1 Annotated Bibliography for Gender Differences in Communication Edward Thompson AMU COMM285 March 6, 2022 2 Gender Differences in Communication Annotated Bibliography According to the research findings, women and men are more prone to use distinct verbal communication styles than one another. Generally speaking, report talk is mostly used by men in expressing their views and points. In contrast, women mostly use rapport talk to express their feelings through words. The report style of communication is characterized by sharing factual information to solve a specific issue. In addition, women, according to research, are more sensitive than males to the interpersonal meanings that are sent between the lines in the communications they share with their partners, according to the results of studies. Cultural norms frequently place the onus on women to regulate intimacy or the degree they allow people to become close to them. The annotated bibliography uses five sources to formulate and compare gender differences in communication from various studies. Annotated Bibliography Sources Huang, L., Joshi, P., Wakslak, C., & Wu, A. (2021). Sizing up entrepreneurial potential: Gender differences in communication and investor perceptions of long-term growth and scalability. Academy of Management Journal, 64(3), 716-740. Huang and other scholars argue that the women generations have been reported to experience difficulties compared to male counterparts, particularly when getting money and resources, either materialistic or financial, to maintain and expand their companies. Huang uses case studies to analyze how discrepancies in financing results may be attributed to variations in how gender discrimination explain their initiatives, with female using more specific language than their male comparisons. We discover that abstract discourse influences investors’ judgments 3 of whether companies are geared towards scalability and long-term growth, influencing the chance of a venture receiving finance. We end by discussing the critical significance of communication style as a crucial mediating factor in shaping investor cognition. This article helps audiences understand the gender imbalances witnessed by Huang in communication channel studies. Gnambs, T. (2021). The development of gender differences in information and communication technology (ICT) literacy in middle adolescence. Computers in Human Behavior, 114, 106533. The fast development of contemporary communication and information mechanisms has significantly altered essentials of abilities required to communicate, engage, and work in a decent community properly. As a result, several nations have devised national programs to promote digital competencies in workplaces and schools. However, several studies have identified significant inter-individual variances in ICT literacy among teenagers despite this broad goal. The gender of the responders, in particular, has been recognized as a critical element. According to prevalent research and theory, cultural prejudices and beliefs may lead to gender inequalities in computer abilities and technology usage. Games stated that it is supposed to be noted that the gender differences in adolescents as observed in ICT literacy that occurred throughout middle adolescence were relatively tiny. As a result, future studies should determine whether the impact transitions in different age groups and samples. Furthermore, it is uncertain if the effect builds up over time, resulting in excessively unexpected gender disparities during the transition to maturity and beyond. Finally, no evidence was found for ideas about gender role orientations. Gender inequalities at ICT literacy were comparable across respondents who emphasized various preconceptions about men and women. 4 These findings do not support previous studies found. Strong correlations between gender stereotypes of endorsing students in different grades and domains or between changes in domainspecific skills of girls and boys and gender role orientations. This article presents methodological research conducted by Gnambs and co-relates to gender differences in a working situation, as witnessed from Gnambs research in an ICT working field where gender discrimination among young adults was evident. More discrimination was witnessed with the increasing ages in women and men. It is possible that certain ICT characteristics, such as informational and technological characteristics, are connected with various preconceptions. No gender discrimination should be expressed as all people are equal per technology. Barnett, M. D., Maciel, I. V., Johnson, D. M., & Ciepluch, I. (2021). Social anxiety and perceived social support: Gender differences and the mediating role of communication styles. Psychological Reports, 124(1), 70-87. Barnett agrees with Gnambs that lower perceived social support has been associated with social anxiety. There is some evidence that communication styles are used to discuss this association. Furthermore, a corpus of research has discovered gender variations in communication, exemplary social support, and social anxiety. This study aimed to compare social support and perceived anxiety and see if these interactions differed by gender. Due to certain expressions, social anxiety was connected with poorer social support in women and men. Women’s social anxiety was associated with decreased verbal aggression and more emotionality. Therapy should provide a safe space for socially anxious people to understand undependable talking skills and get the ability and confidence to apply them to increase and boost their support knowledge and intelligence. This article aims to get deeper into the details of social support linked to social anxiety and social support expressing lower expressiveness. 5 ÖZTUNÇ, M., & YILDIRIM, G. Gender Communication and Leadership: A Qualitative Research in Managerial Level. Türkiye İletişim Araştırmaları Dergisi, (38), 477-496. This article is essential in that as a consequence of women’s efforts throughout the years, more women compared to before are now getting into the labor sector and assuming top management positions; nonetheless, women’s presence in managerial processes remains limited in virtually all nations. Gender preconceptions or issues in gender communication might be identified as barriers to women’s job advancement. In this context, the goal of this study was to identify communication abilities and obstacles among senior managers based on behavioral patterns, gender communication language, and male and female leaders’ impressions of one another. The study used qualitative analysis based on semi-structured questionnaires to analyze how female and male CEOs assess one other. Instead of coding simply significant concepts, a grounded coding method with extensive interviews was used to understand better. Following the completion of the coding process, cluster analysis was used to investigate the commonalities of the codes, allowing for a thorough knowledge of gender inequalities across large-scale corporate businesses in Turkey. The findings suggest that gender-based roles and gender stereotypes in Turkish corporate enterprises are consistent with the literature and reveal unexpected trends. Although women’s understanding of their communication abilities has grown, it is clear that they still accept some gender stereotypes. Joshi, P. D., Wakslak, C. J., Appel, G., & Huang, L. (2020). Gender differences in communicative abstraction. Journal of personality and social psychology, 118(3), 417. In this article, Joshi and other scholars investigate differences in gender linguistics using a study design that involves posits that seeing a communicative audience as proximal rather than 6 distant enables audience and speakers to pose information more concretely. From a comparative analysis of previous research on the impact of communication in the distance, we discovered that in situations where the audience is defined as psychologically close, women speak more concretely than males. When speakers contemplate distance that affects the audience has been rendered salient, it leads to the erasing of gender variations that are considered salient. The scholars use studies to learn gender differences based on audience nature. This article is essential in implementing and conducting the research to get better results related to gender communication differences. Several studies are used to research that Scholars discovered that males communicate more abstractly than women in a written experimental scenario, a vast corpus of online blog postings, and real-world congressional speeches. When power changes are conducted experimentally and change witnessed, these gender disparities in speech abstraction appear. Joshi, in his research, agrees that differences in linguistic abstraction result from several interconnected processes, communication motives involving distance or proximity, audience distance and homogeneity perceptions, and powerful experience. This study uncovers early evidence that ladies’ propensity to participate in small social networks might mediate gender differences in linguistic abstraction. 7 References Barnett, M. D., Maciel, I. V., Johnson, D. M., & Ciepluch, I. (2021). Social anxiety and perceived social support: Gender differences and the mediating role of communication styles. Psychological Reports, 124(1), 70-87. Gnambs, T. (2021). The development of gender differences in information and communication technology (ICT) literacy in middle adolescence. Computers in Human Behavior, 114, 106533. Huang, L., Joshi, P., Wakslak, C., & Wu, A. (2021). Sizing up entrepreneurial potential: Gender differences in communication and investor perceptions of long-term growth and scalability. Academy of Management Journal, 64(3), 716-740. Joshi, P. D., Wakslak, C. J., Appel, G., & Huang, L. (2020). Gender differences in communicative abstraction. Journal of personality and social psychology, 118(3), 417. ÖZTUNÇ, M., & YILDIRIM, G. Gender Communication and Leadership: A Qualitative Research in Managerial Level. Türkiye İletişim Araştırmaları Dergisi, (38), 477-496.
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