City:__________________________ 10° N 84° W 6. City:__________________________ 69° N 33° E 3. City:__________________________ 39° N 9° W 7. City:__________________________ 28° S 153° E 4. City:__________________________ 40° N 80° W 8. City:_________________________ D. Answer based on Figure 2 below. Express subsolar points in º latitude. 1. Assuming you are in the Northern Hemisphere, which Position of the Earth represents the following. 14 points, 1 per answer. Summer Solstice 1 2 3 4 Winter Solstice 1 2 3 4 Autumnal Equinox 1 2 3 4 Vernal Equinox 1 2 3 4 2. _________ The longest day of the year in Fullerton. 3. _________ The date at Position 1. 4. __________ The subsolar point at Position 1. 5. _________ The date at Position 2. 6. __________ The subsolar point at Position 2. 7. _________ The date at Position 3. 8. __________ The subsolar point at Position 3. 9. _________ The date at Position 4. 10. __________ The subsolar point at Position 4. Figure 2 Figure 3 E. Write the numbers 1-6 on the grid above (Figure 3). 6 points, 1 per answer. 1. 15° N 5° E 2. 10° N 20° E 3. 8° N 17° W 4. 20° S 10° W 5. 15° S 15° E 6. 4° S 22° E F. Answer the following questions. 23 points, 1 per answer. 1. What number of degrees of longitude does the Sun move in: a. One day? _____ b. One hour? _____ c. Four minutes? _____ 2. What is the name of the standard meridian of the Pacific Time Zone? ________________ 3. What is a chronometer? ________________________________________ 4. If a sea captain at noon has a chronometer reading of 5 p.m., what is his longitude? _____________________ 5. If a person plotted the position of the Sun in the sky every day at noon for an entire year, and from the same location, how many degrees of latitude would the Sun move: a. in 1 year? ______ b. in 6 months? _______ c. in 1 month? ________ 6. If on December 22 you observe the noon Sun 16½° north of your zenith, and your chronometer reads 2 a.m., what is your latitude and longitude, and near what well known port city would you be? a. Lat:_____________b. Long:_____________c. City:____________ . 7. If it is the summer solstice and your noon Sun is 23½° north of your zenith and your chronometer reads noon, what is your latitude and longitude, and in what body of water would you be located? a. Lat:________b. Long:_________c. Body of water:____________ 8. If the United Nations General Assembly broadcasts a meeting in New York City at 7 p.m. on June 21, then at what time will persons in the cities below hear the opening remarks? All cities are on standard time of the time zone indicated by the meridian. a. San Francisco, U.S.A.: 120° W. Time:___________ d. Moscow, U.S.S.R.: 45° E Time:___________ b. Melbourne, Australia: 150° E Time:___________ e. New Delhi, India: 75° E Time:___________ c. London, U.K.: 0° Time:___________ f. Tokyo, Japan: 135° E Time:___________ 9. If it is 3 p.m. Monday at longitude 120° W, what is the standard time (hour) and name of the day at longitude 160° E? a. Hour: _____________ b. Name of Day:___________________ G. Calculate the latitude under the following conditions at noon. First determine the latitude of the subsolar point on the given date and use that latitude to add or subtract degrees accordingly. Use the difference between the angle of the sun where you are and the 90° angle of the sun at the subsolar point to calculate how many degrees to add or subtract from the sun’s known latitude. 10 points, 1 per answer. Angle of noon sun above the horizon 1. 50° 2. 60° 3. 90° 4. 10° 5. 50° 6. 75° 7. 45° 8. 85° 9. 65° 10. 70° Date Mar. 21 Jun. 21 Dec. 21 Dec. 21 Jun. 21 Dec. 21 Mar. 21 Jun. 21 Mar. 29 Jan. 3 Direction the sun is from you north south at zenith south north north north south south north Your latitude Mineral Properties Lab HIU SCI1365 – Earth Science Lab Fall 2020, Mod 3 Introduction This lab is based on the 15 Specimen Mineral Study Kit available from Home Science Tools. At this time this kit typically contains samples of the following minerals: 1. Fluorite 2. Microcline (note: spelled incorrectly in the Key), Feldspar Group 3. Hematite 4. Pyrite 5. Quartz, variety milky 6. Calcite 7. Muscovite, Mica Group 8. Magnetite 9. Gypsum, variety alabaster 10. Talc 11. Halite 12. Biotite, Mica Group 13. Graphite 14. Gypsum, variety satin spar 15. Gypsum, variety selenite These 15 samples give a very nice variety of minerals to discuss mineral identification. Here I have made clearer the distinction between mineral groups and mineral variety. Specifically, within a group, there are multiple minerals with very similar structure