Take Home Question Geology 1207 2021 A large part of northern Nova Scotia is made up of sandstones, conglomerates and shales of the Pictou Group (300-315 million years old) exposed at surface. In the study area given in Maps 1, 2 and 3 there are uranium occurrences (deposits) present. What type of uranium deposits occur in the area and how did they form? Could there be a genetic relationship between these deposits and weathering of older rocks? If so explain the relationship. (Give references to support your answer). A company has hired you to undertake an environmental radioactivity assessment on the study area near Tatamagouche, Nova Scotia (see maps 1, 2, and 3). The company wants to build a large resort in the study area. The company has hired you assess the radioactive environmental risks in the area. What are the risks? If the resort has to depend on drilled wells to provide water, what might be some of the problems they might encounter ? Given that you must locate a site in this area, what procedures would you undertake to assess the risks and recommend a location? What are the remedial steps that you would recommend at the resort during construction or after it is built? (Give references where applicable). Uranium Occurrences In Nova Scotia Study area Halifax After O’Reilly (2005) Deposit Types MAP 1 100 km Granite vein-type…. Basal Windsor Gp.. Pegmatite…….……. Black shales………. Roll-front.………….. Volcanic……………. Study Area Uranium Occurrence MAP 2 Study Area in Red Box High Risk Medium Low risk MAP 3 Radon Risk Nova Scotia Geology Cambrian to Early Carboniferous: Triassic to Jurassic: red beds; basalt mixed sedimentary & volvanic rocks; metamorphic equivalents Late Carboniferous: Cambrian to Ordovician: sandstone; shale; conglomerate; coal Early Carboniferous: sandstone; shale; limestone; gypsum; anhydrite; halite sandstone; shale; conglomerate; limestone slate; minor greywacke greywacke; slate Precambrian: volcanic & sedimentary rocks basement complex (gneiss; schist) Precambrian to Carboniferous: undifferentiated intrusive rocks Lowland Areas are younger sedimentary rocks and the highland areas are older metamorphic and igneous rocks with exception of North Mtn Physical Geography of Central Nova Scotia Marine Sands and Muds were deposited 500 million years ago, these were squeezed, cooked into slates and quartzites and later intruded by Magma SMB at 370 Ma Halifax Formation Level of Present Day Erosion South Mountain Granite Batholith Tectonic Forces Slates Tectonic Forces Quartzites Meguma Group Goldenville Formation 370 Ma 500 Ma Basement Rocks Hants County Area Distribution of Meguma Gold Deposits Gold Deposit Carboniferous – Jurassic Sedimentary and volcanic cover sequence Late Devonian Granitoids Cambrian –Ordovician Turbidite Slates and Quartzites Meguma Gold What do we Have? Mesothermal Auriferous Quartz Veins Turbidite Hosted Narrow Veins + Disseminated Structurally Controlled – Tight Folds – Dilation Zones 100 km Cambrian to Early Carboniferous: Triassic to Jurassic: mixed sedimentary & volvanic rocks; metamorphic equivalents red beds; basalt Late Carboniferous: Cambrian to Ordovician: Early Carboniferous: slate; minor greywacke sandstone; shale; conglomerate; coal sandstone; shale; limestone; gypsum; anhydrite; halite sandstone; shale; conglomerate; limestone greywacke; slate Precambrian: volcanic & sedimentary rocks basement complex (gneiss; schist) Precambrian to Carboniferous: undifferentiated intrusive rocks 750 N 725 N Saddle 1a 1075 South Leg Saddle 2a 1050 Saddle 2a Unevaluated Saddle 3 Dufferin Deposit Nova Scotia Moose River (Touquoy/East Zones) Note the lack of Quartz Veins There are indications that disseminated gold occurs in the slate belts of the Mt. Uniacke District 100 µm Corestone Examples of weathering of Granite-related uranium mineralization in the SMB Collisions in the Northern Appalachians Highly weathered granite (1-2 ppm U) granite weathere partially Unweathered granite Unweathered granite (2-6 ppm) Mineralogy and ore distribution of South Mountain Batholith Occurrences indicate weathering to 50m From Older Highlands to Younger Basin Fill Basin Fill Basin Fill Bay St. George Bay St. George Basin Basin Maritimes Maritimes Basin Basin Sydney Basin Moncton Basin Basin Cumberland Cumberland Basin Basin Minas Minas Basin Stellarton Basin Stellarton Basin Basin 100 km 100 km MARITIMES BASIN MARITIMES BASIN Onland Onland Offshore Offshore Lowland Areas – Younger Rocks Horton Sandstones Cumberland Sandstones V V V V V Horton Black shales Windsor Limestone Windsor Gypsum The Younger Rocks in Windsor Area Red Sandstones V V V V V V V V V V and Basalt Triassic Coal Measures Cumberland Group Red and Grey Mudstones Gypsum, salt Limestone Red and Grey Sandstones Black Shale Redbeds & volcanics Granites & Slates + Quartzites Mabou Group Windsor Group Horton Group Pre-Horton Basement Younger Older Nova Scotia Geology Cambrian to Early Carboniferous: Triassic to Jurassic: red beds; basalt mixed sedimentary & volvanic rocks; metamorphic equivalents Late Carboniferous: Cambrian to Ordovician: sandstone; shale; conglomerate; coal Early Carboniferous: sandstone; shale; limestone; gypsum; anhydrite; halite sandstone; shale; conglomerate; limestone slate; minor greywacke