Ethics and Strategies ▪ Publications allow native advertising (masked as editorial content) to support revenue ▪ Risk of enhancing conflation of information: promotion, news, entertainment. ▪ Experience of information gets more flat Content Advertising Content Advertising Content New York Times Tim’s roll up rim click Cat video Fake news from a bot Invite to post photo wearing TRU teeshirt How do we differentiate? • • • • Publisher content Sponsored content. Friend content. Journalism content. Does it matter? Who’s benefitting from all this flat content? “Social media is where consumers are having conversations today, and one of the most impactful by products to emerge is that of influencer marketing. Now, influencer marketing is part of the everyday marketing mix. At a high level, it is a form of branded engagement where marketers connect with those who boast prominent social footprints. The goal is to plug into new communities and connect the brand/product to new audiences through the voice and trusted relationships of said influencer. Consumers validate information through: ▪ trusted influence endorsement and demos ▪ Reviews ▪ networked community conversation It’s a lot of work to be a consumer these days. ▪ Simple consumer-generated media is created without prior request. • Consumer-solicited media, or participatory advertising, occurs when brands ask consumers to create, for example, their own advertisement. • Incentivized consumer-generated media offers prizes for submissions. • Consumer-fortified media result occurs when a professional advertisement sparks trusted consumer conversation. • Compensated consumer-generated media is a term used to describe paid bloggers and other arrangements. JOURNALISM AND SOCIAL MEDIA The challenges and paradoxes THIS WEEK • Paradox of news aggregation • The changing “value proposition” of journalism • Trust and agenda-setting PARADOX OF AGGREGATION Coddington: news aggregation is taking news from published sources, reshaping it, and republishing it in an abbreviated form” (p. 5). • Social media communication enables wider reach of stories • But wider reach involves “information accretion” Wider reach for story means lack of control over the goals and meaning of the story, which ‘evolve’ on the path through “audiences and platforms”. 2013 – Craft and Davis. 5 foundational democratic needs for Journalism: o Journalism informs, analyzes, interprets, and explains. o Journalism investigates. o Journalism creates public conversation. o Journalism helps generate social empathy. o Journalism encourages accountability. VALUE PROPOSITION • • Clearly online journalisms in all its diversity is a disruption of business models and so practices of broadcast journalism Within this, can we preserve the public interest function of journalism as a professional practice? Amy Guth. Changes in behaviour shift the practice: • • • Breaking news found through social media rather than direct reporting to journalists Need for ‘hypervigilant’ fact checking especially in incredibly fast news cycle Role of eyewitness – first hand accounts in multi-media; citizen live streams VALUES – SYMBOLIC AND CULTURAL CAPITAL If engagement is to be effective and meaningful, journalists must earn their audiences’ attention, build loyalty, and deepen trust while finding new revenue streams to subsidize the public-interest journalism that market forces have never supported anyway. – Jake Batsell (@jbatsell, Batsell, 2015) • Assumes responsibility of profession to adapt to new value economy • Assumption that ‘publicinterest’ journalism like government accountability has never been economically sustainable. TRUST AND AGENDA-SETTING • Journalism played/plays a gatekeeping function – influencing what people think about • Now the table is both vast and fractured through social media communication • Audience/audiences • Public discussion? HOW WE EVALUATE CREDIBILITY Informational Trust – “trust of news information” Interpersonal Trust – “trust of those who delivery the news” Institutional Trust – “trust of media corporations” — Williams, 2012 The basis of social media is informal conversation. Prospects want to be involved in a dialogue, not subjected to a stream of sales pitches. Even when no back-and-forth conversation is taking place, a company’s posts need to sound like human speech. (P. Miller, 2013, p. 92) ▪ As brands strive for social capital, what about the consumer? Are we being asked for more than we should? ▪ ▪ Are we getting a good deal in the exchange of capital? ▪ Are we getting value for our time/attention/money? ▪ Interactive two-way consumer/brand communication ▪ Conversations/connections/shared control vs. passive consumption of advertising content ▪ Highly measurable – behaviour data rivels value of conversion to sales. ▪ Indebted to demographic, geographic data for highly targeted direct exposure strategies ▪ About enabling relationship to accrue “earned exposure” vs one time advertising events Conversion: Turn interest into sale. S/M Conversion: Turn interest into Relationship Greg Satell – “Difference between helping and selling is just two letters” but these are key. “If you sell, customer today, help, create customer for life” Do you agree? ▪ Updated “marketing mix” ▪ Another example of evolving practice within the industry that is responsive to this shift to relationships and sustained valuebased exchange Richard Ettenson, Eduardo Conrado and Jonathan Knowles ▪ Risk management Strategy in an unstable communication environment ▪ Features of effective content ▪ Effective Tactics ▪ Have a formal “social care team” to engage emergent issues ▪ Have a Triage system for posts to design and implement guidelines, fi

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