PLANTS Liverworts  Bryophytes ▪ Non-vascular plants ▪ Reproduce with alternation of generations and spores Moss Hornworts PLANTS Vascular plants Plant leaves Make food (photosynthesis) Roots absorb water and nutrients Vascular tissue in plants: Xylem: Transports water Phloem: Transports food PLANTS  Seedless vascular plants ▪ Vascular tissue ▪ Still have alternation of generations and reproduce with spores Ferns Horsetails PLANTS Seed plants: vascular plants with pollen, seeds, wood Gymnosperms: Seed plants without flowers, fruits, or berries Pollen: Sperm learns to fly! No more alternation of generations! PLANTS Angiosperms (flowering plants): are seed plants that offer “payment” in the form of nectar, fruits, and berries to get animals to transport pollen and seeds! FUNGI multicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes are decomposers and parasites ANIMALS multicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes that are mostly active  Types of symmetry in animals:  Sponges: ▪ ▪ ▪ Immobile filter feeders Assymetrical Different cell types but no tissues or organs. ANIMALS  Cnidarians ▪ Mobile predators, immobile suspension feeders ▪ Radial symmetry ▪ Some tissues, nerve net Corals ANIMALS Anemones Jellyfish ANIMALS  Bilaterians ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Active lifestyle! Central nervous system Cephalization One-way gut True muscle tissue The following animals are all bilaterians… ANIMALS  Molluscs • • • • Mantle (fleshy covering) Muscular foot Of ten a radula (scraping tongue) Of ten CaCO 3 shell Cephalopods (Squid, octopus, cuttlefish, Nautilus) Bivalves (clams and oysters) Gastropods (snails) ANIMALS  Bryozoans and Brachiopods (”lophophorates”) ANIMALS  Arthropods • • • • Insects, spiders & scorpions, crustaceans, centipedes etc… Segmented exoskeleton (sometimes reinforced with calcite) Jointed appendages Most living species of animals! ANIMALS Starfish Brittle stars  Enchinoderms Echinoids ▪ Pentameral symmetry ▪ Calcite exoskeleton Crinoids Sea cucumbers ANIMALS • Vertebrates: • Have an internal skeleton (including a skull and backbone) of hydroxylapatite PALEONTOLOGY The study of ancient life through fossils, the remains of ancient life Combines biology and geology It is NOT archaeology Fossils are found in sedimentary rocks, especially clastics and carbonates More typical fossil find in the Chinle Formation of Arizona Camarosaurus skeleton In the Morrison Formation of Wyoming Paleontology All living things In an ecosystem Organic material and stored energy being fed to the next generation of living things FOSSILIZATION Fossilization: the process by which the remains of living things become fossils RARE in nature! Wildebeest mass drowning in Maasai Mara National Preserve, Kenya FOSSILIZATION Original mineralized hard parts  Usually calcite, aragonite (both CaCO 3 ), silica (SiO 4 ) or hydroxylapatite [Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ] Radiolarians (microfossils) Permineralized dinosaur bone Ammonite shell FOSSILIZATION Replacement Petrified tree (silicified) Ammonite and brachiopod shells replaced with pyrite FOSSILIZATION Molds and casts Ammonite natural cast Clam shell mold FOSSILIZATION Soft part preservation: usually carbonization, compression, and impression Pennsylvanian (~309 Ma) fern or fern-like plant Cretaceous (~100 Ma) Insect in amber Cretaceous (106-112 Ma) spider from Korea FOSSILIZATION Trace fossils (tracks, burrows, coprolites) Coprolite from the latest Cretaceous (~66 Ma) of Saskatchewan ”Devil’s corkscrew” Miocene (20-23 Ma) Nebraska Dinosaur tracks Cretaceous (~115 Ma) Glen Rose Formation, Texas ENVIRONMENTS AND LIFE Historical Geology Lecture 7 THE EARTH AS A SYSTEM SOLAR ENERGY (and other extraterrestrial influences) Climate: Circulation in the atmosphere and hydrosphere Life: photosynthesis, respiration, formation and erosion of biogenic sedimentary rocks Plate tectonics: mountain building, volcanism, continent movement INTERNAL HEAT OF THE EARTH In all Earth systems, matter is recycled, but energy flow is one way CLIMATE  Temperature, amount of water, and amount of sunlight  Variation controlled LOCALLY by: ▪ Latitude (how far north or south) ▪ Position of continents  Variation controlled GLOBALLY and TEMPORALLY (over time) by: ▪ Amount of CO 2 and oxygen in the atmosphere ▪ Controlled in turn by volcanic activity and carbon reservoirs, including life ▪ Milankovitch Cycles (changes in orbit shape and axial tilt of the Earth) ▪ Albedo (how much sunlight reflected into space) ▪ Position of the continents ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION Low Pressure High Pressure ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION The Earth’s climate zones are controlled by solar heating, the