I’m working on a film question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

Step 1: Write a 250-word journal entry that addresses the following prompt:

Discuss the context in which “Birth of a Nation” was made. What was happening in the United States in 1914/1915, especially regarding race relations? What was the American filmmaking industry like at the time, especially regarding race relations?

Step 2: Cite at least 5 examples of racial stereotypes present in the film.

I have attached texts from the lesson to assist you and other discussion responses that may be helpful.
Here is a link to one of the articles in the lesson: https://www.thirteen.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_even…2 attachmentsSlide 1 of 2

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UNFORMATTED ATTACHMENT PREVIEW

Copyright © ${Date}. ${Publisher}. All rights reserved. 7 Pressurizing the Media Industry: Achievements and Limitations* This chapter1 focuses on a major series of attempts made over the period 1992–2002 to pressure the US television entertainment industry into more varied and richer representations of people of color. As well as the work of minority-ethnic advocacy groups, it addresses attempts by members of the professional guilds in Hollywood to create initiatives framed with the same goals in view.2 The focus on entertainment, rather than news, is not to downplay the importance of the latter for a democracy, especially a functioning multi-racial democracy. However, democracy belongs to the imagination and emotions as much as it does equally to reason and logical debate. If we cannot feel a multi-racial democracy we are very unlikely to plan it or even care much about it except in a purely defensive mode. Furthermore, at least within the USA, the appalling decline in the quality of television news – the public’s primary information source – means that for some time now the real, as opposed to the hypothetical or vaunted, contribution of the news media to democracy has turned nearly to water. Therefore efforts to address entertainment, while only part of the necessary movement of public opinion to develop more democracy-friendly media, were and are more urgent than ever. These efforts were not unprecedented. The NAACP (the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) in its first decade protested Birth of a Nation, the 1915 feature film demeaning African Americans and glorifying the Ku Klux Klan, and the televised version of Amos ‘n’ Andy in the early 1950s. Noriega (2001) has provided a detailed account of how Latino activists protested the TV advertising campaign for the Frito Bandido in the 1960s, out of which emerged an independent Latino cinema movement. The 1981 New York City campaign against the shooting of the feature film Fort Apache, the Bronx, which framed Latino and Black residents of the Bronx as modern-day Apaches (thus succeeding in producing three different lampoons at once), was another significant moment in the generation of a media policy on ‘race’ by the public (Pérez, 1985). But during and after the last decade of the 20th century, the sustained level of protest and generation of specific practical proposals for effective change, was something new. In our view, this experience (continuing to the time of writing) is a very important one to assess – although, naturally, various individuals and groups will evaluate it in different ways – because of the global as well as national influence of US television, and because of its intimate interface with Hollywood’s equally influential film industry. The assessment needs to be critical, not in order to whip ourselves into an orgy of fatalism, but in order to hone the most intelligently devised approaches we can muster to reorient media industries in constructive and stimulating directions. So while we shall not be able to answer all of the questions we pose in the next paragraph, each one is important. Copyright © ${Date}. ${Publisher}. All rights reserved. The specificity of the USA needs acknowledging from the start. Many nations have culture ministries which frame cultural development policies, while in the USA, cultural policy on a mass level is developed by media corporations, and public support for the arts is frequently a football in a political contest between the puritanical conservative right on the one hand, and a whole spectrum of dissimilar but somewhat dissident positions on the other. How far does or even can the US experience of contesting industry practices represent a model for such goals elsewhere? Was the movement to challenge industry practices faced with inevitable structural limitations however successful it might prove in some directions? What would constitute necessary additional initiatives in complementary spheres of activity, such as education? Is the growth of national and international media oligopoly an institutionalized barrier to constructive change (McChesney, 1997), or do contemporary niche marketing and advertising strategies herald a diversification of media representation, at least for minority-ethnic groups with moderately affluent sectors (Tharp, 2001)? Are public service media more likely to be amenable to these shifts in direction? Media monitoring, discussed in the previous chapter, is one attempt at public influence over major media institutions, which can be used to address ‘racial’ and ethnic content, and beyond content, professional practices and procedures. We shall see that monitoring was also a significant element in the overall strategy minority-ethnic advocacy groups and some of the guilds adopted in Hollywood, but only in conjunction with other methods too. From 1992 through 2002, relations between minority-ethnic advocacy groups and the commercial television industry were mostly conflictual. We should state at the outset our view that while this strife was not unproductive, neither did it come close to improving the level or quality of screen representations, or of behind-the-screen employment, of people of color, such that US citizens, the TV industry, or the advocacy groups could or should feel remotely satisfied. Nonetheless, however we may evaluate them, these fairly sustained protests have in our view been far preferable to the previous decades of only intermittent public critique. For the first time the issue has been continually on the table through the advocacy groups’ assaults on the Hollywood citadel. They have begun to frame a media policy for the public in this arena. Yet to speak in terms of the industry as a citadel, accurately as it may convey the

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