greywacke; slate Precambrian: volcanic & sedimentary rocks basement complex (gneiss; schist) Precambrian to Carboniferous: undifferentiated intrusive rocks Correlation of the Horton Group in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Cheverie Ainslie Moncton Hillsborough + Weldon Green Street Occurrence Upper H.B. Middle H.B. Lower H.B. Mainland Nova Scotia Lower Gas Strathlorne Craignish Cape Breton Middle Albert Frederick Bk. Dawson Settlement Memramcook New Brunswick Upper Witwatersrand Note the similarities Horton Group Falls Brook Quarry Oxidized Reduced Oxidized Reduced Nova Scotia Geology Cambrian to Early Carboniferous: Triassic to Jurassic: red beds; basalt mixed sedimentary & volvanic rocks; metamorphic equivalents Late Carboniferous: Cambrian to Ordovician: sandstone; shale; conglomerate; coal Early Carboniferous: sandstone; shale; limestone; gypsum; anhydrite; halite sandstone; shale; conglomerate; limestone slate; minor greywacke greywacke; slate Precambrian: volcanic & sedimentary rocks basement complex (gneiss; schist) Precambrian to Carboniferous: undifferentiated intrusive rocks The Windsor Sea 360 million years ago Salt Gypsum Nova Scotia Geology Cambrian to Early Carboniferous: Triassic to Jurassic: red beds; basalt mixed sedimentary & volvanic rocks; metamorphic equivalents Late Carboniferous: Cambrian to Ordovician: sandstone; shale; conglomerate; coal Early Carboniferous: sandstone; shale; limestone; gypsum; anhydrite; halite sandstone; shale; conglomerate; limestone slate; minor greywacke greywacke; slate Precambrian: volcanic & sedimentary rocks basement complex (gneiss; schist) Precambrian to Carboniferous: undifferentiated intrusive rocks Nova Scotia Geology Cambrian to Early Carboniferous: Triassic to Jurassic: red beds; basalt mixed sedimentary & volvanic rocks; metamorphic equivalents Late Carboniferous: Cambrian to Ordovician: sandstone; shale; conglomerate; coal Early Carboniferous: sandstone; shale; limestone; gypsum; anhydrite; halite sandstone; shale; conglomerate; limestone slate; minor greywacke greywacke; slate Precambrian: volcanic & sedimentary rocks basement complex (gneiss; schist) Precambrian to Carboniferous: undifferentiated intrusive rocks The Geology and Mineral Resources of Cape Breton Island Implications for the Bras D’Or Watershed Scott Swinden An Overview Natural Resources Drainage Patterns The Link Between the Topography and Geology Basement Faults Basin There is a strong link between the topography and the geology of Cape Breton Island. The Highland areas are underlain by older (Basement) rocks whereas the lowlands are underlain by the younger Basin rocks Older Basement Rocks Granites Marble Volcanics + Marble Gneiss Rocks range from over 1 billion to 370 million years old Basin Fill Younger Basin Fill Rocks of the Lowlands Sandstones and shales Gypsum and Salt Coal Measures Redbeds 365 to 100 million years Mineral Occurrences Bras D’Or Lake Metallic Mineral Occurrence….. Industrial Mineral Occurrence… Mineral Occurrences in Northern Nova Scotia Dan Kontak The first detailed geological maps of the North Mountain Basalt Nova Scotia Geology Cambrian to Early Carboniferous: Triassic to Jurassic: red beds; basalt mixed sedimentary & volvanic rocks; metamorphic equivalents Late Carboniferous: Cambrian to Ordovician: sandstone; shale; conglomerate; coal Early Carboniferous: sandstone; shale; limestone; gypsum; anhydrite; halite sandstone; shale; conglomerate; limestone slate; minor greywacke greywacke; slate Precambrian: volcanic & sedimentary rocks basement complex (gneiss; schist) Precambrian to Carboniferous: undifferentiated intrusive rocks Triassic Basalt of the North Mountain Uranium Occurrences In Nova Scotia Halifax After O’Reilly (2005) Deposit Types 100 km Granite vein-type…. Basal Windsor Gp.. Pegmatite…….……. Black shales………. Roll-front.………….. Volcanic……………. Southwest Avon River Round Mountain Round Mountain Hardwood Lake Lake George Avon River Castle Frederick Lake Paul Armstrong Lake Bridgetown DDH M Ba tho li Halifax o th Bridgetown ou in a t n Forest Home East EastRiver River Canoe Lake Lower Lake Sixty 25 km Waterloo Lake Kejimkujik Natural Resources Saprolites SMB PreCarboniferous Saprolite Saprolites on the South Mountain Batholith can be several metres thick and represent erosional remants of thicker horizons Saprolite Pre-Carboniferous Saprolite, Round Mountain, Hants Co. Horton Group Paleosaprolite SMB All Biotite is gone Weathered Granite 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 Pre-Carboniferous Saprolites Southwest Avon River Area Fresh Granite Note 40% depletion of Uranium in strongly weathered granites A Quartz Bi in Bi B Uranium concentrated Quartz in biotite Lithic fragment A B Destruction of Biotites during weathering liberates uranium O.2 mm ic ment Largest Uranium Deposit in the SMB is Millet Brook at 450,000 kg U3O8 There is strong evidence that the uranium deposits of the SMB have been weathered to a depth of 50m If Weathering extends for 10m with an average depletion of 1 ppm then 190,000,000 kg of uranium was liberated into the Horton Basin from the South Mountain Batholith Uranium Occurrences In Nova Scotia Horton Group Uranium Halifax After O’Reilly (2005) Deposit Types 100 km Granite vein-type…. Basal Windsor Gp.. Pegmatite…….