Some Guidance on Essay 2 Essay 2 For Essay 2 you have two choices – only select one. • For a given catchment modification, (a) review and summarise evidence for its impacts on the sediment system, morphological and ecological processes, and (b) present and critique the mitigation options available for managing the main impacts you identified. • For a given channel modification, (a) review and summarise evidence for its impacts on channel morphodynamics and habitat, and (b) present and critique the mitigation options available for managing the main impacts you identified. What do I mean… Catchment modifications. Modifications to the land cover and land use of sufficient scale that it influences catchment scale processes of sediment and water runoff with resulting impacts on river ecosystem and sediment system processes. Examples include: Agriculture Afforestation Deforestation (not covered in lectures) What do I mean… Channel modifications Direct human modification to the hydrology, sediment load or channel planform that alters the river sediment system, morphology and ecology. Examples include: River Regulation (Dams or Weirs) Channelisation and maintenance Gravel and/or Sand Mining in the River channel Mitigation Measures • For both scales (Catchment or channel) I ask you to present and critique the mitigation measures to treat the modifications. These are probably best summarised via a Table, but also via case-studies you find in the literature. • By Critique I need you to go further and test if there is evidence to suggest a limitation. For example, offsetting the hydrological impacts of catchment land cover and land use using NFM is said to mainly work in smaller catchments for smaller floods. There is also limited evidence for it’s effectiveness in limiting sediment runoff from agricultural land use. Similarly, river restoration to offset channellisation and maintenance – is it effective? Mitigation options • These vary – Riparian buffers and changes in tillage (direct drilling, minimum till, Rural SUDs etc, for farming impacts, through to Forest management (Forest and Water Guidelines) practices to reduce off-site impacts of afforestation. • For channel modifications – Dam removal or hydrological modifications and River Restoration are important, but also have questions about their own impacts and effectiveness. Be critical, but do recognise success as well as their limitations. Researching topics • There is a lot of information available. Use techniques to synthesize this data (Tables, Figures). • Try to use case studies IF it helps (e.g. Regulation, Dam removal). • If you really want to do something that has not come up in the lectures but you’re super excited about it then do ask me first. E.g. urbanisation, Defforestation, but also be careful that you can find examples of not only impacts but also mitigation. If all else fails Ask….. • I am hear to help you – not to trip you up. • If you are unsure about something then…. ask me. • If you are super excited about something but unsure if it is relevant, then…..ask me. • If you don’t understand something then…. ask me. I can’t promise to report back instantly and I will always assume you’ve tried to find things out yourself first….but I do want to help you. My hope is that you leave this module with a desire to continue to learn how to manage our wonderful rivers better than we have thus far. My real hope is some of you will go on to do just that and make (an informed) difference. Over the years I have had many students go on and work in Rivers…some of you might do the same….

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