Counterargumens: Climate Change is costly to address and the environment is able to adapt

Supporting topics to improve climate change: Improve infrastructure, use hybrid and electric cars, and rainforest reforestation

Negative impacts of climate change you can use: stronger hurricanes, arctic ice melting, displacement of people

let me know if you have any questions


**1,000 words (minimum). You need to include your word count on the last page of your essay. Works Cited page is excluded from the word count.

**Use at least 3 credible outside sources, including at least 1 from Mt. SAC Library Database. You may use CIEQ textbook as one of your sources.

**MLA format: General formatting + in-text citations+ Works Cited page (3 sources, minimum)


Claims of policy argue that certain conditions should exist. They advocate adoption of policies or courses of action because problems exist that call for solution. Almost always, should, ought to, need to, or must is expressed or implied in the claim (thesis).

Claim of policy argument should first begin by attempting to convince the audience that a problem exists. This will require a factual claim that offers data proving that present conditions are unsatisfactory. Claims of value (your judgment of the problem) may also be necessary to support the claim of fact about the existing problem.

So, the policy itself is introduced after the problem is established; the policy is presented as a viable solution to the problem. It would have to discuss possible resistance, obstacles, costs, challenges, etc. Additionally, it would point out the benefits for individuals/and or society if it were adopted.

Your readers could either disagree that a problem exists, or they could agree that there is a problem but disagree with your proposed solutions.


To compose a college-level research paper that argues that a (controversial) political, social, or environmental condition (problem) exists and to offer viable (and debatable) solutions. We will first inform our audience about the existing condition (claim of fact), make a judgment of that condition (claim of value), and finally, propose solutions for solving that problem (claim of policy).


A “scholarly” audience of experts who have closely studied your chosen controversial issue.


**Please complete ALL related assignments and readings.

**Please use all relevant resources posted on Canvas.

Basic Structure:

1. Introduction

In the first paragraph, briefly present the problem, the surrounding controversy/debate, and your claim/argument. Your thesis should include a roadmap (or blueprint) of the main points to follow in the body paragraphs.

2. Body

Beginning in paragraph two, fully develop your supports. Each support must be in a separate paragraph or set of paragraphs. Do not put two points in the same paragraph!

Begin each paragraph with a transition word (first, second, next, etc.) in the topic sentence.

Order your supports by importance (that is, the most important or persuasive support comes first).

Make sure that you include counterargument(s) as well as refutation of opposing arguments.

3. Conclusion

Finally, summarize both your claim and your supports in your final paragraph.

4. In-Text Citations and Works Cited Section

You MUST include properly formatted in-text citations within the essay as well as a Works Cited section at the end of your essay (separate page). If you are not sure how to follow the MLA style, please review the textbook and the Canvas resources, including the Purdue Owl website.

Keys to Success:

*Be sure to write at least the minimum number of words. You must meet that requirement.

*Check your grammar, spelling, and punctuation before you submit your work. You will lower your grade if your writing contains basic mistakes. Don’t rely on spell check to catch every spelling error!

*Start writing early. It’s obvious when the author waited until the last minute. It’s likely you will need several drafts to get it right. Give yourself the time to write those drafts.

*Use transitions to signal to the reader that you are moving from one point to the next. If you omit transitions, it will be almost impossible for your reader to follow you.

Evaluation—Essays will be evaluated using the following criteria:

  • utilization of critical thinking skills to develop an original argument on the chosen topic that the student author has exigency for;
  • locate, gather, and skillfully implement at least 3 relevant sources, 1 of them being from the Mt. SAC Library Databases
  • an effective title that carries part of the burden of delivering the claim to the scholarly reader;
  • a well-organized introductory section [1-2 paragraphs] that effectively engages the “expert audience’s” interest by establishing presenting the issue at hand, providing relevant background information, and presenting a clear position;
  • compose and support a clear, concise, debatable claim/thesis;
  • multiple body paragraphs that support the claim with relevant, unique supporting reasons;
  • each reason is supported with pieces of relevant, current, and unbiased evidence taken from the secondary sources;
  • insightfully analyzes the chosen evidence to prove the supporting reason and further the claim; 
  • anticipates, acknowledges, and successfully refutes at least one major opposing viewpoints to the writer’s claim;
  • a powerful conclusion that reiterates the author’s claim and persuades reader to accept it.
  • a clear organizational pattern;
  • argument moves the “expert audience” closer to acceptance of the claim;
  • employs effective use of logos, pathos, and ethos; uses reasoning that is  free of fallacies;
  • accurate paraphrasing and summarizing of outside sources rather than reliance on direct quotes;
  • student’s own ideas, not the sources, control the paper/argument;
  • paper reflects a mature and effective style [sentence pattern variety, college-level diction, consistent voice, effective transitions, clear organization of ideas, etc.] that is appropriate for the “expert audience” and topic of the essay;
  • essay is free of repetitive sentence-level errors in grammar and/or punctuation that impede the readability of paper [written in third person; avoid excessive use of the first or second person references, etc.];
  • development of ideas to 5+ paragraphs; 1000 words.

Final Note: For questions, concerns, and feedback, please email me, attend my Zoom office hours, or make Zoom appointments. Please be sure to complete all your assignments and to use all resources posted on Canvas.  

Good Luck!!! J

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