Effectiveness of Low Impact Development Essay
Effectiveness of Low Impact Development (LID) strategies on runoff and water quality using Vegetative Swales in SWMM (Storm Water Management Model).
Development Core Team, 2012). Mixed models were implemented using R package nlme (Pinheiro et al., 2012). Results At the level of the whole root system (i.e. averaged across the control and exudate patches within a pot), plants subjected to the exudates collected from unrelated individuals from the same population produced roots that had higher specific root length and were more branched than plants receiving sibling exudates (main effect of exudate origin in Table 1, Fig. 1a,b). As a result of these morphological changes and a moderate but nonsignificant increase in root mass, root length density averaged across the exudate and control soil patches was 77% greater in the unrelated than in the sibling treatment (Fig. 1c,d). Although sibling exudates suppressed root proliferation at the level of the whole root system, they did not eliminate the localised response in the part of the root system subjected to exudates: New Phytologist (2014) 204: 631–637 www.newphytologist.com New Phytologist 634 Research Table 1 The effects of exudate origin (sibling or nonsiblings from the same population) and root sample location (exudate or control patch) on four root traits in Deschampsia caespitosa 1,9 6.6* 8.8* 1.6 5.4* 1,18 24.1*** 9.8** 7.1* 37.4*** 0.001 0.3 1,18 0.5 0.9 Analysis was performed on loge-transformed data and models included mother plant identity and pot as random factors. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001. independent of whether exudates came from siblings or unrelated individuals, greater root mass was recovered from the soil patch treated with exudates, and the roots had higher specific root length and were more branched than in the soil patch treated with the control solution (main effect of sample location in Table 1, Fig. 1a–c). As a result, root length density in the soil patch treated with exudates, either sibling or nonsibling, was on average 51% greater than in the patch treated with the control solution (Fig. 1d). However, root length density in the sibling treatment never exceeded that of the control plants (shown with a dashed line in Fig 1). By contrast, root length density in patches treated with the exudates of unrelated conspecifics was considerably higher than that of control plants. Besides their involvement in kin recognition, root exudates had species- and population-specific effects on root growth. At the level of the whole root system, application of conspecific exudates resulted in greater root length density when obtained from individuals from the same populati…
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