……. Black shales………. Roll-front.………….. Volcanic……………. Drillhole Location Geology of the Windsor Area Horton-Hosted Uranium Occurrences – Diamond Drilling by Saarberg Interplan Horton Group Stratigraphy Horton overlies basement in the Type Area and is overlain by Windsor Group evaporites, carbonates and clastics The Horton Group can be divided into three basic megasequences or units: 1) Lower Coarse Grained unit 2) Middle Lacustrine Fine Grained grey unit 3) Upper Coarse Grained unit (often red or pink) Lower Middle Upper There has been only rare documentation of the nature of uranium mineralization in the Horton Group Classic Reduction – Oxidation Boundary Shale Reduced Sandstone Oxidized Sandstone Uranium Ore Shale Uranium Roll Front Deposit Model 2 1 Green Street U Showings Saarberg Interplan Drilling Windsor Area Hemitite staining and reddened feldspar near uranium mineralization Uranium Occurrence at Green Street, Three Mile Plains, Hants County Uraniferous grey siltstone lens in oxidized Cheverie Formation arkose Uranium Occurrence at Green Street, Three Mile Plains, Hants County N Showing No. 1 70,000 cpm Showing No. 2 > 100,000 cpm Small Quarry 100 m Green Street Uranium Occurrence SI 1/306 2 1 Saarberg Interplan Drilling Windsor Area DDH Behind Roll Front Behind the Roll Anomaly Double Spike Uranium ppm Reduced Oxidized Promimal Seepage Zone Seepage Zone Roll front DDH Reduced Immediately in Front of the Roll Oxidized Roll front Arkose Siltstone Shale Idealized Gamma Log Responses Conclusions: •There is a close spatial relationship of saprolites to large Uranium Districts worldwide •There are saprolites below the Horton Group in the Maritimes Basin •There is a demonstrated depletion of uranium (40%) in the strongly weathered unmineralized granitoids • The Granite-related uranium occurrences in the South Mountain Batholith have been weathered to a depth of at least 50 m •Large quantities of uranium must have entered the Maritimes Basin from these saprolites More Conclusions: * There is significant uranium mineralization in the Horton Group strata in the Windsor area •The uranium in the Horton Group can cause significant contamination of the ground water with elevated uranium, Radon and Pb 210 * Saprolites and the uranium and metals that they liberate must be taken into account in regards to any environmental studies in these areas You will need to click on the Audio icon Approaches for exploration for uranium How to find a Uranium Deposit Step 1 Regional background information: a) Go to the Provincial geological survey or on the net to attain the basic information, in most jurisdictions there will be basic geological maps and also mineral occurrence databases b) Start on the large scale getting the regional information as to the location of U showings c) Match the Geology rock types up to the location on the geological map d) At this stage you should start to see patterns like for example: are they all in granites or sandstones or units of rocks of similar age ? or are they related to geological structures such as faults or unconformities ? Step 2 Now it is time to narrow your search to specific uranium mineralization models: Roll Fronts? Specialized Granite vein Type? Or IOCG ? For Example In the case of Nova Scotia We can see a pattern of Roll Fronts and Granite related Deposits as well as some hints of IOCG and Black shale trend Deposits, pegmatites can be classed as Tatamagouche granite related Halifax After O’Reilly (2005) Deposit Types Granite vein-type…. 100 km Pegmatite…….……. Black shales Trend…. Roll-front.………….. Volcanic IOCG.…… The deposit type you pick to explore for may depend on exploration licenses held in the province and therefore the next step is to find out where there may be some land availble to stake Uranium Licenses in 1981 in Nova Scotia Step 3 Gather additional geochemical information on a large regional scale that might help in finding a uranium exploration target that the others have missed a) Most provinces have extensive geochemical databases that can provide clues …. In Nova Scotia There are thousands of samples of stream sediments, soils, tills (GLACIAL DEPOSITS), biogeochem samples that can be plotted. b) The elements plotted need not be the uranium but could include Rn, Ra, Cu, etc. For Example: Cobalt is often used in exploring for IOCG Deposits which are known to sometimes contain significant Uranium: This plot would indicate potential along the whole CCFZ although there are no KNOWN U occurrences in the area potential may be present Step 4 Now it is time to look at the regional scale maps of the radioactivity. These maps will tell you the general radioactivity of the rocks and soils. The maps are created by flying over the land with a large scintillometer in a fixed wing aircraft or helicopter Plane with scintillometer Radioactive rock Uranium U Regional Geophysics in this case Airborne Spectrometer Survey where a large scintillometer is flown over the province and the radiation measured This is a ratio map of Uranium vs Thorium vs Potassium with blue and pink being high U Although the values can be low compared with the rest it may be high on local scale Step 5 Now that you have selected a potential