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Physics Lab 6 (Online Simulation) ENERGY Mechanics Unit 6 TA name: Due Date: Student Name: Student ID: Simulation Activity #4: Energy Skate Park Simulation created by the Physics Education Technology Project (PhET) c/o The University of Colorado at Boulder http://phet.colorado.edu/ Physics Lab 6 (Online Simulation) Investigating Energy Exchanges: Kinetic Energy and Gravitational Potential Energy Objective: This activity is intended to enhance your physics education. We offer it as a virtual lab online. We think it will help you make connections between predictions and conclusions, concepts and actions, equations and practical activities. We also think that if you give this activity a chance, it will be fun! This is an opportunity to learn a great deal. Answer all questions as you follow the procedure in running the simulation. Learn about conservation of energy with a skater dude! Build tracks, ramps and jumps for the skater and view the kinetic energy, potential energy and friction as he moves. You can also take the skater to different planets or even space! Take some time and play with the skater and his track. It helps you to practice with the following features and controls. Track selector: click on Tracks and select from the drop down menu. For example, the “Double well (Roller Coaster)” shown above. Reset: This rests the simulation to default values and sets the track to friction parabola track. Skater selector: clicking on Choose skater… will allows you to choose a skateboarder with a different mass. Measuring Tape: Check the Measuring Tape Box when you want to make measurements. Drag the left end of the tape measure to where you start your measurement, and then drag the right end to the final location. To make a reference horizontal line to your measurement, check the potential energy reference box and drag the blue line you see on the screen to the initial position. Graph Selector: If you would like to observe graphs that depicts the relationships among potential, kinetic, and thermal energy of the simulation, click buttons under the Energy Graphs. The types of graphs are shown above. You can also add pie graph by checking the show pie chart box. These graphs can be shown with or without the Thermal energy. Gravity: you may change the gravitational force by changing the location or the sliding bar underneath Gravity box. Additional Features: Clicking the Clear Heat makes the track frictionless. You can also edit the track friction and the skater mass using Track friction and Edit Skater buttons. You can also control the speed of the skater using the slide bar under the screen. Physics Lab 6 (Online Simulation) Introduction: The law of conservation of energy states that the total amount of energy in an isolated system remains constant. As a consequence of this law, we can say that energy neither created nor destroyed, but can change its form. The total energy E of a system (the sum of its mechanical energy and its internal energies, including thermal energy) can change only by amounts of energy that are transferred to or from the system. If work W is done on the system, then 𝑊 = 𝐸 = 𝐸𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ + 𝐸𝑡ℎ + 𝐸𝑖𝑛𝑡 If the system is isolated (aka no work done on the system, W = 0), this gives 𝐸𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ + 𝐸𝑡ℎ + 𝐸𝑖𝑛𝑡 = 0 The skate park is an excellent example of the conservation of energy. For the isolated skatetrack-Earth system with no internal energy, the law of conservation of energy equation is just 𝐸𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ + 𝐸𝑡ℎ = 0 Mechanical Energy: The mechanical energy Emech of a system is the sum of its kinetic energy K and its potential energy U: 𝐸𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ = 𝐾 + 𝑈 The conservation of mechanical energy can be written as 𝐸𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ = 𝐾 + 𝑈 = 0 It can also rewritten as 𝐾1 + 𝑈1 = 𝐾2 + 𝑈2 In which the subscript refer to different instants during an energy transfer process. Gravitational Potential Energy: The potential energy associated with a system consisting of Earth and a nearby particle is gravitational potential energy. If the particle moves from y1 to height y2 , the change in gravitational potential energy of the particle-Earth system is 𝑈 = 𝑚𝑔(𝑦2 – 𝑦1 ) = 𝑚𝑔𝑦 Kinetic Energy: The kinetic energy is associated with the state of motion of an object. If an object changes its speed from v1 to v2 , the change in kinetic energy is 𝐾 = 𝐾2 – 𝐾1 = ½ 𝑚𝑣22 − ½ 𝑚𝑣12 Physics Lab 6 (Online Simulation) Procedure: Open Energy Skate Park https://phet.colorado.edu/sims/html/energy-skate-park/latest/energy-skate-park_all.html Part I: Friction Parabola Track 1. Choose “Intro” and place the skater at the top of the left side to begin the simulation. Observe the energy bars as the skater moves back and forth. As the skater descends his kinetic energy ____________ and his potential energy _____________. The total energy bar _____________. 2. Now choose “Measure.” Repeat the setup from before. Measure the maximum height (h) the skater climbs up the right side. h = _______ 3. The gravitational potential energy at the maximum height is Potential energy (U) = _____Joules. 