Example of Correct Research Paper Writing Format Types and Distribution of Marine Sediments (20 points total) Part 1 – The four major types of marine sediments covered in your textbook. a) List the four types. 1. Terrigenous Comes from continents and are dominant on continental margins, abyssal plains, and polar ocean floors. Makes up for 45% of all the ocean floor area covered. 2. Biogenous This type of sediment is dominant on the deep ocean floor and makes up for 55% of all the ocean floor area covered. 3. Hydrogenous Makes up for less than 1% of all the ocean floor area covered and is present with other more dominant sediments. Examples are manganese nodules and phosphorite deposits. 4. Cosmogenous Makes up for significantly less than 1% of all the ocean floor area covered. This type of sediment is mixed in very small proportion with more dominant sediments. Examples are tektite spheres and glassy nodules. b) Describe each type’s composition and grain size. 1. Terrigenous sediments are made up of progressively smaller particles with increasing distance from shore since larger particles sink more quickly and smaller particles are carried further away by ocean currents. Examples are gravel, clay, sand and estuarine mud. 2. Biogenous sediments are composed of organic material and are very small particles. 3. Hydorogenous sediments c) Explain the origin of each sediment type 1. Terrigenous originates from land, rivers and glaciers. Terrigenous sediments connsists of sediment from blown dust, volcanic eruptions and the erosion of land by the weathering of rock into smaller fragments. 2. Biogenous sediments consist of organic material from marine organisms and plants. The accumulation of the hard shells of dead marine organisms form biogenous oozes 3. Hydrogenous sediments come from the precipitation of dissolved minerals from water. 4. Cosmogenous sediments originate from meteorite debris and dust from space. Part 2 – Similarities and differences of the two types of pelagic oozes in terms of composition, origin and Distribution, and Calcium Carbonate Compensation Depth. a) Describe Chemical compositions. 1. Calcareous ooze is from Calcium carbonate hard shells of marine organisms. The chemical formula for calcium carbonate is CaCO3. 2. Siliceous ooze is from Silica b) Explain origin of where the ooze sediment comes from. 1. Calcareous ooze comes mainly from the shells of foraminifera, pteropods, and coccolithophores. 2. Siliceous ooze comes from the hard parts of radiolarians, and diatoms. c) Principle regions on seafloor where you find calcareous ooze? a) More common in the Atlantic and found on the upper parts of ridges and rises. Not found below the CCD, which is typically 4500 meter. d) Principle regions on seafloor where you find siliceous ooze? a) Deep ocean basins surrounding the Antarctica, predominates at greater depths and in colder polar water. Radiolarian oozes occur in equatorial regions and mostly in the zone of equatorial upwelling West of South America. e) Principle regions on seafloor where you find pelagic red clay? a) Found in the deepest parts of the ocean. f) What are the reasons for this global distribution pattern of the three types? a) Calcium carbonate dissolves where pressure is high, temperature is low, and in areas with increased carbon dioxide. The deep Pacific is older than the deep Atlantic and has more carbon dioxide so therefore calcareous ooze is more common in the Atlantic. b) Siliceous oozes are only found where the amount of silica reaching the sediment is high, otherwise silica dissolves. High diatom productivity in some surface waters leads to a buildup of siliceous ooze. c) Pelagic red clay settles slowly and is therefore only found in the deepest parts of the ocean. g) Define the Calcium Compensation Depth 1) The depth that calcium carbonate becomes totally dissolved. Defined as the rate at which calcareous sediments that are supplied to the seabed equals the rate at which they dissolve. h) General water depth where CCD lies? 1. Typically at a depth of 4500 meters. i) Describe the different chemical conditions on calcareous ooze above and below the CCD? a) Below the CCD, calcium carbonate skeletons dissolve on the seafloor, so no calcareous ooze accumulates. Below this depth, water holds more carbon dioxide, which results in more carbonic acid and in turn dissolves more calcium carbonate. Above the CCD, calcareous sediment dominates the seafloor and accounts for 48% of the surface of ocean basins. Bibliography 1) Course Textbook, pages 140-162, Table 6.2. 