area it is time to get down to more detailed maps and information…so far you have been working at the 1:500,000 scale (whole province at once) now iwe start to work at the 1:50,000 scale Again the geological maps and the geochemistry and the geophysics are available at the more detailed scale from the local geological survey and so more literature research is necessary Note that to this point you have still not touched foot on the land and the only expense incurred is that of your own time …. Follow a repeat of the first 4 steps on the smaller scale maps …Now Stake some claims !!!!! In NS this can be done on maps Step 6 Now it is time to get out and work on your claims and you will start by mapping the geology along the road and the stream and at the same time you will take along a scintillometer to measure radiation and also sample the stream sediment and have it analyzed for Uranium and other elements Claim block N 1 km N X X X X X X X Scint reading 1 km X outcrop Geochem sample Step 7 You have completed your preliminary survey and now you plot the results of your mapping, radioactivity survey and the geochemistry survey when they get back from the Lab 2.5 k Ss = sandstone gt= granite N 2 2k 2 Ss X Ss 2.5 k 2.5 k 2.5 k X 5k 2 2k 2k 2k 2 2 X gt 5k Ss 2 5k X gt 50 k 2 X 50 k gt 16 X 10 gt Scint reading 1 km X X outcrop 36 2.5 k 6 Geochem sample ppm U Step 7 continued 2 rock types sandstone and granite … highest radiation south of the road on the stream …. Geochemistry highest south of the road … N X X X X X X Granite ? X 50k 5k Scint reading 1 km X outcrop Geochem sample Step 8 You have completed your preliminary survey and there is enough overlap to suggest that the area of most interest is the southeastern part of your claim area N X X X X X X X Scint reading 1 km X outcrop Geochem sample Step 9 Establish a grid over the area and conduct detailed sampling at the intersection points of soil in the area as well as geological mapping and scintillometer surveys Repeat your interpretations as in steps 7 and 8 N X X X Area of high U X X X Scint reading 1 km X Trench Drill hole X outcrop Geochem sample Step 10 At this stage it is time to trench the bedrock with an excavator to see under the soil and till and if things look promising then drill can commence using the same methods to further pinpoint the uranium Running head: GEOLOGICAL OCCURRENCE OF URANIUM 1 Geological Occurrence of Uranium Name Course Professor Date GEOLOGICAL OCCURRENCE OF URANIUM 2 Geological Occurrence of Uranium Geology is the scientific study of rocks and other materials that form the Earth’s crust. The study of geology encompasses the different processes that the earth has undergone and continues to undergo over a period of time. Also, geologists are interested in the study of organisms that have previously inhabited the earth and seek reasons as to why these organisms became extinct (Dahlkamp, 2013). Therefore, this academic paper focuses on uranium mineral deposits in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. This paper seeks to highlight the reasons why Nova Scotia is rich in uranium and the possible environmental effects of uranium to the neighboring community. Uranium is a dense metal that may be used as a concentrated source of energy. The energy, such as electric power that can be harnessed from uranium is enormous and surpasses other sources of electric power such as hydropower, solar power, and wind power. Further, when uranium is enriched, it may be used to produce weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear weapons. There are many military uses of uranium such as the hardening of tank and vehicle armor. Based on the foregoing reasons, uranium is highly regarded in the world market. However, uranium is a radioactive element hence potentially dangerous especially when poorly handled and uranium improper disposal raises many environmental concerns (Gavrilescu, Pavel & Cretescu, 2009). Uranium ore deposits are naturally formed after many years of geological and chemical processes in a particular area such Nova Scotia, Canada. The rocks in these particular areas must have the appropriate mineralogy components and rock porosity. Similarly, the said rocks should have a reduction-oxidation potential. There is a genetic relationship between the uranium ore GEOLOGICAL OCCURRENCE OF URANIUM 3 deposits in Nova Scotia and the weathering of old rocks in the area. Through weathering, uranium-rich rocks chemically and physically break down on the earth’s surface. This type of weathering is propagated by various environmental factors such as rain, heat, and wind (Muscatello, Belknap & Janz, 2008). A large part of Nova Scotia is made up of clastic or detrital sedimentary rocks such as sandstones, conglomerates, and shales. These sedimentary rocks formed as a result of the accumulation and consolidation of sediments in various sedimentary basins in Nova Scotia as depicted in the provided maps. Sedimentary rocks occur in the outmost layer of the earth’s crust and usually manifest in uniform layers known as strata (Prat et al., 2009). The sandstones, conglomerates, and shale rich in uranium that is found in Nova Scotia are formed from preexisting rocks that have undergone rigorous weathering processes