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Cross section of waterfloods and dunes.
Answer two questions about where would you perforate a well .

I will the document with some reference noteInclusions are pieces or fragments of one rock type embedded in another. The cobbles in a conglomerate are inclusions of the conglomerate. Similarly, the sand grains in sandstone are inclusions of the sandstone. Plutonic igneous rocks may contain inclusions that form when pieces of a pluton’s wall rocks break off and become incorporated into the crystallizing magma. Inclusions are always older than the rocks they are contained in. In Figure 7 (basically an enlargement of Figure 6), unit G contains inclusions of the granite below it. Thus, the granite inclusions are older than G. Furthermore we can conclude that the granite is not intrusive to G, but that G was deposited on top of eroded granite. 3 Figure 7: The granite inclusions in G are older than G. If we were to put the geologic events that are shown in Figure 7 in order starting with the first event or oldest event it would look the like the table below. Notice that unconformities are listed as a geologic event. Youngest Oldest Deposit H Deposit G nonconformity Granite Reasoning: Because there are inclusions of granite in unit G, we know, based on the law of inclusions that the granite is older than unit G. Therefore, granite is the oldest geologic event. This rational also indicates that there is an erosional surface or unconformity between the granite and unit G. Because granite is a crystalline rock this unconformity is a nonconformity. Unit G is below unit H therefor G must be older then H. For the purposes of this lab we are going to focus on two types of faults, normal and reverse. 4 1. Normal faults form under extension or you could think of it as rocks being pulled apart like they are at divergent boundaries. When extension occurs the hanging wall block, or the side of the fault that makes an acute angle (less than 90°) with the lands surface, moves down relative to the footwall block, or the side of the fault that makes an obtuse angle (greater than 90°) with the lands surface (Figure 8). Figure 8: Cartoon block diagram of a normal fault. Note that the bold angled line in the center is the fault. The hanging wall block (left side) moves down relative to the footwall block (right side), as indicated by the arrows on either side of the fault, under extension. 2. Reverse faults form under compression or you could think of it as rocks being pushed together like at convergent boundaries. When compression occurs the hanging wall block moves up relative to the footwall block (Figure 9). Figure 9: Cartoon block diagram of a reverse fault. Note that the bold angled line in the center is the fault. The hanging wall block (left side) moves up relative to the footwall block (right side), as indicated by the arrows on either side of the fault, under compression. 5 1. Put all 8 geologic events depicted in figure 10 in the proper sequence from oldest to youngest in the table provided. If an unconformity is present indicate what type, angular unconformity, disconformity, or nonconformity. Figure 10: The tilting beds located below unit B indicate an erosional surface or unconformity is present. These tilting beds were originally deposited horizontally, they are tilting now because of a folding event. Youngest 8. 7. 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. Oldest 1. 2. What type of unconformity is L? How do you know? 3. Which rock unit is older J or T? How do you know? 6 4. Put all 14 geologic events depicted in figure 11 in the proper sequence from oldest to youngest in the table provided. Use the event bank below to complete the table, each event will only be used once and all the listed events should be used. You should only fill out boxes with the numbers 1 through 14 (the box labeled ‘Youngest’ is not a box you should be filling in). Figure 11: Granite F is an igneous intrusion with a dike extending towards the surface. Notice that all the beds that granite F cuts are tilted, indicating that the folding event that tilted these beds is most likely due to the intrusion of granite F. Because of this relationship the folding event must be younger then the intrusion of granite F. Event Bank: Deposit H Deposit J Deposit C Deposit B angular unconformity Deposit E Deposit D Deposit K Granite F disconformity Deposit I Deposit G Deposit A folding Youngest 14. 13. 12. 11. 10. 9. 8. 7. 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. oldest 1. 7 Refer to fig

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