4. The skater’s speed at the lowest point of the parabola is speed = ______m/s 5. Change the skateboarder’s mass to 30 kg and repeat steps 2, 3, and 4. a. h = ______ m b. Potential energy (U) = ______ Joules c. speed = _____ m/s 6. Is the law of conservation of energy affected by the mass of the skater? a. Yes b. No Physics Lab 6 (Online Simulation) 7. Now choose “Graphs,” reset the skater’s mass to 60 kg, and observe the Energy versus Position graph as the skater moves back and forth. a. Pause the simulation at the bottom of the parabola. What are the values on the graph for the following? i. Kinetic energy (K) = ______Joules ii. Potential energy (U) = ______Joules b. Run the simulation again, and then pause it at the maximum height (either on the left or the right). What are the measured values? i. Kinetic energy (K) = ______Joules ii. Potential energy (K) = ______Joules 8. Apply the following settings for the simulation to answer the proceeded questions. a. Hit the refresh button on the bottom right. b. Click the Pause button and switch the graph to Energy vs. Time. c. Adjust the coefficient of friction to about one-fourth on the slider. d. Place the skater at the top of the left side. e. Run the simulation for 20 seconds 9. Read the following energies at 12 seconds and 17 seconds. a. at 12 seconds: K = ________ J U = ________ J Eth = ________ J b. at 17 seconds: K = ________ J U = ________ J Eth = ________ J Physics Lab 6 (Online Simulation) 10. Calculate the individual energy changes and the total energy change between 12 and 17 seconds. a. K = ________ J U = ________ J Eth = ________ J b. Total energy: E = K + U + Eth = _________ J Physics Lab 6 (Online Simulation) Part II: Double Well (Roller Coaster) 1 3 4 2 1. Return to the “Measure” lab. Click Refresh and choose the wavy track option from the top right. Run the simulation and measure the K and U. Then calculate the total energy (E) at that spot using your measured K and U. (Note: if you can’t measure exactly on the spot, try to measure as closely as you can.) a. At point 1: h1 = _____ m. U1 = ______J K1 = ______J E1 = ______ J b. At point 2: h2 = _____ m. U2 = ______J K2 = ______J E2 = ______ J Physics Lab 6 (Online Simulation) c. At point 3: h3 = _____ m. U3 = ______J K3 = ______J E3 = ______ J d. At point 4: h4 = _____ m. U4 = ______J K4 = ______J E4 = ______ J 2. Using the K you found at points 3 and 4, calculate the speeds at those points. a. The skater’s speed at point 3: v3 = _______m/s b. The skater’s speed at point 4: v4 = _______m/s Physics Lab 6 (Online Simulation) 3. Return to the “Graphs” lab and re-run the simulation with the wavy track. Use the Energy vs Position graph and read the potential (U), kinetic(K), and total (E) energies at the control points a. At point 1: U1 = ______J K1 = ______J E1 = ______ J b. At point 2: U2 = ______J K2 = ______J E2 = ______ J c. At point 3: U3 = ______J K3 = ______J E3 = ______ J d. At point 4: U4 = ______J K4 = ______J E4 = ______ J 4. Using the values you found in #3, calculate and re-derive the heights at each of the control points. a. h1 = ____ m, h2 = ____ m, h3 = ____ m, h4 = ____ m 5. How are the shape of potential and kinetic energies related to the shape of the track? a. Potential energy to the track: _____________________________________ b. Kinetic energy to the track: ________________________________________ 6. If you set up the simulation again but instead choose Moon gravity, what changes about the shape and values of the Energy vs. Position graphs? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Physics Lab 6 (Online Simulation) 7. Apply the following settings for the simulation to answer the following questions. a. Choose the “Graphs” lab and refresh the simulation. b. Choose the wavy track from the top right and then hit Pause. c. Adjust the coefficient of friction to about one-fourth on the slider. d. Open the Energy versus Time graph. e. Place the skater at the top left, and then run the simulation for 20 seconds. 8. Read the energies at 9 seconds and 16 seconds a. at the 9th second: K = ________ J U = ________ J Eth = ________ J b. at the 16th second: K = ________ J U = ________ J Eth = ________ J 9. Calculate the individual energy changes and total energy changes between 9 and 16 seconds. a. K = ________ J U = ________ J Eth = ________ J b. Total energy: E = K + U + Eth = _________ J Physics Lab 6 (Online Simulation) Follow up Questions: 1. At the highest point kinetic energy is at its a. minimum b. maximum 2. At the highest point gravitational potential energy is at its a. minimum b. maximum. 3. Mass _______ the conservation of energy. a. affects b. does not affect 4. Calculate the potential energy the 60.0 kg skater has before she starts her ride, 12.0 m above the ground. U = _______ J 5. Calculate the kinetic energy of a 60.0 kg skater traveling with a velocity of 4.00 m/s. K = _______ J 6. Calculate the speed of a 20.0 kg skater with a kinetic energy of 360 Joules. v = ______ m/s Physics Lab 6 (Online Simulation) 7. Calculate how high must a 2.00 kg basketball be thrown so it has a potential energy of 160 J. h = _______ m 8. Calculate how fast must the 2.00 kg basketball be thrown upward to achieve the same 160 J? vi = ______ m/s 9. If a 75.0 kg skater starts his skate at a height of 8.00m, calculate his velocity when he reaches a height of 0m. v = _______ m/s 10. In the above question, all the potential energy became kinetic energy. Calculate how much work was done. (Remember, the work-energy theorem states that the net work on an object equals the object’s change in kinetic energy.) W = _______ J
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