SIXTH EDITION Expert Public Speaking Advice, Now With Exceptional Digital Resources With expert advice unavailable elsewhere, and an easy-to-navigate format, A Speaker’s Guidebook is the essential resource for becoming a more effective speaker in the classroom, at work, and in the community. When accompanied by LaunchPad, this edition’s print and digital tools converge to address all facets of speech-making in captivating ways—from understanding core fundamentals to using technology for research and giving speeches online. LaunchPad’s new collection of speech videos (accompanied by questions) provides memorable examples of both effective and “needs improvement” techniques, while its adaptive quizzing program, LearningCurve, creates a personalized learning experience that adjusts to each individual’s strengths and study needs. Where Students Learn Get the most out of your book with LaunchPad, where video, audio, and activities with immediate feedback are available. Go to the inside back cover to learn how you can get access and look for these icons throughout the book. LearningCurve — game-like quizzing that adapts to what you already know and helps you master the concepts you need to learn. Video — more than 300 video clips and full-length videos that illustrate speech techniques, including five new full-length speeches and related speech clips. e-readings — additional resources and reference materials like visual guides and documentation help. “This is the quintessential public speaking text.”   — Donna Elkins, Jefferson Community and Technical College “Contemporary handbook; great for online or hybrid courses. Includes numerous checklists and tips boxes, which are a big hit with students. Works well as a reference book as students prepare their speeches, or refer back to in years to come . . . includes timely information on online presentations and the changing face of presentational speaking.” — Brandi Queensberry, Virginia Tech “Its design makes it easy to access, reference, and read about the world of public speaking. “ — Jennifer Hallet, Young Harris College Dan O’Hair | Rob Stewart | Hannah Rubenstein mech_ OHair-ASG6-SE-071714 GETTING STARTED WITH CONFIDENCE ORGANIZING AND OUTLINING pages 1–34 INTRODUCTIONS, CONCLUSIONS, AND LANGUAGE PUBLIC SPEAKING BASICS AUDIENCE ANALYSIS AND TOPIC SELECTION VOCAL AND NONVERBAL DELIVERY 6 Analyzing the Audience 7 Selecting a Topic and Purpose PRESENTATION AIDS 20 Using Presentation Aids in the Speech 21 Designing Presentation Aids 22 Using Presentation Software pages 269–308 pages 119–164 00_OHa_63536_IFC.indd 2 17 Methods of Delivery 18 The Voice in Delivery 19 The Body in Delivery pages 243–268 pages 77–118 SUPPORTING THE SPEECH 8 Developing Supporting Material 9 Finding Credible Print and Online Materials 10 Citing Sources in Your Speech 14 Developing the Introduction 15 Developing the Conclusion 16 Using Language to Style the Speech pages 213–242 pages 35–76 3 Managing Speech Anxiety 4 Listeners and Speakers 5 Ethical Public Speaking 11 Organizing the Body of the Speech 12 Types of Organizational Arrangements 13 Outlining the Speech pages 165–212 1 Becoming a Public Speaker 2 Giving It a Try: Preparing Your First Speech 21/10/14 2:11 PM FORMS OF SPEECHES Quick Access Menu pages 309–406 Using A Speaker’s Guidebook pages 407–460 23 The Informative Speech 24 The Persuasive Speech 25 Developing Arguments for the Persuasive Speech 26 Organizing the Persuasive Speech 27 Special Occasion Speeches • The index • A list of feature boxes and checklists • A list of sample speeches • A list of visual guides SPEAKING BEYOND THE SPEECH CLASSROOM 28 Preparing Online Presentations 29 Collaborating and Presenting in Groups 30 Business and Professional Presentations 31 Speaking in Other College Courses The menu to the left briefly displays the book’s content. Each menu box corresponds to a tabbed divider in the text. The dividers contain more detailed lists of contents in each section and are followed by “Speaker’s Reference” pages that offer executive-like summaries of the subsequent chapters. At the back of the book, you will find: Where Students Learn SAMPLE SPEECHES pages 461–482 Sample Visually Annotated Informative Speech Sample Visually Annotated Persuasive Speech Sample Special Occasion Speech Go to the interior back cover to learn how you can get access to LaunchPad and look for these icons throughout the book. pages 483–512 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd a Video—more than 300 video clips and full-length speech videos, including five new full-length speeches and related speech clips. E-readings—additional resources and reference materials, such as visual guides and documentation help. REFERENCE AND RESEARCH APPENDICES A Commonly Mispronounced Words B–C Documentation Styles: Chicago and APA D Glossary Digital Appendices E Question-and-Answer Sessions F Preparing for TV and Radio Communication G–I Documentation Styles: MLA, CBE/CSE, IEEE LearningCurve, an adaptive quizzing program. To Find Out More For more on using the book’s reference aids and digital tools, turn to “How to Use This Book” (p. v). 21/10/14 5:00 PM this page left intentionally blank 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd b 21/10/14 5:00 PM A SPEAKER’S GUIDEBOOK Text and Reference 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd i 21/10/14 5:00 PM this page left intentionally blank 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd ii 21/10/14 5:00 PM SIX TH E D I T I O N A SPEAKER’S GUIDEBOOK Text and Reference Dan O’Hair University of Kentucky Rob Stewart Texas Tech University Hannah Rubenstein Bedford/St. Martin’s Boston 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd iii ● New York 21/10/14 5:00 PM For Bedford/St. Martin’s Vice President, Editorial, Macmillan Higher Education Humanities: Edwin Hill Publisher for Communication: Erika Gutierrez Senior Developmental Editor: Lorraina Morrison Senior Production Editor: Pamela Lawson Senior Production Supervisor: Steven Cestaro Marketing Manager: Thomas Digiano Editorial Assistant: Joanna Kamouh Copy Editor: Eric Raetz Indexer: Mary White Text Permissions: Linda Winters Photo Permissions: Nick Ciani Text Design: Jerilyn Bockorick Cover Design: Marine Miller Composition: Cenveo Publisher Services Printing and Binding: Quad/Graphics Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2010, 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin’s All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except as may be expressly permitted by the applicable copyright statutes or in writing by the Publisher. Manufactured in the United States of America. 9 8 7 6 5 4 f e d c b a For information, write: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 75 Arlington Street, Boston, MA 02116 (617-399-4000) ISBN: 978-1-457-66353-6 (Student Edition) ISBN: 978-1-457-68980-2 (Student Edition with The Essential Guide to Rhetoric) Acknowledgments Text acknowledgments and copyrights appear at the back of the book on page 529, which constitute an extension of the copyright page. Art acknowledgments and copyrights appear on the same page as the art selections they cover. It is a violation of the law to reproduce these selections by any means whatsoever without the written permission of the copyright holder. At the time of publication all Internet URLs published in this text were found to accurately link to their intended website. If you do find a broken link, please forward the information to, so that it can be corrected for the next printing. 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd iv 21/10/14 5:00 PM How to Use This Book and Digital Resources A Speaker’s Guidebook: Text and Reference has been carefully designed to help you easily and quickly access the information you need to prepare speeches and presentations. The text may be used in a public speaking course, in other college courses, in your working life after college, and in your civic activities in your community. Digital tools such as adaptive quizzing and sample speech videos are integrated throughout the book and through the LaunchPad platform. See the inside back cover to learn more about access. The Main Menu and Table of Contents The twelve tab dividers (discussed in more detail on the next page) allow the book to flip open easily, and the book’s binding lets it lie flat. On the inside front cover you will find the Main Menu that offers a listing of the thirty-one chapters in the text, color-coded to the corresponding tab, and a visual link to help you find each one. For even more information or to find a specific topic, simply turn to the full table of contents on p. xxix. GETTING STARTED WITH CONFIDENCE ORGANIZING AND OUTLINING Quick Access Menu Using A Speaker’s Guidebook pages 407–460 • The index • A list of feature boxes and checklists • A list of sample speeches • A list of visual guides SPEAKING BEYOND THE SPEECH CLASSROOM pages 213–242 pages 35–76 pages 309–406 pages 1–34 14 