list of suggested products. 4. Links to participating retailers on the website and Facebook page. Strategy two: Raise awareness among outdoor recreationalists of the risk of plague in certain areas through targeted recreational venues. Tactics: 1. Signs prominently placed at trailheads, campsites and other recreational venues with QR code link to AZ Fights Plague website. 2. Posters at fee stations and information booths. 3. Flyers distributed by park rangers and venue employees at fee stations, information booths and park shops and restaurants. 4. Information and AZ Fights Plague links on official BLM, Forest Service and state and National Park Services reservation and permit websites as part of the purchase process. Strategy three: Use social media to motivate outdoor recreationalists to employ plague prevention behaviors and seek immediate medical treat­ ment when necessary. Tactics: 1. Launch official Arizona Fights Plague website at www., which includes: a. Fact sheet about bubonic plague. b. Map showing areas where plague has been confirmed. c. Preventive measures checklist. d. Bubonic plague infection warning signs. e. Medical treatment options. (.Continued’) 131 132 chapter 8 Messages, strategies and tactics Message design, strategies and tactics {continued”) f. g. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Link to YouTube AZ Fights Plague video. Infographic about plague risks, prevention and how to identify symptoms. h. FAQs. i. Participating retailer links with downloadable posters and flyers. j. Links to recreationalists’ blog posts. Set up Facebook page featuring news and information (similar to website) on plague and plague prevention linking to participating retailers and rental outlets. Smart media release to recreational bloggers and local TV/cable recreational shows on plague, symptoms, treatment and prevention. Links to Facebook page and official plague website on state and county venue sites, as well as on websites of groups, clubs and associations organized around outdoor recreational activities such as four-wheeling, rock climbing, hiking and mountain biking. YouTube video about plague prevention and warning signs, which can be shared through social media channels. Infographic about plague risks, prevention and how to identify symptoms. An informational strategy for this public would be to increase awareness of the resources available to parents of disabled children through a health fair sponsored by the state that showcases the services available to them. Tactics would probably include things like printed materials, videos, websites, Facebook groups and other tactics available at or publicized by the fair. A motivational strategy would be to persuade parents of disabled children to sign up for one or more of the state’s free health services through one-on-one con­ sultations with health care professionals. Tactics for this strategy might include email invitations to meet, referrals from health care professionals and an in-home consultation sign-up at the health fair. As we’ve already seen, opinion leader influence is best exerted by people the parents perceive to be operating credibly in a relevant issue environment. In the above example, nurses and other health care providers would have high credibility. Peers — in this case, other parents with disabled children — would also have very high credibility. Volunteer PTA leaders may also wield significant influence with this key public. Design strategies and tactics so that you can use opinion leaders to both inform and motivate your key publics. The channel stipulated in a strategy should be the best way to get the message to the public for the outlined purpose (e.g., health fair, workplace communication or opinion leaders). In order to be sufficiently planned, each strategy requires the de­ velopment of specific tactics within the channel (communication tools like signage chapters Messages, strategies and tactics 133 and T-shirts at staged events, brochures and personalized emails in the workplace and meetings with printed collateral material or tablet presentations for opinion leaders). How channels help focus your tactics The tactics specify the communication tools within the channel more precisely. In the previous example, one of your tactics might be to create an app for par­ ents of disabled children that explains all of the services available to them. Other tactics could be an infographic, video or printed brochure. Perhaps a follow-up tactic would also be helpful, such as an email survey following the fair to see how beneficial it was and what parents learned. By focusing tactics within a specific channel, you ensure that members of the key public will receive the message at least once, but likely more than once. Such focused overlap makes it more certain the message will be selected to be perceived, retained and acted upon. The latest research suggests that a person must be exposed to a message three or four times before it is remembered. The point is that you must carefully consider your public in determining the best ways to reach them. How a particular public best receives a certain type of mes­ sage for a specific purpose is the relevant question. You must also carefully consider the message being sent to ensure the channels and media selected are appropriate for the message. It is critically important to recognize that the effective and extensive use of the mass media to communicate with target audiences mostly belongs to past decades. While mass media can still be highly effective in generating name recognition, their information-disseminating utility is not as great as before because of the prolifera­ tion of options and declining trust. In the Golin/Harris 2002 Trust Index, the communications business sectors all had negative trust scores (Golin, p. 240). Of them all, public relations had the least of the negative scores (-31), followed by journalism (-38) and then advertising/marketing (-41). The situation isn’t much better for the media today. In the 2014 Edelman Trust Barometer, media ranked seventh among eight in­ dustry categories on trust. Only banks came in be­ hind the media. While mass media channels have their place, in an environment where media are not trusted, it is unwise to rely on them too heavily. In fact, with peers or “someone like me” being among the most credible sources of information today, social media has largely overtaken traditional media as the best channel for messages. We are accustomed to segmenting publics for the purpose of persuasion. We have long recog­ nized that identifying a group of people who share common interests and lifestyles (and who may in­ teract with one another) is the best way to devise an appea

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