but not identical composition. In the case of the Mica Group, all the members are sheet silicates meaning that the atoms that make up the molecules are laid out flat and then these sheets are stacked on top of each other. So while Muscovite and Biotite have a similar crystal structure controlled by a core aluminum silicate atomic structure, other atoms in the crystal lattice are different making two different minerals. Side note: The Feldspar group is an important one as it is probably the most abundant mineral group on the surface of the earth. However, while the details of the group are very interesting they too complex to introduce here but if you are really interested has a good page introducing the group: The Gypsum in the kit is of three different varieties. This means that they all have pretty much the same calcium sulfate composition but exhibit different forms. And don’t worry, you don’t need to worry about the chemical compositions that I just mentioned. Question 1. Are there any minerals in your kit that are different from the fifteen that I have listed above? If so, what are they? Mineral properties The minerals have been identified for you so you don’t have to do the identification yourself. We will come back to identifying the minerals at the end. As we discuss mineral properties you are welcome to use internet resources to explore the different properties. A great starting point is the Mineral Properties page at That is a starting point with an extensive list of mineral properties, many of which we don’t have the equipment or time to test. But for the ones that we will discuss you can click on that link and get a definition and descriptions of different behaviors. Also, throughout the next set of questions, you will be asked to group or order your samples and then take a picture of your sorting to submit with the lab. When you submit there should be six pictures to go with this worksheet. Question 2: Cleavage A. What is cleavage? How does it differ from fracture? B. Sort the 15 samples into groups based upon their cleavage. Lable the groups and attach a photograph of your groupings. Question 3: Color, Transparency, and Luster (optical properties) A. Sort or group your samples by color (include a photo) B. Sort or group your samples by light transmission. The usual categories are: Can you see through the sample? (Transparent) Does light pass through the sample? (Translucent) Does the sample not allow light through? (Opaque) (be sure to label your sorting or grouping and include a photo) C. Sort or group your samples by luster. (How does light reflect off the surface of the mineral? Like glass, like oil, not at all, or something else? See the resource for a great list and description of different types of luster.) (label your groups and include a photo) D. Do you see any connections between these properties (color, transparency, and luster) for the minerals? Question 4: Specific gravity A. What is specific gravity? B. Sort the minerals by specific gravity (and include a photo) C. Can you see any associations between specific gravity and of the other properties we have identified so far? Question 5: Streak – sometimes a mineral in powdered form has a different color from the mineral in bulk form. Your kit should come with a small streak plate. Test the streak of each of the 15 samples. Do any of them differ noticeably from the color of the bulk sample? Question 6: Do any of your samples show the crystal structure of the mineral in part or all of their shape? This is the way the mineral grows and not how it is shaped due to cleavage or fracturing. Include a photo of any that show crystal structure. Question 7: The kit should include three different forms or varieties of Gypsum. As mentioned above they all have about the same chemical composition. Why might the Gypsum have formed in such different ways in different settings? Question 8: The minerals are already identified for you. For four (4) different minerals in the set briefly discuss the properties of of the mineral that would help you identify it if you did not know what it was. For each mineral is there one identifying property that is most definitive? (Hint: A few of these minerals do have a very distinctive property that makes them very easy to identify. In a couple of cases, these properties are unique and have not been mentioned in the general properties discussed so far.) Sample number: Properties: Mineral name: Sample number: Properties: Mineral name: Sample number: Properties: Mineral name: Sample number: Properties: Mineral name: