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Problemy ZarzÈdzania – Management Issues, vol. 17, no. 2(82): 142 –154 ISSN 1644-9584, © Wydziaï ZarzÈdzania UW DOI 10.7172/1644-9584.82.7 Intuitive and Rational Cognition in the Theory and Practice of Management Sciences Submitted: 11.01.19 | Accepted: 26.03.19 Marcin Nowak*, Joanna Ziomek** The aim of this study is to explain the role of rational and intuitive cognition in the theory and practice of management. The article presents a synthetic review of definitions and ways of interpreting the concept of intuition. Subsequently, a conceptual apparatus for rational judgments, intuitive judgments, and intuition as a special type of skills is proposed. On the basis of the four-stage model of the creative process and the model of System 1 and System 2, the role of intuition in the work of management theoretician is explained. Using the four-stage model of competence, the role of intuition in the process of making managerial decisions is explained. The study shows that intuition is a key skill in the theory and practice of management. Keywords: intuition, intuitive judgment, intuitive cognition, managerial decisions, epistemology of management sciences. Poznanie intuicyjne i rozumowe w teorii i praktyce nauk o zarzÈdzaniu Nadesïany: 11.01.19 | Zaakceptowany do druku: 26.03.19 Celem niniejszego opracowania jest wyjaĂnienie roli poznania rozumowego i intuicyjnego w teorii ibpraktyce zarzÈdzania. W artykule przedstawiono syntetyczny przeglÈd definicji i sposobu interpretowania pojÚcia intuicji. NastÚpnie zaproponowano aparat pojÚciowy dotyczÈcy sÈdów rozumowych, sÈdów intuicyjnych oraz intuicji jako szczególnego typu umiejÚtnoĂci. W oparciu o czterofazowy model pracy twórczej oraz modele systemu 1 oraz systemu 2 wyjaĂniono rolÚ intuicji w pracy teoretyka zarzÈdzania. PosïugujÈc siÚ czterofazowym modelem kompetencji, wyjaĂniono rolÚ intuicji w procesie podejmowania decyzji kierowniczych. W opracowaniu wykazano, ĝe intuicja stanowi kluczowÈ umiejÚtnoĂÊ zarówno w teorii, jak i w praktyce zarzÈdzania. Sïowa kluczowe: intuicja, sÈd intuicyjny, poznanie intuicyjne decyzje kierownicze, epistemologia nauk o zarzÈdzaniu. JEL: D20, M20, B40 * Marcin Nowak – dr inĝ., Faculty of Engineering Management, Poznan University of Technology. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5005-7820. ** Joanna Ziomek – mgr inĝ., Faculty of Engineering Management, Poznan University of Technology. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7750-0527. Correspondence address: Faculty of Engineering Management, Poznan University of Technology, 11 Strzelecka Str., 60-965 Poznañ, Poland; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com. The creation of the English-language version of these publications is Þnanced in the framework of contract No. 607/P-DUN/2018 by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education committed to activities aimed at the promotion of education. Intuitive and Rational Cognition in the Theory and Practice of Management Sciences 1. Introduction One of the most important issues in the area of management science is the decision-making process (Simon, 2013), (Sinclair & Ashkanasy, 2005). Managers must make decisions under the pressure of time, in the absence of recognized algorithms for resolving management problems, or the lack of standards for the assessment of measures taken (Laszczak, 2010). Therefore, the decision-making process takes place in conditions of permanent uncertainty, which manifests itself, inter alia, in limited amounts of information or incomplete data (Hodgkinson et al., 2009). Authors exploring the subject claim that managers perceive their work more as art than science (Suïkowski, 2015; Micklethwait & Wooldridge, 1996; Sudoï, 2014). One of the fundamental reasons for this status quo is the inadequacy of the management theory in relation to problems faced by management practitioners in the decision-making process. In the practice of management, intuition plays the key role – the use of classical management theory based on analytical processes which require a lot of information becomes limited (Akinci & Sadler-Smith, 2012). It seems that the perception of intuition is the primary cause of the discrepancy between the theory and practice of management (Ghoshal, 2005). It is often stated that while intuition can be a tool for a manager, theoretician should abstain from using it. Management theorists often perceive intuition as unspecified and irrational. Intuition is, however, an important cognitive tool for both managers and management theoreticians. This study presents intuition as a common feature of management practitioners and theoreticians. The article explains the role of intuition in the theory and practice of management. Through exploring the similarities and differences in the perception of intuition by theoreticians and practitioners of management in the context of their work, we can contribute to a better understanding and, consequently, to reducing the discrepancy between the theory and practice of management. Considering the above, the aim of this study is to explain the role of rational and intuitive cognition in the theory and practice of management. This objective shall be pursued through the application of the following methods and models: – conceptual construction methods – in order to develop an appropriate terminology of intuition; – a four-stage model of the creative process and a model of System 1 and System 2 – to explain the role of intuition in the work of a theoretician of management; – a four-stage model of competence and a model of System 1 and Systemb2 – to explain the role of intuition in the work of a management practitioner. The article is organized as follows: Section (1) presents the theoretical problem related to the use of intuition in the theory and practice of Management Issues – Problemy ZarzÈdzania vol. 17, no. 2(82), 2019 143 Marcin Nowak, Joanna Ziomek management. Section (2) contains a synthetic overview of definitions and interpretations of the concept of intuition. In section (3), on the basis of the traditional theory of knowledge, the concepts of rational judgment and intuitive judgment are defined and presented as two components of the knowledge of the subject of cognition. Subsequently, our own definition of intuition as a specific type of skills is presented. Section (4) explains the role of intuition in the work of the theoretician of management on the basis of the four-stage model of the creative process and the model of System 1 and System 2. Section (5) explains the role of intuition in the decision-making process in management practice on the basis of the fourstage model of competence and the model of System 1 and Systemb 2. In section (6), research results were summarized and further research directions are indicated. 2. The essence of intuition The word ‚intuition’ comes from two Latin words: ‚intueri’, meaning to look at, gaze upon, and ‚intuitio’, meaning premonition (KrÈpiec, 2003). Intuition is the subject of interest in many fields of science, including philosophy, psychology, cognitive science, or neurocognitive science. The concept of intuition occurs in literature as a word defining the type of cognition, the type of knowledge, or the power of the mind enabling ab specific type of cognition (Rorty, 1967). One of the basic philosophical approaches is to treat ‚intuition’ as ab specific cognitive tool. According to Plato, intuition is an extra-rational tool enabling people to get to know the world of ideas. Plato distinguished two types of reality – a perfect and unchangeable world of ideas, and an imperfect and changeable
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