thereby breaking the uraniumrich rocks into various smaller sizes. Therefore, the type of uranium deposits in northern Nova Scotia, Canada based on their environment deposition is either synsedimentary or diagenetic. The uranium ore is found on the surface or near the surface of the earth thereby cheaper to mine and easier to mine than uranium ore depositions. These types of superficial uranium ore deposits are formed when oxidized groundwater that had leached uranium from surface rocks flows down into aquifers that that precipitate into uraninite (Dahlkamp, 2013). Uraninite is the main mineral element in uranium. Additionally, uranium mining in Nova Scotia was decommissioned and later due to the numerous environmental effects that uranium may cause. The Environmental Radioactivity Assessment of Tatamagouche, Nova Scotia GEOLOGICAL OCCURRENCE OF URANIUM 4 Uranium is a naturally radioactive element that is chemically active. Uranium easily reacts with cold water especially when it is finely divided. Similarly, when uranium is exposed to the air, it quickly tarnishes and forms a uniform coat of uranium oxide. Uranium can react with various elements and compounds when it is in its natural state. The nucleus of uranium is very unstable hence; uranium is in a constant process of decay as it seeks a more stable nucleic arrangement (Gavrilescu, Pavel & Cretescu, 2009). Therefore, uranium has certain impacts on the environment that it naturally occurs as will be later highlighted by this academic paper. Further, uranium is highly soluble and will most likely be present in water derived from the drilled wells that the resort may drill in Tatamagouche, Nova Scotia. The ability of a uranium compound to dissolve in water is crucial in determining the mobility and toxicity of the said uranium ore. Normally, the small amounts of uranium in drinking water do not cause serious health side effects since the little amounts of uranium is easily eliminated from the human body through urination and excretion. However, the continuous exposure to uranium may lead to a higher risk of getting cancer. Wells drilled in areas with rich uranium ores are likely to have a high concentration of uranium in the wells’ water hence harmful for human consumption (Muscatello, Belknap & Janz, 2008). Moving surface and underground water can transport uranium over long distances while still maintaining the uranium’s chemical properties. Further, small particles of uranium may be in the air where it can dissolve with the rainwater and fall back on the earth. People may be exposed to uranium through food crops such as potatoes which when washed with water the uranium deposits easily come off. Therefore, the human body from the air, water, food, and sometimes through skin contact may absorb uranium. Excessive exposure to uranium may lead to kidney damage, skin irritation, and respiratory problems (Prat et al., 2009). In conclusion, the GEOLOGICAL OCCURRENCE OF URANIUM 5 resort in Tatamagouche, Nova Scotia should test all the wells it has drilled for uranium content. If the wells’ water is high in uranium, the water should not be used within the resort. The resort should also wash all its vegetables before consumption to rinse off uranium deposits. GEOLOGICAL OCCURRENCE OF URANIUM 6 References Dahlkamp, F. J. (2013). Uranium ore deposits. Springer Science & Business Media. Gavrilescu, M., Pavel, L. V., & Cretescu, I. (2009). Characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. Journal of hazardous materials, 163(2-3), 475-510. Muscatello, J. R., Belknap, A. M., & Janz, D. M. (2008). Accumulation of selenium in aquatic systems downstream of a uranium mining operation in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Environmental pollution, 156(2), 387-393. Prat, O., Vercouter, T., Ansoborlo, E., Fichet, P., Perret, P., Kurttio, P., & Salonen, L. (2009). Uranium speciation in drinking water from drilled wells in southern Finland and its potential links to health effects. Environmental science & technology, 43(10), 3941-3946. Northern Nova Scotia Uranium Northern Nova Scotia Uranium Name: Instructor: Course Code: Date: Northern Nova Scotia Uranium Northern Nova Scotia Uranium Nova Scotia is an area found in Canada that is rich in uranium resources. Canada is one of the top nations in the world to mine uranium and produces about one fifth of the world’s total. Uranium deposits that occur in Nova Scotia include magmatic deposits, vein type deposits, sandstone type deposit, and uranium in Devonian volcanic rocks. Magmatic deposits were among the first occurrences of uranium bearing minerals (Gross, 1957). They occur in granite rocks formed through magmatic differentiation. The vein type deposits were discovered in 1977 and occur in granite and metamorphic rocks. Sandstone type deposits occur in the copper Sulphide deposits in the sedimentary basins of northern Nova Scotia (Gross, 1957) which is form from the thick evaporation of salt and gypsum. The geochemical cycle is the process by which uranium is concentrated in a particular location. The geochemical cycle includes three phases that include the igneous process, the weathering & sedimentary process and the metamorphic process. The weathering of uranium rich rocks results in