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I have attached the homework and all materials including the textbook and the slides. I need you to do the first part by hand. And the second part, you can type.5 attachmentsSlide 1 of 5

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1 Section 1: Paleoclimatology A new island has been discovered, and you have been assigned the task of determining whether or not the island is suitable for habitation. Currently, the island has a wet climate very suitable for agriculture, but your employers want to make sure the climate isn’t going to adversely change in the near future. You embark on a mission to recover five paleoclimate records covering the past 2000 years. 1) Plot your data on each of the graphs. 2) Draw in the line for the average data value. 3) Determine wet and dry periods by finding zones where the values are significantly different than the average values (remember that greater values may correlate with wet OR dry conditions, as it depends on the proxy). 4) Plot all your proxy data in the same graph to develop the multi-proxy conclusion (they should be plot approximately with the same shape, but you do not need to care about the units since they will be all different). 5) Develop a multi-proxy conclusion by finding times where at least 4 of the 5 records agree on a similar climate condition (pay attention on data in which drier conditions are pointing in opposite directions). Lucky for you, this is a very diverse new island. A karst landscape allows you to collect stalagmites, while another region contains several lakes without outlets for lake level studies. There is a very tall mountain that has a glacier on it where you successfully collected an ice core, and one of the lakes also had lots of identifiable pollen in it. Finally, a semi-arid region contained both active and stable dunes, and you were able to figure out the changes in dune activity over the past 2000 years. You begin the data analysis… Hint/Tip: This was intended originally to be completed by hand, however, if you are comfortable completing this in MS Excel, you are welcome to do so. To create the multi-proxy record, you need to align all five of the average lines together and then trace the records. You can flip it (hotdog/vertically) so that the drier scale arrows are all pointing in the same direction or you can make sure to take note the drier orientation is for each proxy. 2 Data: Year (AD) 2000 1900 1800 1700 1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Average Stalagmite Width (mm) Lake Level (ft) Glacial Dust Amount Pollen Ratio % Active Dunes 24 120 1 0.1 5 23 100 2 0.3 10 11 40 7 0.8 60 6 35 8 0.9 75 1 50 9 0.7 65 16 60 8 0.6 65 18 50 4 0.8 20 17 55 3 0.7 15 14 40 6 0.9 70 11 45 8 0.9 80 13 60 7 0.8 65 12 55 9 0.7 70 18 80 4 0.3 40 16 50 8 0.8 65 14 55 7 0.8 75 20 80 2 0.2 25 22 90 1 0.3 15 10 75 8 0.9 55 8 45 7 0.8 65 12 50 8 0.7 65 17 80 4 0.2 15 14 60 5 0.6 50 3 Lake Record 130 120 Lake Level (ft) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 Year (AD) 800 4 Pollen Record 1.0 Grassy – Forest Ratio — Drier –> 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 200 0 Year (AD) Dune Record 100 % Sand Dunes Active — Drier –> 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 Year (AD) 800 600 400 5 Using all five records, identify drier and wetter periods (remember that we are saying that if 4 of 5 records agree, it works for the multi-proxy record). Make boxes around specific wet and dry periods and clearly identify each. Also remember that it’s okay for some periods to be neither wet nor dry, or simply inconclusive. Note: the graph below is not to scale of the other graphs. So, adjust the axis, replot them all, or trace on a separate piece of paper (my recommendation). Make sure you label each proxy and keep track of up/down as being dry/wet for each proxy and make sure the average lines align for all of the records (one average line instead of five different ones). Multi-proxy Record 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 Year (AD) 800 600 400 200 0 6 Final question for section 1: The boss calls you in for the final verdict. He said that according to recent weather conditions over the past 5 years (~2000 AD) the place appears conducive to habitation. Based upon your multi-proxy paleoclimate record, would you recommend habitation? In other words, should new habitants expect a similar climate in the future, or is the currently observed climate merely an anomaly? 7 Section 2: Definitions Write a singular sentence definition for the following terms: Global Climate Change Carbon dioxide Land Use Trees Lawns Wolves 8 Tuna Uranium Water Bottles E-Waste https://blogs.umass.edu/natsci397a-eross/fertilizers-are-doing-more-than-you-think/ LAND USE Chapter 10 (Trees) & 14 (Lawns) Anthromes (2008) – Unit C    AKA anthropogenic biomes, human biomes, or intensive land-use biomes Erle Ellis & Navin Ramankutty in “Putting People in the Map: Anthropogenic Biomes of the World” Take the original biomes concept, but combine it with human land use. How many of these categories relate to agriculture? Rainforests – Trees http://montessorimuddle.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/biomes.png Rainforests = Trees?  Culturally: Save the Trees = Save the rainforests  Many other types of Trees… #TeamTrees (YouTube 2020) Mark Rober & MrBeast Methuselah Tree    4,853-year-old “Methuselah Grove”, Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest, Inyo National Forest, California White Mountains Exact location is a secret protected by the United States Forest Service. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methuselah_(tree) https://www.theguardian.com/environme nt/2020/aug/02/the-methuselah-treeand-the-secrets-of-earths-oldest- Rainbow

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