2) www.oceansci.com, Seafloors and Marine Sediments Lecture Outline GEOL100 RESEARCH ASSIGNMENT – SAN ANDREAS FAULT SYSTEM – TECTONICS, GEOLOGY, FAULT DYNAMICS, AND HAZARDS Due Date: Sunday, May 23, 2021 by 11:59 pm A. Introduction: This writing assignment involves the research, analysis, and writing on the San Andreas Fault System of California, with focus on the Southern California segment. The San Andreas Fault System (SAFS) is a network of related active faults that occur in California. Here, in Southern California, the SAFS is quite complicated and extensive, being nearly 200 kilometers wide – from the Salton Sea to Catalina Island – comprised of many interconnected, side-by-side, transform fault lines. Your textbook and the various websites listed below will be your primary sources of information. The assignment topic includes the review and discussion of the tectonic setting of Southern California, the development and evolution of the SAFS, the present day dynamics and activity of the SAFS in So Cal, and the associated seismic hazards and precautions of living on within or near the SAFS. The following parts of this document include information on what topics to address, where to go for research information, how to assemble your research paper, and where and how to submit it. You can earn up to 75 points for this assignment. B. Assignment Resources: The primary source of information for completing this assignment, besides your textbook, comes from USGS publications along with other helpful sources listed below. If for some reason you cannot find the needed information from the following online sources, please feel free to search the Internet for additional reliable sources of information. Please list your sources at the end of your assignment document. I. Overview – General Info about Earthquakes and Faulting: Earthquakes 101: URL1: https://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/kids/eqscience.php URL2: https://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/eqproc/ Magnitude, Size, Measuring of Earthquakes: URL1: https://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/topics/measure.php URL2: http://www.geo.mtu.edu/UPSeis/magnitude.html URL3: http://www.geo.mtu.edu/UPSeis/intensity.html II. General Overview of the San Andreas Fault Zone: URL1: http://www.thulescientific.com/QuickFacts.htm URL2: http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/salton/San%20AndreasFaultSyst.html URL3: http://geomaps.wr.usgs.gov/archive/socal/geology/geologic_history/san_andreas _history.html URL4: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_earthquakes_in_California USGS Text and Image documents on the SAFS: URL1: http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/earthq3/contents.html URL2: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1127/chapter1.pdf In-depth/Detailed Reports: SAFZ – USGS Professional Paper 1515 URL1: http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1990/1515/pp1515.pdf III. Images and Maps of SAFZ: URL1: http://thulescientific.com/san-andreas-fault-map.html URL2: http://thulescientific.com/san-andreas-fault-map.html IV. History and Prediction of Earthquakes along the SAFZ: URL1: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_earthquakes_in_California URL2: http://foreshock.wordpress.com/significant-la-area-earthquakes-1769-present/ The Future “Big One” on the SAF URL1: http://www.earthquakecountry.info/roots/scenario.html URL2: http://www.earthquakecountry.info/roots/scenario.html V. Earthquake Hazards and Safety of SAFS: URL1: https://earthquake.usgs.gov/hazards/learn/basics.php URL2: http://www.earthquakecountry.org/sevensteps/ C. Ten-Point Assignment Instructions: 1) Carefully review the three sets of assignment questions. 2) Read and study the listed URL’s for the necessary information for answering questions. 3) Answer the question sets listed in Section D below. Minimize using quoted information. 4) Make sure to organize your paper into SEPARATE responses – leave space between each answer. Please include the stated questions as listed below at the beginning of each response. Color your answer text with a different text color from that of the question set text. An example of the required writing format is linked in the assignment folder. 5) Include a bibliography of the sources of information that you used at end of your paper. 6) Once you’ve written and edited your research assignment, then you can save it as SAFS_ASSIGN_YOUR NAME. Note that it helps me greatly in grading your response if you include your name in the title of your assignment document file. I prefer that you save it as a WORD .doc and .docx files, but .txt files are “OK”. DO NOT submit a .pages or .pdf file. Also note that using symbols such as “/”, “#” or “\” in your file name will cause uploading problems.
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