uranium being flushed out into other areas. Uranium within a given system can be related to various factors such as weathering. In occurrences such as magmatic deposits the uranium may be acted upon by the elements of weather. And as the earths plate move, the rocks become exposed to and are eroded by weathering elements such as water. Other than weathering uranium ore occurs mainly in areas that have experienced volcanism in the past. The volcanic rocks turn into sedimentary rocks which are later compressed into sandstones that are later carried by water which gathers uranium into richer pockets. It is therefore evident that the formation of uranium greatly depends on various climatic conditions and the topography of the area. Northern Nova Scotia Uranium The mining of uranium can be done through four processes which include the situ leach, underground mining, open pit and heap leaching. The wastes associated with the mining of uranium include mill tailing and sandy waste which contain heavy metals and radium among other radioactive contaminations. Radium overtime releases a gas called radon that is highly radioactive. Mill tailing at the moment poses the biggest threat to the environment which produces gamma radiation. Mill tailing will have some adverse effects on the drilled wells. Because of its high concentration of Sulphide, Mill tailing contributes to the acidification of ground water. Radon gas that is produced from mill tailing will also result in radiation making some of the Species habitats inhabitable. During different weather patterns like floods, water from Mill tailing can mix with water from the drilled wells contaminating the wells. Mill tailing is done in form of ponds or piles. The decay process produces radon gas that will have effects on humans that live downhill. When humans inhale this gas, it results in effects such as lung cancer. Radon gas has very serious effects on human life. It might cause diseases and pathogens to mutate and make them untreatable. These gases can worsen living condition for human beings. Building a resort will require careful consideration of the environmental and economic factors. The main factor to consider will be to find channels for which high level radioactive can be safely stored or deposited. Building sites for deep geologic repositories and a program of research and development where innovations can be made on ways by which uranium waste can be recycled. There is increased concern of how uranium waste is being deposited or stored. There is need to enact a law that would manage the disposal and storage of uranium. This can be the responsibility of the government. This will ensure that the resort does not run out of storage Northern Nova Scotia Uranium space. This act will have a huge impact in the way waste will be managed and disposed. Coming up with timelines of which uranium wastes can be deposited and make sure repository only operate within the right standards is important for the successful running of the resort. The resort can work with the government and let the department of energy manage the repositories. Some improvements can be done so as to increase the number of repositories. This will ensure that there is enough room for storage and disposal of uranium waste. Waste management is related to resource management. Sustainability is the capacity to endure (Elliot, 2006). Better waste management practices lead to sustainable development. Environmental issues are the biggest concern in the quest for sustainable development. Failing to manage the environment has many negative effects on human life. Better methods of waste management ensure sustainability, and minimum spending. Proper planning is important in bringing about sustainability, for example differentiation of transportation of waste for recycling and waste that is not for recycling. There are concerns about the landfill in the near Nova Scotia being a barrier to economic development. This is because there is a perception that people close to the area are exposed to health hazards. Human populations keep increasing with time in different areas leading to pressures on the environment. Recycling programs aim at achieving sustainability; however, there are challenges that hinder the success of water treatment programs, for example, the cost of recycling is high, and lack of technological equipment needed is a hindrance. Attention needs to be paid to environmental safety when building the resort. There is need to examine solid waste management and sustainability in Nova Scotia. There is need for information on best practice in waste management. The building and running of the resort in this case has to have clear research questions. The research questions include: what are the effects of Northern Nova Scotia Uranium not having a robust solid waste and recycling program? What is the correlation between code compliance and solid waste? And also, what are the community’s attitudes and perceptions regarding solid waste issues and mandatory uranium and recycling programs? Northern Nova Scotia Uranium References Elliot, C. (2006) An introduction to sustainable development. New York: Routledge Gross, G. (1957) uranium deposits in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; Geological