Developing the Introduction 15 Developing the Conclusion 16 Using Language to Style the Speech 23 The Informative Speech 24 The Persuasive Speech 25 Developing Arguments for the Persuasive Speech 26 Organizing the Persuasive Speech 27 Special Occasion Speeches 28 Preparing Online Presentations 29 Collaborating and Presenting in Groups 30 Business and Professional Presentations 31 Speaking in Other College Courses The menu to the left briefly displays the book’s content. Each menu box corresponds to a tabbed divider in the text. The dividers contain more detailed lists of contents in each section and are followed by “Speaker’s Reference” pages that offer executive-like summaries of the subsequent chapters. At the back of the book, you will find: Where Students Learn AUDIENCE ANALYSIS AND TOPIC SELECTION SAMPLE SPEECHES VOCAL AND NONVERBAL DELIVERY 6 Analyzing the Audience 7 Selecting a Topic and Purpose pages 483–512 pages 269–308 pages 119–164 A Commonly Mispronounced Words B–C Documentation Styles: Chicago and APA D Glossary Digital Appendices E Question-and-Answer Sessions F Preparing for TV and Radio Communication G–I Documentation Styles: MLA, CBE/CSE, IEEE Go to the interior back cover to learn how you can get access to LaunchPad and look for these icons throughout the book. LearningCurve, an adaptive quizzing program. Video—more than 300 video clips and full-length speech videos, including five new full-length speeches and related speech clips. E-readings—additional resources and reference materials, such as visual guides and documentation help. REFERENCE AND RESEARCH APPENDICES PRESENTATION AIDS 20 Using Presentation Aids in the Speech 21 Designing Presentation Aids 22 Using Presentation Software Sample Visually Annotated Informative Speech Sample Visually Annotated Persuasive Speech Sample Special Occasion Speech pages 461–482 17 Methods of Delivery 18 The Voice in Delivery 19 The Body in Delivery pages 243–268 pages 77–118 SUPPORTING THE SPEECH 8 Developing Supporting Material 9 Finding Credible Print and Online Materials 10 Citing Sources in Your Speech FORMS OF SPEECHES INTRODUCTIONS, CONCLUSIONS, AND LANGUAGE PUBLIC SPEAKING BASICS 3 Managing Speech Anxiety 4 Listeners and Speakers 5 Ethical Public Speaking 11 Organizing the Body of the Speech 12 Types of Organizational Arrangements 13 Outlining the Speech pages 165–212 1 Becoming a Public Speaker 2 Giving It a Try: Preparing Your First Speech To Find Out More For more on using the book’s reference aids and digital tools, turn to “How to Use This Book” (p. v). v 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd v 21/10/14 5:00 PM vi How to Use This Book and Digital Resources The Tabs A Speaker’s Guidebook is divided into twelve tabbed sections that are arranged into four color banks—blue, orange, purple, and green. Each section opens with a tab divider; the front of the tab divider identifies the tab name and the chapters contained in that section. The back indicates chapter titles and detailed information about major topics covered. To find the specific information you want, look for the appropriate tab and open the book to it. FORMS OF SPEECHES (309–406) FORMS OF SPEECHES The back of each tab divider offers a table of contents for the chapters within that tabbed section. The Speaker’s Reference pages for the chapters within the section follow each tab divider. SPEAKER’S REFERENCE CHAPTER 23 The Informative Speech 322 Focus on Sharing Knowledge 322 c CHECKLIST Help Listeners Follow Along 324 Categories of Informative Speeches 325 Decide How to Convey the Information 326 Take Steps to Reduce Confusion 329 c CHECKLIST Strategies for Explaining Complex Information 330 Arrange Speech Points in a Pattern 331 c CHECKLIST Guidelines for Clearly Communicating Your Informative Message 333 c SAMPLE VISUALLY ANNOTATED INFORMATIVE SPEECH Freeganism: More Than a Free Lunch, DJ McCabe 333 Social Media, Social Identity, and Social Causes, Anna Davis 338 c SAMPLE VISUALLY ANNOTATED INFORMATIVE SPEECH CHAPTER 24 The Persuasive Speech 344 What Is a Persuasive Speech? 344 c CHECKLIST Conditions for Choosing a Persuasive Purpose 345 c ETHICALLY SPEAKING Persuasive Speeches Respect Audience Choices 345 Classical Persuasive Appeals: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos 346 c ETHICALLY SPEAKING Using Emotions Ethically 350 c CHECKLIST Displaying Ethos in the Persuasive Speech 352 Contemporary Persuasive Appeals: Needs and Motivations 352 c SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST Tips for Increasing Speaker Credibility 357 CHAPTER 25 Developing Arguments for the Persuasive Speech 358 What Is an Argument? 358 c ETHICALLY SPEAKING Engaging in Arguments in the Public Arena 360 Types of Claims Used in Persuasive Speeches 361 c A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE Addressing Culture in the Persuasive Speech 362 Types of Evidence 363 Types of Warrants 364 c CHECKLIST Testing the Strength of Your Evidence 364 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd vi 21/10/14 5:01 PM How to Use This Book and Digital Resources vii Speaker’s Reference Sections You may well find one of the most useful features of A Speaker’s Guidebook to be its Speaker’s Reference pages that immediately follow each tab divider. These pages provide executive summaries of the material covered within the subsequent chapters. A list of key terms in the chapters appears at the end of the Speaker’s Reference pages, just before the opening of the first chapter within that tabbed section. SPEAKER’S REFERENCE LearningCurve can help you review. Go to SPEAKER’S REFERENCE Speaker’s Reference pages offer a quick review of the most important information in subsequent chapters through summaries and key terms. FORMS OF SPEECHES CHAPTER 23 The Informative Speech Focus on Sharing Knowledge and Demonstrating Relevance • Strive to enlighten (informative intent) rather than to advocate (persuasive intent). (p. 322) • Use audience analysis to determine information needs. (p. 321) • Show the audience why the topic is relevant to them. (p. 323) • Present new and interesting information. (p. 323) • Look for ways to increase understanding. (p. 324) Identify the Subject Matter of Your Informative Speech To refer to the full in-text coverage of a topic, simply flip to the page indicated in parentheses. • Is it a speech about objects or phenomena—e.g., anything that isn’t human? (p. 325) • Is it a speech about people—e.g., individuals or groups who have made a difference? (p. 325) • Is it a speech about an event—e.g., a noteworthy occurrence? (p. 325) • Is it a speech about a process—e.g., an explanation of how something works, as in a series of steps leading to a product or end result? (p. 326) • Is it a speech about an issue—e.g., a social problem or matter in dispute? (p. 326) • Is it a speech about a concept—e.g., an idea, theory, or belief? (p. 326) Decide How to Convey the Information • Use definition to clarify. (p. 327) • Provide descriptions to paint a picture. (p. 328) • Provide a demonstration. (p. 328) • Offer an in-depth explanation. (p. 328) Clarify Complex Information • Use analogies that link concepts to something familiar. (p. 329) • Demonstrate underlying causes. (p. 330) • Use visual aids, including models and drawings. (p. 331) Appeal to Different Learning Styles • Consider listeners’ learning styles as part of your audience analysis. (p. 331) • Offer information in a variety of modes—visually, with sound, with text, and with demonstrations. (p. 331) 313 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd vii 21/10/14 5:01 PM viii How to Use This Book and Digital Resources LaunchPad for A Speaker’s Guidebook: LaunchPad is a new, easy-to-use platform that offers digital tools to support the speechmaking process, including adaptive quizzes, model full-length speech videos, student video clips, and video quizzes. LaunchPad can be packaged free with A Speaker’s Guidebook, or purchased separately—see the inside back cover for more information or visit LaunchPad houses a variety of powerful learning tools, including: LearningCurve LearningCurve is an online learning tool that adapts to what you already know and helps you learn the topics that you need to practice. Learning Curve ensures that you receive as much targeted practice as you need. Icons that appear at the beginning of each chapter and in the Speaker’s Reference sections prompt you to visit LaunchPad and take adaptive review quizzes, testing your knowledge of the concepts from the text. Icons for LearningCurve appear in the Speaker’s Reference sections and at the beginning of each chapter to direct students to adaptive quizzes for each part in LaunchPad. Video Anna Davis delivers the informative speech “Social Media, Social Identity, and Social Causes.” LaunchPad provides access to more than three hundred short video clips illustrating speech techniques described in the book. Five new full-length sample speeches appear in this edition. A list of video clips that map to important speechmaking topics appears after the index. Speeches that are printed in the book and available as videos in LaunchPad are listed on the last book page across from the inside back cover. Video icons appear in the Key Terms sections and near sample speeches to encourage students to watch the related video in LaunchPad. e-readings E-readings offer additional content online, including visual guides and online reference and research appendices. Icons for e-readings are present in chapters that include additional reference materials, available in LaunchPad. 