spin of the Earth, axial tilt of the Earth. The intertropical convergence zone ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION High pressure vs. low pressure zones THE CORIOLIS EFFECT  W h e n a r o u n d o b j ec t r o t a te s , t h e w i d e r p a r t s o f t h e o b j e c t r o t a te f a s te r t h a n t h e n a r r o we r p a r t s . T h i s c a u s e s o b j e c t s m o v i n g b et w e e n t h e s e r e g i o n s p e r p e n d i c ul a r to t h e d i r e c t i o n o f r o t a t i o n to b e d e f l e c te d , b e c a u s e t h ey m a i n t a i n t h e m o m e n t um o f w h e r e t h ey c a m e f r o m . In the northern hemisphere, air or water moving north is deflected east, air and water moving south is deflected west. The opposite is true in the southern hemisphere. Remember that air currents close to the surface are getting pulled towards the low pressure at the Equator! Which direction will they deflect? This video helps to understand when an object with the same sideways momentum of the ground below it moves to a surface that isn’t moving in that direction as quickly, but the object retains its faster sideways momentum. From the perspective of someone walking along the platform in the same direction of the train, the object is moving that way faster than they are. Someone jumping onto the train would find themselves going slower than the train and be thrown to the viewer’s left. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AdZTcuqK9p0 THE CORIOLIS EFFECT Air getting pushed away from 30 degrees latitude Air getting pulled towards the Equator Air getting pushed away from 30 degrees latitude THE EFFECTS OF AXIAL TILT Northern summer Southern winter Intertropical convergence zone shifts north and south with the seasons! Northern winter Southern summer MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE • Occur between 30-45 degrees latitude • Hot, dry summers, cool wet winters OCEAN CURRENTS OCEAN CURRENTS Upwelling OCEAN CURRENTS Warm water and low pressure zone trapped La Niña: Unusually strong trade winds push cold water west across the Pacific OCEAN CURRENTS El Ninõ: Trade winds weaken, warm water pushes east across the Equator THE IMPACT OF CONTINENTS Rain shadows THE IMPACT OF CONTINENTS The Atacama Desert The Atacama Desert Central Andes Central Andes Chilean Coastal Range THE IMPACT OF THE CONTINENTS The Indian Monsoon Water has high specific heat, so land heats and cools faster! The monsoon pulls against the trade winds The African monsoon MONSOONS Western Ghats, India THE IMPACT OF THE CONTINENTS The Gulf Stream THE IMPACT OF THE CONTINENTS The Antarctic Circum-Polar Current ECOSYSTEMS An environment, the organisms it contains, and how all interact BIOMES Ecosystems controlled by similar temperatures, amount of sunlight, and precipitation Tropical rainforest biome Desert biome Savannah Grassland Temperate (deciduous) forests Boreal (taiga) forest Tundra BIOMES Niches, limiting factors, and competition Food webs Phytoplankton bloom MINERALS Historical Geology Lecture 3 ATOMS AND ELEMENTS Nucleus Orbitals Atomic number vs. mass number Atom size!  States of Matter ▪ Solid ▪ Liquid Increasing kinetic energy (heat) ▪ Gas ▪ Plasma Atoms vs. molecules/chemical compounds Chemistry vs. nuclear physics Plasma in the Sun Atomic number and atomic mass (weight) Isotopes : Atoms with the same number of protons but dif ferent number s of neutrons. Radioisotopes : Isotopes that are unstable and conver t into a dif ferent element Potassium has 19 protons Potassium-39 (39K) 20 neutrons Potassium-40 (40K) 21 neutrons Potassium-41 (41K) 22 neutrons  Types of radioactive decay ▪ Alpha decay ▪ Beta positive decay ▪ Beta negative decay ▪ EXAMPLES ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ U-238 → Th-234 K-40 → Ar-40 Rb-87 → Sr-87 C-14 → N-14  Chemical bonds and molecules Atoms bond to make molecules because they want… 1. A neutral electric charge. 2. A full outermost (valence) orbital, which they get by giving or sharing electrons with other atoms. Ions: charged atoms Sodium ion: Na1+ Chlorine ion: Cl1Sodium (Na) Chlorine (Cl)  Common elements in the crust and their ions Percentage of Earth’s crust: Oxygen (O 2- ) = 63% Silicon (Si 4+ ) = 21% Aluminum (Al 3+ ) = 6.5% Iron (Fe 2+ or Fe 3+ ) = 1 .9% Calcium (Ca 2+ ) =1 .9% Sodium (Na + ) = 2.6% Potassium (K + ) = 1 .4% Magnesium (Mg 2+ ) = 1 .8% Others = 1 .8% Other important elements Carbon (C-4 to C+4!) Phosphorous (P3-) Sulfur (S-2) Sodium (Na+)  Types of Chemical Bonds ▪ Ionic ▪ Covalent ▪ Metallic MINERALS Minerals (and therefore rocks) form under specific conditions of heat, pressure, and water! There is a difference between minerals and the element or compound they are made of. polymorphs MINERALS Naturally