Instructions/Help for completing the Earth-Sun Relations Lab assignment I have used this assignment for years and continue to be impressed with how good it is every time I use it. There is some background information that will be helpful to you as you approach it that I am happy to present here. It is important to understand that this exercise is cumulative. You will use what you calculate at the beginning as you work through toward the end. Start at the beginning and work through in order – don’t skip around. Do not consult online sources as you work through this. Use the resources given and your own ingenuity. Materials needed • Globe • Calculator • Printed-out copy of posted assignment You will need a good globe to complete this exercise. Your child’s school library is likely to have one, and many public libraries do also. If you are in Southern Cal anywhere near the HIU campus you may contact Professor Karen McReynolds at and arrange to borrow one of hers. You will also need a calculator and a paper copy of the four-page lab assignment. When you are done, scan it as one pdf document and submit it to Canvas by the end of the week. It is important that you carefully read the review of earth-sun relationships from chapter 16 of the Earth Science textbook. For your convenience, I have included an electronic copy of these pages in Canvas. You MUST have a basic understanding of Earth’s movement, sun angle, solstice and equinox, and more in order to complete this exercise accurately. Study these pages well before you go any further. Abbreviations and Definitions • N = North, S=South, E=East, W=West • Circle of Illumination. This is simply the boundary between daytime and nighttime. It divides the half of the earth that is lit by the sun from the half that is in darkness at any given time. • Plane of the Ecliptic. Our Sun and its eight planetary satellites all occur in a more or less flat plane. If you could extend a gigantic flat piece of paper through the center of the Sun and out millions of miles into space, it would also extend through the center of Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. This plane is called the Plane of the Ecliptic. • Chronometer. A chronometer is a very precise clock set to UTC, Universal Time Coordinated. See below for more information. Review of LATITUDE (to accompany your reading of the text as described above, not to replace it). Latitude is the measure of distance north and south of the equator. Numbers representing degrees of latitude are always followed by N for North or S for South. • 0° at equator • • Measured in horizontal lines called parallels as you move either North or South from the equator 90° is the maximum latitude possible on Earth. This is the latitude of the North Pole and the South Pole. This is logical because the distance from the Equator to either Pole is ¼ of a circle, and geometry tells us that a circle has 360°. One-quarter of 360 is 90. Review of LONGITUDE (to accompany your reading of the text as described above, not to replace it). Longitude is trickier than latitude because there is no obvious starting point for longitude, like the equator is for latitude; a starting point had to be arbitrarily established. The zero point for longitude also has an opposite, which is not the case with latitude. Numbers representing degrees of longitude are always followed by W for West or E for East. • 0° at Prime Meridian (passes through Greenwich, England) • Measured in vertical lines called meridians as you move either East or West from the Prime Meridian. • 180° is the maximum longitude possible on Earth. This makes sense because it is halfway around a circle, and half of 360° is 180°. The opposite of the Prime Meridian – the place where 180° E meets 180° W – is the International Date Line. • The way we measure time zones on Earth is linked to longitude. Each time zone is based on a standard meridian that runs more or less through the center of the time zone. Standard meridians occur every 15° of longitude, at 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, etc. Some important equivalents: 15° longitude = 1 time zone = 1 hour = about 1000 miles at the equator A chronometer is a very precise clock set to UTC, Universal Time Coordinated. The invention of the chronometer in 1761 revolutionized travel at sea, since it made it possible to determine longitude once a ship was out of sight of land. Sailors can use a sextant to determine when it is noon even far out at sea, and that time can be compared

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