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd viii 21/10/14 5:01 PM How to Use This Book and Digital Resources ix Visual Guides Visual Guides (eleven total) walk you through the most challenging aspects of the speechmaking process—from research and organization through creating presentation aids. A complete list of visual guides is available at the end of this book. FROM IDEA TO SPEECH How to Transform an Idea into a Polished Speech The authors of A Speaker’s Guidebook worked on this speech project with Professor Gary Russell of Quincy University, a liberal arts university in Illinois. Professor Russell asked student Teresa Gorrell to work with us on her speech of introduction. Our goal was to show how a student can take a first draft of a speech and improve it. We wanted to see how Teresa could improve the language of her speech, as well as the delivery. Teresa Chooses Her Topic First, Teresa did some brainstorming, to decide what part of her life she’d like to speak about in her speech of introduction. Teresa commented, “Based on the sample speeches of introduction that I was sent by my professor, I have gathered that my speech purpose should be to introduce myself by sharing a personal story concerning some life-shaping, characterforming aspect.” With this understanding, Teresa did some thinking and narrowed her options to two ideas for a direction to take. Option 1: Option 2: I would relate my background as a homeschooled student in grades K-8, my transition into high school, and then into college, with a focus on how my experiences shaped me socially and personally. I would tell the story of my first step into the world of athletics as a sophomore in high school when I joined the track team, and explain how, through hard work, I became an all-conference award runner and school record holder by my senior year and am now competing as a NCAA Division II athlete. I would focus on what running means to me and how it has defined me as a person. Teresa Drafts Her Speech Teresa’s first draft speech was compelling, but the authors thought that she could add more colorful language and details to the introduction. The authors advised Teresa to “set the scene,” so that the audience could imagine her daily routine. 30 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd ix 21/10/14 5:01 PM x How to Use This Book and Digital Resources Checklists, Boxed Features, and Full-Text Speeches Useful checklists, appearing in each chapter and providing students with easy-toreference tips and advice on research and speech techniques, are a pedagogical hallmark of A Speaker’s Guidebook. Throughout A Speaker’s Guidebook you will also find three types of special boxed features. A Cultural Perspective explores the many ways that culture informs public speaking, ESL Speaker’s Notes offer detailed guidance for non-native speakers, and Ethically Speaking boxes offer students ways to ensure an ethical stance when speaking. Throughout, you also will find eleven full-text sample speeches, seven by fellow student speakers that can serve as models to help you learn the art and craft of creating your own speeches. For a full list of the checklists, boxes, and sample speeches, refer to the end of the book. A Cultural Perspective ESL Speaker’s Notes Ethically Speaking Photos: (passport) Charles Taylor/Shutterstock; (globe) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; (column) Radu Bercan/Shutterstock 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd x 21/10/14 5:01 PM Preface A Speaker’s Guidebook: Text and Reference is a groundbreaking public speaking text that offers better solutions to the wide range of challenges that students face. Adopted at more than 850 schools since the first edition was published in 2001, the book grew out of the realization that public speaking courses are not ends in themselves. The principles and skills taught in this book are meant to be of lasting use to students and to help them beyond merely meeting the requirements of the course—with guidance for delivering presentations in their other college courses, in their working lives after college, and in the vital roles they may play in their communities. The book functions not only as a brief yet comprehensive classroom text but also as a unique and useful postclassroom reference, one that will prove an invaluable resource in any public speaking situation. The key goal of A Speaker’s Guidebook has always been to effectively address the fundamental challenges of public speaking, both inside and outside the speech classroom. And we recognize that as times have changed—especially due to advances in technology—the challenges of both formal public speaking and presentational speaking in the classroom and workplace have evolved as well. Thus, with the support of hundreds of instructors nationwide, we have developed a book that students use and keep, that reinforces basic skills while providing cutting-edge coverage, and that helps students apply what they’ve learned to their own speeches. Enduring Features The following features have made A Speaker’s Guidebook: Text and Reference extremely successful in its first five editions: An Invaluable Reference beyond the Speech Classroom A Speaker’s Guidebook features a unique, user-friendly design, convenient and accessible reference features throughout, and extensive reference and research appendices. The information in A Speaker’s Guidebook is designed for quick and easy retrieval. Twelve tabbed dividers allow the book to flip open easily, and a comb binding lets it lie flat. A Main Menu on the inside front cover listing all tabs and chapters, paired with a full table of contents beginning on p. xxvii, quickly directs students to the sections they need. Speaker’s Reference pages at the beginning of each tabbed section allow students to quickly access and review the most important information in each chapter; convenient cross-references enable readers to flip quickly to a full discussion of the material. xi 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xi 21/10/14 5:01 PM xii Preface Every chapter in A Speaker’s Guidebook contains Checklists that offer stepby-step directions, self-assessments, and content review checks. Widely praised by reviewers for their precision and conciseness, these checklists help students and professionals both plan their speeches and assess their efforts. The Sample Speeches appendix and a wealth of Reference appendices allow students to easily access practical information. A Comprehensive Classroom Text A Speaker’s Guidebook addresses every topic included in the standard public speaking texts—and much more. Although we designed the coverage to be accessible, we didn’t lose sight of the need for comprehensiveness. A Speaker’s Guidebook covers all the traditional topics, including listening, speaking ethically, managing speech anxiety, analyzing the audience, selecting a topic and purpose, locating and using supporting materials, organizing and outlining ideas, using language, creating presentation aids, delivering the speech, and constructing various speech types. The textbook also includes the most current coverage of public speaking topics that will help students in their future careers and work in other courses, including using presentation software, delivering online presentations, preparing business and professional presentations, and speaking in other courses. To give students advice that is grounded in the theory of speech communication throughout the text, we have included references to current communication research and classical rhetorical theory, using this research as the basis for concrete suggestions in real-world speaking situations. Examples range from coverage of individual contemporary theorists and their work to down-to-earth discussions of classical theory. Because persuasive speaking is a major aspect of most speech courses, A Speaker’s Guidebook offers three full chapters on persuasion, more than any other text. Chapter 24 introduces the student to contemporary and classical approaches to persuasion, Chapter 25 to forming arguments, and Chapter 26 to organizing the persuasion speech. Finally, A Speaker’s Guidebook recognizes the importance of solid sample speeches, and it provides eleven in total. Speeches include two speeches of introduction, three informative speeches, four persuasive