Choose a data science, big data, or data topic of your choice to research.  Undergraduates can aim for a shorter paper (about 5 pages). Longer papers are fine. Check out these tips from Simon Peyton Jones on how to write a great paper.  If you need a report template, check out the library or conference site like to see some published paper examples.
Your project/paper can take the form of a literature review, a data analysis, or even a tutorial/wikipedia/wikihow type article. Be sure to include any references you used.  Also it is fine to talk about your investigative process (for example you might have spent 10 hours trying out different models or visualizations until you found your best one – be sure to mention/describe that in your paper).
Here are some tips on the various report formats.
Data Analysis Report: Structure of a Data Analysis Report.
Literature Review or Research Paper on a Data Science Topic: 
Guidelines for Writing a Literature Review
How to Write a Research Paper
Guidelines for a Case Study Style Paper
WikiHow Article is appropriate if you want to work on a project like setting up your own cluster and you want to describe what you did as a tutorial to share with others.  Check out the Wikihow website for examples.
Be sure to include somewhere in your project report/paper, a description of the work involved.  This can be done as a preface, appendix, or something you describe in the body of your report.  Work can include time you spent with learning, practicing, analyzing, writing, researching, testing, developing, thinking, etc.

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