone to what Tufekci calls “tactical freezes.” Because they are often leaderless, and can lack “both the culture and the infrastructure for making collective decisions,” they are left with little room to adjust strategies or negotiate demands. At a more fundamental level, social media’s corporate infrastructure makes such movements vulnerable to cooptation and censorship. “The Second Act of Social-Media Activism Has the Internet become better at mediating change?” Example of an industry response to changing nature of PR work: 5 Archetypes of Content Cloverleaf MOBILE SOCIAL SEARCH https://darmano.typepad.com/logic_emotion/2013/10/ content.html PR Goal: Develop “Strategies that extend the lifecycle of a Narrative” “Ecosystem Disruptions” that make storytelling different and challenging: • Social personalization – often mobile, content flowing through lens of friends • Media proliferation/fragmentation – infinite content, finite attention • Advertising Frustration – ad blocking, bots, changes to monitization Influence in Media Ecosystem: •Platforms are technology hubs where most content discovery now starts. These dominate the digital day and include social networks / messaging services, search engines and personalized news curators •Publishers are groups of content creators. These include traditional and digital-native news organizations, platformsavvy influencers plus content and digital experiences built by brands https://www.edelman.com/post/edelman-cloverleafforecast 1 Develop social storylines. 2 Embrace distributioncentric thinking. 3 4 Drive to earned media. Create a single narrative. 5 Focus on creating

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