speeches, and two special occasion speeches. Each of the full-text model speeches offers textual annotations that help students understand the language, organization, and arguments used in the speech. The seven visually annotated speeches also include photographs of speakers delivering their presentations and connect to the videos available in LaunchPad. These visual annotations go beyond the traditional printed page by bringing the elements and analysis of speech delivery into clear focus. Global Perspective on Public Speaking A Speaker’s Guidebook also offers students a wealth of resources to help them adapt their speeches to the cultural requirements of the speech situation. Along 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xii 21/10/14 5:01 PM Preface xiii with extensive coverage within chapters, A Cultural Perspective boxes feature such topics as comparing cultural values, vocal delivery and culture, and variations in nonverbal communication. Special consideration has also been given to the non-native speaker. ESL Speaker’s Notes boxes focus on critical areas of concern to speakers whose first language is not English and offer practical ways to address those concerns. Sample features include “Avoiding the Pitfalls of Manuscript Delivery” and “Vocal Variety and the Non-Native Speaker.” Another characteristic that defines A Speaker’s Guidebook is its strong focus on ethics. Chapter 5, “Ethical Public Speaking,” is devoted to this topic and includes an in-depth consideration of the role that values play in the ethical quality of speeches. Ethically Speaking boxes also appear throughout the text, continually reminding students that ethical conduct must apply to all aspects of the speechmaking process. A Superior Resource for a Lifetime of Public Speaking Along with providing students with an accessible, up-to-date classroom guide, A Speaker’s Guidebook contains many features that will make it an invaluable resource in other college courses and after the public speaking course. More about public speaking on the job. A Speaker’s Guidebook gives students more in-depth preparation than any other text for the kinds of speaking situations they are likely to encounter on the job. Chapter 30 covers business and professional speeches, sales presentations, progress reports, and staff reports. “Speaking in Other College Courses.” Chapter 31 provides guidance for creating the kinds of oral presentations students are likely to deliver in other college courses, from the social sciences and humanities to science and engineering. Separate sections describe sample presentations in technical, scientific and mathematical, arts and humanities, social science, and education courses, along with a section on speaking in nursing and allied health courses. Extensive help with the research process. Useful for any college course, print and online appendices provide advice on how to cite sources in a variety of reference styles, from APA to MLA to Chicago and more. Appendices E and F offer guidance on handling question-and-answer sessions and in preparing students for speaking in mediated communication situations such as television and radio. Appendices E–I are available within LaunchPad. The Story of the New Edition In the sixth edition of A Speaker’s Guidebook, print and digital tools converge to help students with every aspect of the speech building process, including a new online learning platform that seamlessly integrates e-book content, adaptive quizzes, and video. With students’ needs foremost in mind, revised chapters on 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xiii 21/10/14 5:01 PM xiv Preface fundamentals such as listening, ethical speechmaking, audience analysis, topic selection and support, and outlining offer newly relevant examples and accessible guidance. The authors have streamlined the text to make chapters easier for students to read and understand. The new edition represents the authors’ collective efforts to review the literature and incorporate the most reliable and up-to-date research studies (113 total new studies). This revision includes new material on researching topics in print and online, using presentation tools, and gaining familiarity with delivering presentations online—all useful for the classroom, online education, and the professional arena. New as well is a visually appealing and highly relevant collection of speech videos on topics ranging from freeganism to ethical manufacturing. In response to requests by adopters, this edition also includes a “before” and “after” speech by a current student—an early “needs improvement” version and a second more-polished version. The sample student speech videos are accompanied by quiz questions that test understanding of concepts. These speech video resources help students focus on how to strengthen their own speeches by analyzing model speech techniques and “needs improvement” speeches. A Speaker’s Guidebook is also available in a variety of digital formats, including the new LaunchPad edition. LaunchPad combines an interactive e-book, full-length speech videos and video clips, reference tools, LearningCurve adaptive quizzes, and e-readings that help support research in one convenient learning program. A Wealth of New Research The sixth edition of A Speaker’s Guidebook includes a record 113 new peerreviewed studies, in chapters ranging from listening (12 new studies), ethics (12), and audience analysis (17) to persuasion (15) and others. Even Stronger Coverage of Public Speaking Fundamentals • A revised Chapter 1 reflects the true excitement and real-life relevance that public speaking can bring to students, with inspiring new reportage on Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech, compelling testimony from Warren Buffet on the pivotal role of public speaking in his success, and key surveys of employers on the pressing need for oral communication skills in the workplace. Here, as students embark on the speech course, they can easily see how skills gained in the speech class can improve their performance in their other courses, their working lives, and in their role as engaged citizens in their communities. • The latest scholarship on listening. This fully revised chapter reflects current scholarship on listening-processing strategies and approaches to the listening event published in the International Journal of Listening and elsewhere, from the perspective of both listener and speaker. The chapter stresses the difference between hearing and listening, and offers practical advice on active listening. 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xiv 21/10/14 5:01 PM Preface xv • Communication ethics, updated with the foundations. This revised chapter retains its popular basic structure while offering students new tools with which to engage in ethical decision making. New to this edition is a brief overview of the three major ethical theories, each reflecting differing standards by which to distinguish ethical from nonethical behavior, which allows students to reflect on and actively engage their own values when considering the role of ethics in the speechmaking process. Elijah Lui gives his persuasive speech “Preventing Cyberbullying” online. The full text of the speech is included in Chapter 26, and the full-length speech video and relevant video clips are available in LaunchPad. • Persuasive techniques made more accessible and relevant to today’s students. Persuasion lies at the heart of public speaking, but learning about it can be daunting for the first-time student. Clearer and more engaging explanations and examples appear throughout the chapters, from using the real-world Campus Kitchen Project to demonstrate the syllogism to all-new examples using fair trade, immigration, and climate change to illustrate the components of an argument. Cutting-Edge Coverage of the New Public Speaking Realities Students live in a digital age in which the realities of preparing and delivering presentations continue to evolve. A growing number of instructors are teaching an online public speaking course for the first time, and more and more students (and professionals) are expected to prepare and deliver mediated presentations, creating new challenges across the board. In this edition, we have updated our groundbreaking coverage of online presentations and using presentation aids. • New chapter reflects new direction in online and print research. Chapter 9, “Finding Credible Print and Online Materials,” offers an approach to searching for supporting materials aligned with the way that students do their research today—online—and demonstrates where and how to find reliable and credible resources, both print and digital. • Revised chapters show students how to create presentations in Prezi, Apple Keynote, and Microsoft PowerPoint. Chapters 20–22 focus on presentation aids and software and show students how to create and deliver effective presentations, while avoiding technical glitches. • An updated chapter on online presentations. Chapter 28 provides students with the most helpful tips and guidance on how to prepare online speeches—whether for use in an online class, for a recorded presentation, or for a virtual meeting. Introduced in the fifth edition, the sixth edition of A Speaker’s Guidebook provides innovative coverage of the steps involved in delivering online presentations, fully revised to reflect current practices. 