survey of Canada, paper 57-2, 27p. Report of activities: Geological Survey of Canada. (1967). Ottawa: Dept. of Mines and Technical Surveys. Surname 1 Name Supervisor Course Date 1. Type of uranium deposits The main types of uranium deposits found in the area of study are Sandstone hosted Roll Front and Trend, millet brook uranium deposits. How they formed The deposits formed as a result of groundwater movement, at interfaces of reducing (acidic) and oxidizing conditions that happens in sheared and fractured areas of the altered pervious congolomerate or sandstone rocks. Mineralization during the pre-carboniferous period of weathering of the granitic rock occurred in the area, the uranium obtained from the weathering was incorporated by the surface water and hence infiltrated and formed uranium-rich groundwater then into permeable sandstone and conglomerate aquifers of younger permeable carboniferous layer or Harton group of sandstones ( Johannes J). The groundwater usually oxidizing medium, mobilize and transport uranium minerals, upon encountering a reducing conditions oxygen content in the water is lowered to levels unable to contain uranium in solution. Therefore, Uranium in solution form precipitate out of the groundwater at the reducing – oxidizing interface, habitually forming a crescent –like shape of Surname 2 roll front ore deposit. The roll fronts move in the direction of ground water flow thus forming an ore that may spread out crescent-like shape for hundreds of feet. Could there be a genetic relationship between these deposits and weathering of older rocks? Yes. The deposits are found on the base of sedimentary basins over the Precambrian unconformities, then the basin is filled with the sandstone and uranium is highly related with the graphite- faulted basement rock where it typically occurs, also the proximity of the weathered granitic mantle below strong unconformity uranium deposits suggest the genetic relationship. The deposits in Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan, Canada have been linked to Precambrian rocks by Needham and Stuart-Smith (1976). 2. Environmental risks The environmental risks involved with exposure to radioactive elements include; i. Long and low intensity exposure includes mild skin irritation, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, loss of hair etc. ii. Long-term exposure may cause cancer e.g. skin cancer, lung cancer, as a result of irreversible damage to DNA molecules. iii. Congenital abnormalities in children as a result of genetic mutation of parents acquired from exposure to radioactive elements. iv. Growing vegetable or fruit tree on a soil that is contaminated pose health risk to the consumer. Surname 3 Problems possible to be encountered when using drilled water Relying on water from a drilled well is that it’s possible to have water that is contaminated with uranium. Upon drinking or ingesting that water to the body, one risk getting cancer and other ill- health complications. Drilling well may expose uranium to the environment and people where by the exposure could have been avoided without drilling the well. Procedures to undertake to assess the risks and recommend a location, Finding a suitable resort construction site, • Step 1 • Procedure /criteria will include • • Selecting an area with no past uranium occurrences, preferably around area marked 11E:11C in MAP 2. • • Selecting an area with low risk of radon in indoor air elements area with yellow color code, indicated in map 3. • • Carrying out Soil type and contents testing to indicate, if there is any presence of uranium elements. • • Involve consultation and public participation for both affected and interested parties, and take into account the views and give feedback. • • Carry medical test for the area residents and find if there is the sense of radioactive- cause-related illness. • • Calculating an area that provides the required resort perimeter size. The area around region marked 11E:11C in MAP 2.Carry out filed survey to find presence of any highly environmentally sensitive animal, plants or humans. Surname 4 Get all policies that deal with quality of water, conservation of the environment and any other government regulations and adhere to them. • Research on all probable healthy and social effects due to exposure to radioactive elements. • Acquisition of set guidelines on environmental standards e.g. Espoo Convention, World Bank, Aarhus convention etc. Step 2 Required data sets. • Areas without record of past occurrences of uranium, as indicated in Map • Medical test results for area residents. • Soil type and uranium content testing report. • Area /perimeter needed for the resort. • Public participation views. • Administrative boundaries of area around the zone marked 11E:11C in 2. Map 2 Step 3 Surname 5 Collect all the relevant data set needed and analyse to find the best suitable construction area for resort. Remember to adhere to the set policies and regulation by the local area on environmental impact, water and air quality. Step 4 Follow and implement the mitigation measures set. The remedial steps that recommend at the resort during construction or after it is built?. During construction, • Seal the building foundation. • Have