. Copyright Law (title 17 of U.S. code) governs the reproduction and redistribution of copyrighted material. Downloading this document for the purpose of redistribution is prohibited. PLANNING FOR PUBLIC RELATIONS AND MARKETING 6™ EDITION LAURIE J. WILSON, APR, Fellow PRSA Brigham Young University JOSEPH D. OGDEN Brigham Young University Kendall Hunt publishing company Cover images used under license from Shutterstock, Inc. Kendall Hunt publishing company www.kendallhunt.com Send all inquiries to: 4050 Westmark Drive Dubuque, IA 52004-1840 Copyright 1995,1997, 2000 by Laurie J. Wilson Copyright 2004, 2008, 2015 by Kendall Hunt Publishing Company ISBN 978-1-4652-9774-7 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. Printed in the United States of America 128 5b chapters Messages, strategies and tactics Figure 8.1_________________________________________________ Formula for writing an effective strategy A strategy is an approach, not a list of tasks. Strategies are public-specific and identify a channel or group of related channels you will use to reach a target public to accomplish an objective by appealing to the public’s self-interests. Formula: Action verb the target public through communications channet(s) that the objective will satisfy the target public’s self-interests. Example: Convince the Orange County Commissioners through in-person meetings with company officials and engineers that approving the new plant will have a significant positive economic impact on the community In communicating with an organization’s publics, the strategies are the ap­ proaches to reaching a designated public for a particular purpose with the message that will inform or motivate that public. There are many different ways to craft a strategy. Figure 8.1 provides a proven formula for writing an effective strategy. The tactics that support each strategy identify in greater detail the specific tasks required to send your messages (e.g., blog posts, tweets, employee meetings, newsletter articles, payroll envelope stuffers, special events and emails from the company president). Tactics are strategy-specific because they support a single strat­ egy targeted at a particular public. O O^CHANNEL The conduit or medium through which messages are sent to a specific public to accomplish a specific purpose. As we said earlier, your strategy for message delivery is public-specific. In other words, you don’t determine how you are going to send a message until you know who you are trying to reach and what you are trying to tell them. The strategy inher­ ently identifies the public, and then addresses what you are trying to do in support of your objectives and the channel you propose to use to send the appeal. Informational versus motivational strategies Strategies directly support the objectives by identifying what action or behavior is desired. The action part of a strategy may be informational or motivational. Infor­ mational strategies (also known as awareness or educational strategies) lay a signifi­ cant foundation of information for the motivational strategies that ask the key public to act in some way. As with objectives, it may not be necessary to have a separate informational strategy. If a public is already sufficiently educated and is latently ready to act, necessary information can be carried by the motivational strategy to avoid the risk of fragmenting your strategies and messages. All motivational strategies will con­ tain some information messages either in separate tactics or within each tactic. A tactic that appeals for a citizen’s vote will almost always include some information chapter 8 Messages, strategies and tactics 129 to justify the action. Your job is to determine whether a separate informational strategy is necessary for that public. If there is a significant lack of knowledge and understanding, you probably need an informational strategy to lay a foundation before you can implement strategies to motivate behavior. If the information is already pervasive and people just need to be reminded, the informational tactics within a motivational strategy will be sufficient. For example, many people still do not understand that many mental illnesses — like depression — have a physiological cause that must be addressed with medication. Any effort to motivate people with mental illness to see a doctor would require creat­ ing a better informed public environment. But to motivate people to give blood, you may only need to tell them where and when to show up. Virtually everyone under­ stands the need and the process. As you know, objectives always require a metric of some kind. Each objective must specify improvement that can be measured. The action identified in a public­ specific strategy may also be stated in measurable terms. While not all strategies will detail the action this specifically, it may be necessary for some to do so. If a campaign supporting a local municipal bond requires 55 percent of the vote to pass, public-specific strategies may break that overall percentage down into manageable pieces for each public. A 55 percent overall vote may translate to 85 percent of busi­ ness leaders, 65 percent of white-collar workers, 45 percent of blue-collar workers and 58 percent of stay-at-home parents. The strategies for each public may include these specific measurements to support the overall objective. Determining the right channel or group of channels to send the message in a strategy is dependent upon both the message itself and the public being targeted. Take a look around. Some marketing and communications strategies have become so pervasive in our society that we don’t give them a second thought. What has be­ come the almost exclusive strategy to market beer to an age-segmented male audience? The primary strategy is to use humor and celebrity athletes, and the channel is to use sporting events to deliver beer-drinking messag­ es to that target public. This channel has literally hun­ dreds of potential tactics to carry the message. What is the predominant fundraising strategy of your local United Way? It is an annual campaign that leverages workplace peer pressure. The main channel is work­ place communication from which you can select specific tactics such as personal invitations from management, department competitions, posters and personalized emails. United Way annual campaign messages are focused at a specific public with the ability to give using tactics that overlap and reinforce one another to accomplish the purpose. Another example is an objective to double participation in educational pro­ grams for disabled children. Parents of disabled children would be a key public. They would require an informational strategy to inform 

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