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xv 21/10/14 5:01 PM xvi Preface A Multifaceted Digital Experience Brings It All Together Digital resources for A Speaker’s Guidebook are available in LaunchPad, a dynamic new platform that combines a curated collection of video, homework assignments, e-book content, and the LearningCurve adaptive quizzing program in a simple design. LaunchPad can be packaged free with A Speaker’s Guidebook, or it can be purchased separately. • Relevant videos are available by e-book chapter. After students read about speech techniques, they can view videos that model these concepts. • Instructors can create reading, video, or quiz assignments easily. LaunchPad provides premade assignments that instructors can use as-is or as a starting point for their own assignments. • With LaunchPad, instructors can upload and embed their own content. Instructors can add their own readings, videos, and custom content to the ready-made content that exists in LaunchPad. • The Gradebook in LaunchPad enables instructors to track and analyze student progress. Instructors can also keep an eye on their class’s progress throughout the semester—reviewing progress for the whole class, individual students, or individual assignments. • LearningCurve’s adaptive quizzing provides a personalized learning experience. In every chapter, call-outs prompt students to tackle the LearningCurve quizzes to test their knowledge and reinforce learning of the material. Based on research on how students learn, LearningCurve motivates students to engage with course materials and learn important concepts. LearningCurve for A Speaker’s Guidebook is organized by part, so students can review a range of topics. New and Improved Video Program in LaunchPad Helps Students Apply What They Learn to Their Own Speeches • New informative and persuasive speech videos accompanied by questions show how speakers can polish every aspect of their speeches—by demonstrating effective introductions, conclusions, transitions, supporting material, patterns of organization, citation of sources, use of presentation aids, and techniques of delivery. These polished and professionally shot speech videos offer topics of real interest to students, such as social media, freeganism, and ethical manufacturing. Full-text versions of the speeches are printed in the book, with electronic transcripts and closed captioning in LaunchPad. Mirroring new realities, one of the new speeches on preventing cyberbullying is given as an online presentation, showing the process of setting up the presentation and techniques for keeping a remote audience engaged. • A comprehensive video collection containing more than three hundred clips and thirty three full-length student speeches highlights typical 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xvi 21/10/14 5:01 PM Preface xvii issues—in model speeches that show expert speech techniques and “needs improvement clips”—in order for students to develop their own skills. Digital and Print Formats For more information on these formats and packaging information, please visit the online catalog at LaunchPad for A Speaker’s Guidebook is a dynamic new platform that dramatically enhances teaching and learning. LaunchPad combines the full e-book, which includes The Essential Guide to Rhetoric, with carefully chosen videos, quizzes, activities, instructor’s resources, and LearningCurves. To get access to the videos, quizzes, and multimedia resources, package LaunchPad for free with the print version of A Speaker’s Guidebook or order LaunchPad on its own. Learn more at A Speaker’s Guidebook is available as a print text. To get the most out of the book, package LaunchPad for free with the text. A Speaker’s Guidebook with The Essential Guide to Rhetoric, Sixth Edition. This version of A Speaker’s Guidebook includes a full tabbed section that provides additional coverage of rhetorical theory—from the classical to the contemporary—and its practical applications. Package this version with LaunchPad free to get access to the digital resources and tools. The Bedford e-Book to Go for A Speaker’s Guidebook includes the same content as the print book, and provides an affordable, tech-savvy PDF e-book option for students. Instructors can customize the e-book by adding their own content and deleting or rearranging chapters. Learn more about custom Bedford e-Books to Go at—where you can also learn more about other e-book versions of A Speaker’s Guidebook in a variety of formats, including Kindle, CourseSmart, Barnes & Noble Nook-Study, Know, CafeScribe, or Chegg. Resources for Students and Instructors Online Resources for Students For more information on Student Resources or to learn about package options, please visit the online catalog at LaunchPad for A Speaker’s Guidebook. This easy-to-use learning platform includes an interactive e-book, adaptive quizzing, a comprehensive collection of speech videos, and more. Visit for more information. 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xvii 21/10/14 5:01 PM xviii Preface Communication Central website. Accessed through bedfordstmartins .com/speakersguide, this free and open website hosts a variety of study tools and resources, including Web links, additional full-text sample speeches, and the Bedford Speech Outliner. Print Resources for Students The Essential Guide to Rhetoric by William M. Keith, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, and Christian O. Lundberg, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. This guide is a powerful addition to the public speaking class, providing an accessible and balanced overview of key historical and contemporary rhetorical theories. Written by two leaders in the field, this brief guide uses concrete, relevant examples and jargon-free language to bring these concepts to life. The Essential Guide to Presentation Software, Second Edition, by Allison Bailey, University of North Georgia, and Rob Patterson, University of Virginia. This completely revised guide shows students how presentation software can be used to support, not overtake, their speeches. Sample screens and practical advice on using PowerPoint, Prezi, and other presentation tools make this an indispensable resource for students preparing electronic visual aids. The Essential Guide to Interpersonal Communication and The Essential Guide to Group Communication, both by Dan O’Hair and Mary Wiemann, and The Essential Guide to Intercultural Communication by Jennifer WillisRivera. These brief and readable guides offer succinct yet comprehensive coverage of key aspects of interpersonal, group, and intercultural communication, covering basic concepts and theories backed by current scholarship. Outlining and Organizing Your Speech by Merry Buchanan, University of Central Oklahoma. This student workbook provides step-by-step guidance for preparing informative, persuasive, and professional presentations and gives students the opportunity to practice the critical skills of conducting audience analysis, dealing with communication apprehension, selecting a speech topic and purpose, researching support materials, organizing and outlining, developing introductions and conclusions, enhancing language and delivery, and preparing and using presentation aids. Media Career Guide: Preparing for Jobs in the 21st Century, Ninth Edition, by James Seguin, Robert Morris University, and Sherri Hope Culver, Temple University. Practical, student-friendly, and revised for recent trends in the job market—like the role of social media in a job search—this guide includes a comprehensive directory of media jobs, practical tips, and career guidance for students considering a major in communication studies and mass media. 