occurring, crystalline solids with a specific chemical formula The formation of minerals in an igneous rock from melt SILICATES (SIO 4 ) 4- Think about relationship between the number of covalent bonds and how common minerals are in more mafic or felsic igneous rocks! SILICATES (SIO 4 ) 4Nesosilicates: unconnected tetrahedra (commonly ferromagnesian minerals) Olivine: Fe 2 SiO 4 to Mg 2 SiO 4 SILICATES (SIO 4 ) 4Nesosilicates: unconnected tetrahedra (commonly ferromagnesian minerals) Pyrope garnet: MgAl2(SiO4) SILICATES (SIO 4 ) 4Inosilicates: chain silicates (commonly ferromagnesian minerals) Pyroxenes: Chain silicates (lots of Fe and Mg) Amphiboles: Double chain silicates (also lots of Fe and Mg) Hornblende Augite SILICATES (SIO 4 ) 4Phyllosilicates: sheet silicates Muscovite (mica): lots of K and Al Biotite (mica): lots of K and Al, also Mg and Fe SILICATES (SIO 4 ) 4Phyllosilicates Kaolinite and other clay minerals SILICATES (SIO 4 ) 4Tectosilicates: Framework silicates Potassium feldspar: KAlSi 3 O 8 Plagioclase feldspar: CaAl2Si2O8 to NaAlSi3O8 anorthite albite SILICATES (SIO 4 ) 4Tectosilicates: Framework silicates Quartz: SiO 2 CARBONATES (CO 3 ) 2Calcite and Aragonite both CaCO 3 Calcite Aragonite CARBONATES (CO 3 ) 2Dolomite (Ca, Mg)(CO3)2 SULFATES (SO 4 ) 2Gypsum (CaSO 4 + 2H 2 O) Anhydrite (CaSO 4 ) Both gypsum and anhydrite are also evaporites. PHOSPHATES (PO 4 ) 3Hydroxylapatite Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH) HALIDES (IONIC BONDS WITH HALOGENS) Halite (NaCl) Sylvite (KCl) Both halite and sylvite are also evaporites. OXIDES (O 2- ): Ferrous iron (Fe2+) = reduced Ferric iron (Fe3+) = oxidized Magnetite Fe 3 O 4 Hematite Fe 2 O 3 SULFIDES (S 2- ) Galena (PbS) Pyrite (FeS 2 ) NATIVE ELEMENTS Copper (Cu) Gold (Au) Silver (Ag) Lecture 3 (Chapter 2): Minerals Expectations for this program are extremely high! You need a minimum 3.0 GPA for admission which you will need to maintain, and will need to fulfill several commitments, including; Atoms: Draw me models for Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, Neon, Sodium, and Argon (modeled after Fig. 2-2). Label which ones have a full valence shell. Attending S.A. orientations and award ceremonies Attending at least one field trip each semester hosted by a faculty member Participating in a community service activity with your cohort Types of Silicates: Use the first slide on silicates to draw the different types, showing clearly how the tetrahedral are linked. Lecture 4 (Chapter 2): Igneous Rocks Application guidelines may be found here: . Intrusive bodies (Fig. 2-10, upper left, although the drawing in the presentation is probably easier). CONCEPT SKETCH GUIDELINES Igneous Rocks: Use the chart I provided showing rock names, textures, mineral composition, and common cations. Bowen’s Reaction Series: Again, use the slide. Use a regular composition book for your sketches. Most of the figures referenced below are in your textbook (Stanley and Luczaj), but some are in the PowerPoints. When you turn in your sketches on the day of the exam, I want these sketches to be done neatly and carefully. Please don’t turn in sketches that look like you pulled them together five minutes before class. I will be offering exam extra credit for students who hand in concept sketches with their notes neatly re-written in outline format. An example is posted in Teams. Although we may not keep precisely on schedule, I will want all sketches below completed by the end of the semester! Lecture 5 (Chapter 2): Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks . Sedimentary Grain Size (Fig. 2-15) Contact metamorphism: Use the PowerPoint slide with the pink igneous granite on the left and the sedimentary layers on the right. Lecture 1 (Chapter 1): Anatomy of the Earth Lecture 6 (Chapter 3): The Diversity of Life The Rock Cycle (Fig. 1-7) . The Interior of the Earth (Fig. 1-12) Simplified Cladogram of Life: Use the PowerPoint slide. The Structure of the Outer Part of the Earth (Fig. 1-13) Lecture 7 (Chapter 4): Environments and Life Major Gyres of the Earth’s Atmosphere (Fig. 4-9) The Water Cycle (Fig. 1-19) Lecture 2: Short History of Historical Geology Major Surface Currents of the Ocean (Fig. 4-21 or from presentation) Steno’s Principles (Fig. 1-8): Label “deposition”, “uplift”, and “cross-cutting by river” on the appropriate drawing. Lecture 8 (Chapter 5): Sedimentary Environments . Soil Horizons: Use presentation slide Types of Unconformities (Fig. 1-23): For each drawing, label the rocks below the unconformity as “flat sedimentary rocks”, “folded sedimentary rocks”, or “igneous or metamorphic rocks.” Sediment Transport (Fig. 5-12) O Meandering River Cross Section (Fig. 5-15)

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