• 1. Explain the purpose of  X and R charts and how sample size affects their control limits.
  • 2. Name the four conditions that indicate a process might be unstable
  • 3. Explain the purpose of c and u charts. When can a c chart be used to monitor system performance rather than a u chart?

4. Describe the different between latent and active errors and provide an example of each.

Example 1

1. Explain the purpose of X and R charts and how sample size affects their control limits. (25 pts) 

The purpose of X is the control chart that is used to monitor the mean and the R chart’s purpose is to be another control chart but this one is used to monitor uniformity based on samples taken at various times. Sample sizes affect their control limits. The sample size cannot vary and cannot be more than 12. 

2. Name the four conditions that indicate a process might be unstable (25 pts) 

The four conditions that indicate whether a process is unstable or out of control are occasional defects, occasional mediocre performance, frequent defects, and occasional superior performance. 

3. Explain the purpose of C and U charts. When can a C chart be used to monitor system performance rather than a U chart? (25 pts) 

The purpose of a C chart is to track the number of nonconformities within a sample. The purpose of a U chart is to track the number of nonconformities per output. A C chart can be used to monitor the system performance better than a U chart when the sample size is constant. 

4. Describe the difference between latent and active errors and provide an example of each. (25 pts) 

Latent errors are weaknesses within a system that increase the likelihood of failure and active errors are the direct cause of adverse outcomes. An example of a latent error would be giving a patient the wrong drug because it looks identical to another drug. An example of an active error would be operating on the left arm of a patient when you are supposed to be operating on the right arm of the patient. 

Example 2
1. Explain the purpose of  X and R charts and how sample size affects their control limits. (25 pts)

The purpose of X and R charts is to determine if performance has improved (Ross, 2019, p. 241). X portion of the chart monitors average samples. The R portion calculates uniformity. The control chart factor is based on the sample size. When the sample size is increased, the control factor is reduced. When the sample size is decreased, the control factor increases. This is due to the fact that with larger sample sizes, the statistics produced are more accurate (Ross, 2019, 242). 

2. Name the four conditions that indicate a process might be unstable (25 pts)

As seen in Table 9.3, a process might be unstable when there are occasional defects and occasionally poor performance with a capable system. A capable system is one that has “systems that satisfy customers or meet technical standards” (Ross, 2019, p. 237). With an incapable system, unstable indicators include frequent defects and occasionally good performance. An incapable system is one where “performance does not meet expected standard” (Ross, 2019, p. 238)

3. Explain the purpose of c and u charts. When can a c chart be used to monitor system performance rather than a u chart? (25 pts)

C and U charts indicate the “number of problems or deficiencies in outputs” (Ross, 2019, p. 260) The c chart tracks the “number of nonconformities in a sample”, whereas the u chart tracks the “number of nonconformities in an output” (Ross, 2019, p. 260). C charts need the number of nonconformities in a sample, whereas u charts need the number of nonconformities in each observation. C charts are can be used to monitor system performance when sample sizes do not vary as when sample sizes do vary, the u chart must be used (Ross, 2019, p. 261)

4. Describe the difference between latent and active errors and provide an example of each. (25 pts).

Latent errors are “system weaknesses that increase the likelihood of failure” (Ross, 2019, p. 291). Active errors are the “immediate or direct cause of adverse outcomes” (Ross, 2019, p. 291). Active errors are those that are the root or source of the negative effect, whereas latent errors are those that just increase the probability of failure occurring due to system weaknesses. An example of a latent error is not correctly labeling prescription drugs correctly. An active error occurs when the incorrect prescription drug is administered to the patient. 

References

Ross, T. K. (2019). Applying lean six sigma in health care. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

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