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xviii 21/10/14 5:01 PM Preface xix Research and Documentation in the Digital Age, Sixth Edition, by Diana Hacker, late of Prince George’s Community College, and Barbara Fister, Gustavus Adolphus College. This handy booklet covers everything students need for college research assignments at the library and on the Internet, including advice for finding and evaluating Internet sources. Resources for Instructors For more information or to order or download the Instructor Resources, please visit the online catalog at Online Instructor’s Resource Manual by LeAnne Lagasse, Texas Tech University; Jennifer Emerling Bone, State University of New York, Oneonta; Elaine Wittenberg-Lyles, University of Texas, San Antonio; and Melinda Villagran, George Mason University. Available in LaunchPad or downloadable online, this revised comprehensive manual is a valuable resource for new and experienced instructors alike. It offers extensive advice on topics such as helping students use their public speaking skills to become more engaged citizens; ideas for preparation and practice to reduce speech anxiety; setting and achieving student learning goals; managing the classroom; facilitating group discussion; understanding culture and gender considerations; dealing with ESL students; evaluating speeches (for both instructors and students); and evaluating Internet resources. In addition, each chapter of the main text is broken down into chapter challenges, detailed outlines, suggestions for facilitating class discussion from topics covered in feature boxes, additional activities and exercises, and recommended supplementary resources. The new edition includes more guidelines for first-time instructors, advice for integrating technology into the speech class, and expanded suggestions for videos and other classroom resources. Computerized Test Bank by LeAnne Lagasse, Texas Tech University; Jennifer Emerling Bone, State University of New York, Oneonta; and Merry Buchanan, University of Central Oklahoma. A Speaker’s Guidebook offers a complete testing program, available in LaunchPad or downloadable online, for Windows and Macintosh environments. Each chapter includes multiple-choice, truefalse, and fill-in-the-blank exercises, as well as essay questions. Sample final examinations are also included in the testing program. PowerPoint Slides for A Speaker’s Guidebook. Available in LaunchPad or as a download, each chapter’s slides include the most important points from the text, as well as key figures. Custom solutions. Qualified adopters can customize A Speaker’s Guidebook and make it their own by adding their own content or mixing it with ours. To learn more, visit 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xix 21/10/14 5:01 PM xx Preface Professional Development Series NEW! ESL Students in the Public Speaking Classroom: A Guide for Instructors, Second Edition, by Robbin Crabtree, Fairfield University, and David Allen Sapp, Fairfield University, with Robert Weissberg, New Mexico State University. This guidebook provides support for new and experienced instructors of public speaking courses whose classrooms include ESL and other linguistically diverse students. Based on landmark research and years of their own teaching experience, the authors provide insights about the variety of non-native English-speaking students (including speakers of global English varieties), practical techniques that can be used to help these students succeed in their assignments, and ideas for leveraging this cultural asset for the education of all students in the public speaking classroom. Teaching Public Speaking: A Guide for New Instructors by Paula Youra, Lynchburg College. This guidebook provides adaptable advice on cultivating credibility and comfort in the classroom, and on succeeding during the first day, week, and semester of the course. Coordinating the Communication Course: A Guidebook by Deanna L. Fassett, San José State University, and John T. Warren, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. This resource offers practical advice on every topic central to the coordinator/director role. Acknowledgments We are especially thankful for the contributions of several individuals who helped us develop this edition of A Speaker’s Guidebook. Thanks to Kevin Ayotte of California State University, Fresno, and Brian Kanouse of Keene State College for their contributions to the sample speeches. Thanks to Gary Russell, Quincy University, for his help with the sample speech of introduction. Special thanks to Teresa Gorrell for working with us to draft and present her speech of introduction. We would like to thank Teri Varner of St. Edward’s University and her students for their contributions to the sample speeches. We are also grateful to Kelley Cowden from the University of Kentucky for her helpful suggestions. We would like to thank LeAnne Lagasse of Texas Tech University for her excellent work revising the Instructor’s Resource Manual (originally created by Elaine Wittenberg-Lyles of the University of Texas at San Antonio and Melinda Villagran of George Mason University, and revised for the third edition by Jennifer Emerling Bone of the State University of New York, Oneonta) and Test Bank (originally created by Tom Howard of the University of Oklahoma and Merry Buchanan of the University of Central Oklahoma, and updated by Jennifer Emerling Bone). Thank you also to Bruce Sherwin and Publishers Solutions for their work on Web quizzes and other resources to accompany A Speaker’s Guidebook, Sixth Edition. 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xx 21/10/14 5:01 PM Preface xxi We very much appreciate the assistance of the hundreds of reviewers whose feedback and advice allowed us to make A Speaker’s Guidebook: Text and Reference, Sixth Edition, better. Please see the following pages for a list of each of these reviewers. The sixth edition of A Speaker’s Guidebook demanded constant attention and labor from the dedicated team at Bedford/St. Martin’s. Publisher Erika Guiterrez has now been the guiding spirit for the book for over a decade, and we are ever grateful for her countless editorial, marketing, and sales contributions to its success. Senior Development Editor Lorraina Morrison devoted innumerable hours on all aspects of development, from editing chapters with great good cheer and tact, to spearheading a superb series of speech videos, to laboring over one thousand and one other details, and we are most grateful. We also thank Associate Editor Alexis Smith, whose contribution to the LearningCurve questions adds a new and vital dimension to the text; and Editorial Assistant Joanna Kamouh for her always swift and efficient help, hard work, and good instincts. Pamela Lawson, Production Editor, expertly guided the text through a complicated production process under the direction of Steven Cestaro and Elise S. Kaiser. Thanks to Thomas Kane, Senior New Media Editor for helping us to develop LaunchPad. We are grateful to Thomas Digiano, Marketing Manager, for his sales and marketing efforts. Virtual Focus Group Participants Marlene Atkins, The Illinois Institute of Art, Schaumburg Steven Cohen, University of Maryland Diana Cooley, Lone Star College, North Harris Dustin Crosby, Southern Oregon University Paul Crowley, Spartanburg Community College Emilie Falc, Winona State University Richard Harris, Southeastern University Bruce Holmes, Stratford University Monica Maxwell, Georgetown University Gary Russell, Quincy University Reviewers and Survey Respondents Rebecca Aarestad, Waubun High School Karen Alman, Wenatchee Valley College Oluwunmi Ariyo, Vance Granville Community College Kathy Berggren, Cornell University Aria Bernstein, Georgia Perimeter College Steven Bisch, Washington State University Tri-Cities Becky Behm, Alexandria Technical and Community College Esther Boucher, Worchester Polytechnic Institute 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xxi Greg Brecht, University of South Florida St. Petersburg Carol Brown, Centralia College Carolyn Calhoon Dillahunt, Yakima Valley Community College Marybeth Callison, University of Georgia Diane Carter, University of Idaho Linda Carvalho Cooley, Reedley College Anthony Cavaluzzi, SUNY Adirondack Melinda Christianson, Underwood School Jeanne Christie, Western Connecticut State University 21/10/14 5:01 PM xxii Preface John Castagna, Penn State Abington Mittie Jane Crouch, Tidewater Community College Anna Cross, Portsmouth Public Schools Rose Crnkovich, Trinity High School Kevin Cummings, Mercer University Staci Dinerstein, William Patterson University Donna Elkins, Jefferson Community and Technical College Sarah Engle, Liverpool High School Julie Floyd, Central Georgia Technical College Amy Gall, St. Louis Christian College Ellen Gabrielleschi, Clarke University Jerry Gibbens, Williams Baptist College Beate Gilliar, Manchester University Cheryl Golemo, Harper College Alan Gousie, Community College of Rhode Island Orsini Gonzalez, City College Robin Grantham, Georgia Military College Jennifer Hallett, Young Harris College Debra Harper-LeBlanc, Lone Star College, Greenspoint Center Carla Harrell, Old Dominion University Richard Harrison, Kilgore College Marcia Hines-Colvin, Saint Mary’s University of Minnesota Gregory Hudson, Cincinnati State Jessica Hurless, Casper College Susan Isaacs, Union College Kathleen Jacquette, Farmingdale State College Marlena Karami, Roxbury Community College Veronica Koehn, Oregon Institute of Technology Beth Konrad, Loyola University Chicago Kelly Lancaster, School of Art and Design Ross Larson, Carthage College Darren Linvill, Clemson University Shane Martin, Fitchburg State University Amanda Martinez, Davidson