radon trace detectors in place. • Carry out soil testing for any presence of uranium traces during excavation of foundation. After building, • Ensure radon trace detectors are in place. • Have periodic medical checkups for the resort worker. • Carry out water quality testing periodically. • Trap air within the resort off radon impurities if present. Integrate environmental considerations and precautions into all stages of the project i.e. Construction and operation. The resort needs to create a mitigation and impact management team to monitor, supervise the implementation of precautionary measures, respond to any prevalence of uranium contamination, take action to manage any unforeseen changes, verify that impacts are as predicted or permitted. Surname 6 Work cited Brummer, Johannes J. “Supergene copper-uranium deposits in northern Nova Scotia.” Economic Geology 53.3 (1958): 309-324. Hoeve, Jan, and Thomas II Sibbald. “On the genesis of Rabbit Lake and other unconformity-type uranium deposits Geology 73.8 (1978): 1450-1473. in northern Saskatchewan, Canada.” Economic GEOL1207 Project Examination The Zing Corp. has recently bought a piece of land southwest of the Town of Windsor (see map attached (property inside the black box)). You have been hired to select a building site for their new Resort based on radioactivity and environmental considerations (only). 1. For background on the site selection you must describe what kind of uranium enrichments (mineralization/deposits) are present on the property and explain how they formed. On the property, the kind of uranium deposits are mainly various granites and pegmatites, with sandstones and mud-rocks located at the central area of the property. Formation of Granites and Pegmatites: Uranite is formed in granites and pegmatites, high temperature hydrothermal vein and quartz pebble conglomerate. Granite is a kind of intrusive igneous rock. Intrusive rocks are formed by magma, which flows and solidifies underground, where the magma cools slowly. Eventually, the covered rock is removed, exposing granite. Formation of Sandstone and Mud-rocks: Uranium is movable under oxidation conditions and precipitated under reduction conditions, so the existence of reduction environment is very important for the formation of sandstone uranium deposits. Sandstone is a kind of rock composed mainly of minerals formed by sand. This kind of stone is formed after centuries of sediment formed in lakes, rivers or the bottom of the sea. Over time, sandstone is formed by the pressure under which these minerals gather together. 2. Pick an area within the property boundaries to place the resort (place it on the map). Justify why you picked this location(use the internet for some of the information). I will place the resort construction site at the most southwest corner of the property area. As the enclosed picture below indicates. The reason why I chose the site here is because it is relatively far from the highly radioactive uranium mine. And it is farthest from Sandstone, which contains radioactive dissolved substances and gases. The granite storing radioactive material is relatively stable compared with Sandstone. According to the survey, in most cases, the Sandstone area where radioactive material is stored has a higher Radon index than the granite area, and there is also more dissolved uranium in the water. For the safety of construction workers and future tourists, I chose the farthest place from the Sandstone and uranium mining areas as the construction site. 3. What work would you perform on the area in order to pick the ultimate site. I will drill several exploration wells in this area in an extensive and orderly manner for U ppm testing and Radon B/l testing. Then, according to the test results, I will use Polygons-Contours to draw the areas where the test results exceed the standard. This is to test whether the watersoluble uranium and volatile radiation in the area are within the safe range. Finally, I will choose a location outside the above Polygons-Contours marked area. 4. After the resort is constructed what measures would you take to limit radon in the buildings. I will use the ASD: SSD method aka. Sub-Slab Depressurization and ASD: DTD method aka. Sump/Drain-tile Depressurization measures to remove and limit the radon in the buildings. The first method creates suction by fan which draws Radon from beneath a concrete slab and vents it outdoor. The second method uses suction applied to sump or drain-tile wo remove radon from beneath of a building to outside. 5. The resort will need to drill wells for a water supply, what problems might be expected in regards to water quality? How could they be fixed (mitigated)? Even if the site has been strictly considered and screened, the water quality will still face the problem of dissolved uranium and excessive radiation due to the nearby veins. I have two most used methods to treat this problem. Aeration treatment, we spray water or mix it with air, and then discharge the air from the water before use. GAC treatment, which filters water through granular activated carbon. Radon is attached to carbon so that there is no radon in the water. Kaiwen Ha 14 Dec 2020

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