College Chandra Massner, University of Pikeville Julia McDermott-Swanson, Santa Rosa Junior College Jamie McKown, College of the Atlantic Ellen Mroz, Community College of Rhode Island Diorah Nelson, Hillsborough Community College Charles Parker, Friends University Elaine Pascale, Suffolk University Shelli Pentimall Bookler, Bucks County Community College Brandi Quesenberry, Virginia Tech Gail G. Reid, University of West Georgia Donald Rhoads, Thaddeus Stevens College of Technology R. Joseph Rodriguez, University of Texas at Austin Sue Roeglin, Georgetown University Gerald Savage, Illinois State University Lynn Scramuzza, University of Scranton Gretchen Skivington, Great Basin College Julie Suek, Lower Columbia College Gregory Thomas, Morgan Community College Shauna Vey, New York City College of Technology CUNY Fred Whiting, Art Institute of Washington, DC Jon A. Williams, Niagara County Community College Kathleen Williams, Bergen Community College Ty Williams, St. Philip’s College Reviewers and Survey Respondents, Fifth Edition Diane Auten, Allan Hancock College; Diane M. Badzinski, Colorado Christian University; Raymond Bell, Calhoun Community College; Jeffrey D. Brand, Millikin University; Lacinda Brese, Southeastern Oklahoma State University; Jennifer L. Chakroff, Lasell College; Jeannette Duarte, Rio Hondo College; Richard E. Edwards, Baylor University; Donna Elkins, Jefferson Community and 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xxii 21/10/14 5:01 PM Preface xxiii Technical College; Nancy M. Fisher, Ohio State University; David S. Fusani, Erie Community College; Jeffery Gentry, Rogers State University; Kim Gerhardt, San Diego Mesa College; Steven Grant, Florida State College at Jacksonville; Carla Harrell, Old Dominion University; Constance G. Hudspeth, Rollins College and Valencia Community College; Carie Kapellusch, Texas Christian University; Carol Koris, Johnson & Wales University; Steve Madden, Coastal Carolina University; Brian R. McGee, College of Charleston; Teresa Metzger, California State University San Marcos; Alexa G. Naramore, University of Cincinnati; Clayton Coke Newell, University of Saint Francis; Nikki Poppen-Eagan, Pierce College; Mark Ristroph, Augusta Technical College; Gary E. Russell, Quincy University; Jeffrey VanCleave, University of Kentucky; Teri Lynn Varner, St. Edward’s University; John T. Warren, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale; and Allyson Zadeh, Front Range Community College. Reviewers and Survey Respondents, Fourth Edition Stephanie Ahfeldt, Concordia College; Allison Ainsworth, Gainesville State College; Timothy Anderson, Elgin Community College; Dencil K. Backus, California University of Pennsylvania; Robert Betts, Rock Valley College; Thomas Bovino, Suffolk County Community College; Amanda Brown, University of Wisconsin, Stout; Christa Brown, Minnesota State University; Edward Clift, Woodbury University; Michael D. Crum, Coastal Carolina Community College; Kevin Cummings, Mercer University; Julie Davis, College of Charleston; Gary Deaton, University of Transylvania; Cynthia Dewar, City College of San Francisco; Thomas F. Downard, Northeastern University; Fred Fitch, Kean University; James J. Floyd, University of Central Missouri; Sonia Margarita Gangotena, Blinn College; Ron Gephart, Southwest Tennessee Community College; Valerie Manno Giroux, University of Miami; Keith H. Griffin, University of South Carolina; Diane Gruber, Arizona State University; Deborah Hefferin, Broward Community College; Emily Holler, Kennesaw State University; Brendan B. Kelly, University of West Florida; Carol Koris, Johnson & Wales University, North Miami; Lynn Kuechle, Minnesota State University, Mankato; Victoria Leonard, College of the Canyons; Nancy Levin, Palm Beach Community College; Natabhona Mabachi, University of Kansas; Anne McIntosh, Central Piedmont Community College; Marjorie Keeshan Nadler, Miami University; Phyllis Ngai, University of Montana, Missoula; Kekeli Nuviadenu, Bethune-Cookman College; Keith Perry, Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College; Brian Pilling, Westminster College; Roger D. Priest, Ivy Tech Community College; Paul Raptis, Gainesville State College; Kenna J. Reeves, Emporia State University; John Reffue, Hillsborough Community College; Rebecca Robideaux, Boise State University; Karin Russell, Keiser University; John Saunders, Columbus State University; James M. Schnoebelen, Washburn University; Karen Michelle Scott, Savannah College of Art & Design; Pam Speights, Wharton County Junior College; Erik Stroner, Iowa Central Community College; Bonnye Stuart, Winthrop 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xxiii 21/10/14 5:01 PM xxiv Preface University; Sarah Elizabeth Symonds, Coastal Carolina Community College; Laura R. Umphrey, Northern Arizona University; Steve Vrooman, Texas Lutheran University; Marta Walz, Elgin Community College; Stephanie Webster, University of Florida; Kristopher Robert Weeks, Montclair State University; David E. Williams, Texas Tech University; and Jim Wilson, Shelton State Community College. Reviewers and Survey Respondents, Third Edition Helen Acosta, Bakersfield College; Nedra Adams-Soller, College of Lake County; Sue Aiello, New York Institute of Technology, Main Campus; Robert Alexander, Bucks County Community College; Jason Ames, Chabot College; James Anderson, Johnson & Wales University; Robert Arend, San Diego Miramar College; Mike Armstrong, Tallahassee Community College; Jay Baglia, San Jose State University; Kaylene Barbe, Oklahoma Baptist University; Cameron Basquiat, Community College of Southern Nevada; Kimberly Batty-Herbert, Broward Community College North; Elizabeth Bell, University of South Florida; Ray Bell, John C. Calhoun State Community College; Christina Benac, Ball State University; Mary Jane Berger, College of Saint Benedict; Kathy Berggren, Cornell University; Mark Bergmooser, Monroe County Community College; Sandra Berkowitz, University of Maine; Constance Berman, Berkshire Community College; Bob Betts, Rock Valley College; Pete Bicak, Rockhurst University; Rochelle Bird, Utah Valley State College; T. Black, Shepherd College; Marian Blue, Skagit Valley Community College, Oak Harbor; Jennifer Emerling Bone, University of Colorado, Boulder; Robert Bookwalter, Marshall University; Jennifer Boyenga, Indian Hills Community College; Chris Braden, Alverno College; Linda Brigance, SUNY College at Fredonia; Joel Brouwer, Montcalm Community College; Jin Brown, University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Nate Brown, Santa Monica College; Ferald Bryan, Northern Illinois University; Glenn Byrne, Stonehill College; Lisa Callihan, Florence Darlington Technical College; Diana Cameron, North Iowa Area Community College; Amy Capwell-Burns, University of Toledo; Harry Carrell, Missouri Valley College; Karishma Chatterjee, Ohio State University, Main Campus; Susan Childress, Santa Rosa Junior College; Sally Cissna, Milwaukee School of Engineering; Carolyn Clark, Salt Lake Community College; Annie Clement, Winona State University; Robert Cohen, Ohio State University, Mansfield; Jennifer Cohen-Rosenberg, Los Angeles Pierce College; Linda Combs, Daytona Beach Community College; Melanie Conrad, Midwestern State University; John Cook, University of Texas at Brownsville; Diana Cooley, North Harris College; Kimberly Corey, McIntosh College; Ed Coursey, Palm Beach Community College Glades Center; Ken Cox, Florence Darlington Technical College; Sandra Coyner, Southern Oregon University; Christine Cranford, East Carolina University; Rita Crockett, Howard College; Billye Currie, Samford University; Daniel Dahlquist, University of Wisconsin at Platteville; Phillip Dalton, Stetson University; William Davidson, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point; Dale Davis, University of Texas at San Antonio; Thomas DelVecchio, 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xxiv 21/10/14 5:01 PM Preface xxv Iona College; Andrew Denhart, Stetson University; Ron Dluger, North Park University; Paul Duax, American River College; Betty Dvorsen, City College of San Francisco; Jarvis Elena, Daytona Beach Community College; Dennis Elkins, Savannah College of Art and Design; Scott Ellis, San Jacinto College, Central Campus; Valerie Endress, Rhode Island College; Carolyn Engdahl, Fitchburg State University; David Engel, Marshalltown Community College; Kathleen M. Farrell, St. Louis University; Judy Ferrand, Wor-Wic Community College; William Ferreira, Houston Community College Southwest; Nilo Figur, Concordia University; Sondra Fishinger, Union County College; Peter Fjeld, Berkeley College; Charles Fleischman, Hofstra University; James J. Floyd, Central Missouri State University; Marjorie Ford, Stanford University; Christine Foster, Ramapo College of New Jersey; James Friauf, Milwaukee School of Engineering; William Furnell, Santa Monica College; James Gallagher, New Mexico State University at Alamogordo; Pat Gehrke, University of South Carolina; John Gillette, Lake City Community College; Susan Gilpin, Marshall University; Valerie Giroux, University of Miami; Curt Gilstrap, Drury University; Louis Giuliana, Holy Family College; Susan Giusto, Francis Marion University; Eric Gnezda, Ohio Wesleyan University; Robert Gobetz, University of Indianapolis; William “Bubba” Godsey, John C. Calhoun State Community College; Janna Goodwin, Regis University; Luke Gordon, Portland State University; Michelle Gorthy, City College of San Francisco; Frank Gray, Ball State University; Neil Gregersen, University of Wisconsin at Waukesha; Laura Gregg, Saginaw Chippewa Tribal College; Jean Groshek, Alverno College; Diane Gruber, Arizona State University, West; Phil Hamilton, San Bernardino Valley College; Greg Hammond, New Mexico Junior College; Reeze Hanson, Haskell Indian Nations University; Eric Harlan, Mississippi University for Women; John Hatch, University of Dubuque; Linda Heil, Harford Community College; Mark Henderson, Jackson State University; Andrew Herman, State University of New York at Genesee; Dan Higgins, Heidelberg College; Rick Hogrefe, Crafton Hills College; Angela Holland, Community College of Southern Nevada; Emily Holler, Kennesaw State University; Victoria Howitt, Grossmont College; Kevin Howley, DePauw University; Karen Huck, Central Oregon Community College; W. A. Kelly Huff, Truett-McConnell, Watkinsville; Lynette Jachowicz, Maple Woods Community College; Dale Jenkins, Virginia Technical College; Ronald C. Jones, Norfolk State University; Linda Karch, Norwich University; Susan Katz, University of Bridgeport; Bill Keith, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; Tim Kelley, NorthwestShoals Community College; Helen Kingkade, Midlands Technical College, Airport; David Kosloski, Clark College; Jeffrey Kotz, University of Connecticut; Mary Lahman, Manchester College; Jon Larson, Inver Hills Community College; Betty Jane Lawrence, Bradley University; Peter Lee, Golden West College; Diana Leonard, University of Arizona; Victoria Leonard, College of the Canyons; Douglas Lepter, Trevecca Nazarene University; Wendy Leslie, Missouri Valley College; Jason Lind, Skagit Valley College; Linda Linn, Western Wyoming College; Steven Long, Wayland Baptist University; Bob Loss, Barton County Community College; Louis Lucca, La Guardia Community College, CUNY; Thomas Marshall, Robert Morris University; Ben Martin, Santa Monica 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xxv 21/10/14 5:01 PM xxvi Preface College; Michael McFarland, Stetson University; Lee McGavin, University of Texas, Permian Basin; Libby McGlone, Columbus State Community College; Annie McKinlay, North Idaho College; Gordon McLean, Arizona Western College; Scott McLean, Arizona Western College; Miriam McMullen-Pastrick, Pennsylvania State University at Erie, Behrend; Rebecca Meisnebach, Concord College; Deborah Meltsner, Old Dominion University; Andrew Merolla, Ohio State University; John Morrison, Rollins College; Alfred Mueller, Pennsylvania State University at Mont Alto; Lisa Mueller, Northeast Iowa Community College; Donna Munde, Mercer County Community College; Diana Karol Nagy, University of Florida; Helen Nelson, Spalding University; Kathleen Norris, Loyola Marymount University; Linda Norris, Indiana University of Pennsylvania; Karen O’Donnell, Finger Lakes Community College; Jennifer O’Dorisio, Pomona High School; Richard Olsen, University of North Carolina at Wilmington; Susan Ondercin, Carroll Community College; Elenie Opffer, Regis University; Donald Painter Jr., University of South Florida; Teresa Palmitessa, Pennsylvania State University at Erie, Behrend; Emily Paramonova, Cogswell Polytechnical College; Daniel Paulnock, Saint Paul College; Holly Payne, Western Kentucky University; Karl Payton, Le Tourneau University; Kimberly Pearce, De Anza College; Sheila Peebles, Baldwin-Wallace College; Ray Penn, Lincoln Memorial University; Pamela Perkins, San Diego City College; Jean Perry, Glendale Community College; William Petkanas, Western Connecticut State University; Chuck Pierce, Central Carolina Technical College; Dann Pierce, University of Portland; Michael Pitts, Los Angeles Southwest College; Dwight Podgurski, Colorado Christian University; Linda Powers, Wofford College; Joyce Puls, Baker College; Kathleen Quimby, Messiah University; Susan Rabideau, University of Wisconsin, Fox Valley; Alan Ragains, Windward Community College; Gail Reid, State University of West Georgia; Pamela Reid, Copiah-Lincoln Community College; Paula Reif, Carl Albert State College; Larry Reynolds, Johnson City Community College; William Richter, Lenoir-Rhyne College; Lisa Riede, Lockhaven University of Pennsylvania; Nita Ritzke, University of Mary; Rick Roberts, University of San Francisco; Patricia Rockwell, University of Louisiana at Lafayette; Rita Rosenthal, Boston College and Stonehill College; Susan Sanders, Northern Essex Community College; Carol Saunders, Chipola Junior College; Kimberly Schwartz, University of Dubuque; Steve Schwarze, University of Montana; Marlene Sebeck, Wheeling Jesuit University; Lois Self, Northern Illinois University; Susan Selk, El Paso Community College; Colleen ShaughnessyZeena, Salem State College; Charla Markham Shaw, University of Texas at Arlington; Alisa Shubb, American River College; Elizabeth Simas, California State University at Northridge; Jacqueline Simon, Palomar College; John Kares Smith, SUNY Oswego State University; Andrew Snyder, Saint Gregory’s University; Jay Soldner, Western Wisconsin Technical College; Rick Soller, College of Lake County; Pam Speights, Wharton County Junior College; Ebba Stedillie, Casper College; Susan Stehlik, Rutgers University, Newark Campus; Lesa Stern, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville; James Stewart, Tennessee Technical University; Pamela Stovall, University of New Mexico, Gallup; Anthony Stubbs, Iowa Lakes Community College South; Pat Sutherland, Tennessee Wesleyan 01_OHa_63536_FM_a_lvi.indd xxvi 21/10/14 5:01 PM Preface xxvii College; Michael Swinford, Shorter College; Sarah Symonds, Coastal Carolina Community College; Kelly Tait, University of Nevada, Reno; Georgia Talsma, Mount Marty College; April Dupree Taylor, University of South Alabama; Katherine Taylor, University of Louisville; Donna Thomsen, Johnson & Wales University; Ray Tipton, Walters State Community College; Hank Tkachuk, Concordia College, Moorehead; Candice Todd, Lynchburg College; Michael Tomaschyk, Cuyahoga Community College, Western; Amy Trombley, Western Michigan University; Anita Turpin, Roanoke College; Clint Uhrich, Luther College; Joseph Valcourt, Central Carolina Technical College; Marilyn Valentino, Lorain County Community College; Jay VerLinden, Humboldt State University; Valerie Vlahakis, John Wood Community College; Steve Vrooman, Texas Lutheran University; Chris Wagner, Cosumnes River College; Anthony Wainwright, Onondaga Community College; Lisa Waite, Kent State University, Stark Campus; Bill Wallace, Northeastern State University; Dennis Waller, Northwest Nazarene University; David Weinandy, Aquinas College; Nancy Wendt, Oregon State University; Estelle Wenson, Stonehill College; Beverly WestDorny, San Joaquin Delta College; Steven Wiegenstein, Culver-Stockton College; Thomas Wilkinson, Rowan University; David Williams, Texas Technical University; Frances Winsor, Pennsylvania State University at Altoona; Marianne Worthington, Cumberland College; Miriam Zimmerman, Notre Dame de Namur University; and Joe Zubrick, University of Maine, Fort Kent. Reviewers and Survey Respondents, Second Edition Cameron Basquiat, Community College of Southern Nevada; Carolyn Clark, Salt Lake Community College; Letitia Dace, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth; Francis Dance, University of Denver; Layne Dearden, Brigham Young University, Idaho; Rebecca Faery, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Joyce Fernandes, Bristol Community College; John Giertz, Bakersfield College; Heather Grace, University of Pittsburgh, Bradford; Marc Martin, San Francisco State University; Charles McMahan, Vincennes University; Deborah Meltsner, Old Dominion University; Andrea Morgan, Georgia Perimeter College; Dann Pierce, University of Portland; Patricia Rockwell, University of Louisiana, Lafayette; Robert Sadowski, University of Michigan, Flint; Michael Searcy, University of Iowa and Scott Community College; Lisa Stefani, Grossmont College; Elena Strauman, Auburn University; Jeremy Teitelbaum, California Polytechnic State University; Gregory Thomas, Morgan Community College; and Robert Witkowski, Midlands Technical College. Reviewers and Survey Respondents, First Edition Linda Brown, El Paso Community College; Tamara Burk, Columbia College; Lawrence J. Chase, California State University, Sacramento; Helen Chester, Milwaukee Area Technical College; J

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