For your final paper, you must synthesize the information from this course with your approved topic from BSAD 560 – Leadership as a Calling. If you have not taken this course or do not have a program-specific topic, please discuss this with your instructor. Your instruction will help you select a topic for this assignment. This paper must be formatted in APA 6th edition format with a minimum of six scholarly sources retrieved from the Friends University online library. These sources must be skillfully integrated into your paper’s narrative with in-text citations. This paper must include a title page, abstract, six pages of body, and references page(s). This paper will be part of your capstone portfolio thesis. Consequently, you will need to revise your final paper based upon your grade and prepare for inclusion in this cumulative written assignment that you will submit during the final class in your program of study.


My theme is business sales. Standard costing, variance analysis and market analysis is the topic. Analyzing markets (and how/why/when creating strategies using managerial finance to increase profits) support my theme by understanding costumers’ needs.

week 1

Financial Analysis

Chapter 1 (The Goals and Activities of Financial Management): This section examines the goals and objectives of financial management. The emphasis on decision making and risk management is stressed, with an update of significant events influencing the study of finance.

Chapter 2 (Review of Accounting): In this chapter, we examine the three basic types of financial statements – the income statement, the balance sheet, and the statement of cash flows – with particular attention paid to the interrelationships among these three measurement devices. As special preparation for finance students, we briefly examine income tax considerations affecting financial decisions.

Chapter 4 (Financial Forecasting): If there is one skill that is essential for a financial manager to develop, it is the ability to plan ahead and to make necessary adjustments before actual events occur. We likely could construct the same set of external events for two corporations (inflation, recession, severe new competition, and so on), and one firm would survive, while the other would not. The outcome might be a function not only of their risk-taking desires, but also of their ability to hedge against risk with careful planning.

week 2

Financial Planning

Chapter 3 (Financial Analysis): We use financial ratios to evaluate the relative success of the firm. Various measures such as net income to sales and current assets to current liabilities will be computer for a hypothetical company and examined in light of industry norms and past trends. Terms such as net income to sales, return on investment, and inventory turn over take on much greater meaning when they are evaluated through the eyes of a financial manager who does more than merely pick out the top or bottom line of an income statement.

Chapter 5 (Operating and Financial Leverage): In the physical sciences as well as in politics, the term leverage has been popularized to mean the use of special force and effects to produce more than normal results from a given course of action. In business the same concept is applied, with the emphasis on the employment of fixed cost items in anticipation of magnifying returns at high levels of operation. You should recognize that leverage is a two-edged sword-producing highly favorable results when things go well and quite the opposite under negative conditions.

week 3

Working Capital Management

Chapter 7 (Current Asset Management): Financial managers must carefully allocate resources among the current assets of the firm-cash, marketable securities, accounts receivable, and inventory. In managing cash and marketable securities, the primary concert should be for safety and liquidity-with secondary attention placed on maximizing profitability. As we move to accounts receivable and inventory, a stiffer profitability test must be met. The investment level should not be a result of happenstance or historical determination but must meet the same return-on-investment criteria applied to any decision. We shall examine the decision techniques that are applied to the various forms of current assets.

Chapter 9 (The Time Value of Money): The time value of money applies to many day-to-day decisions. Understanding the effective rate on a business loan, the mortgage payment in a real estate transactions, or the true return on an investment depends on understanding the time value of money. As long as an investor can make a positive return on idle dollars, distinctions must be made between money received today and money received in the future. The investor/lender essentially demands that a financial “rent” be paid on his or her funds as current dollars are set aside today in anticipation of higher returns in the future.

week 4

The Capital Budgeting Process

Chapter 11 (Cost of Capital): In the corporate finance setting, the more likely circumstance is than an investment will be made today-promising a set of inflows in the future-and we need to know the appropriate discount rate. This chapter describes the methods and procedures for making such a determination. If we invest money today to receive benefits in the future, we must be absolutely certain we are earning at least as much as it costs us to acquire the funds for investment-that, in essence, is the minimum acceptable return. If funds cost the firm 10 percent, then all projects must be tested to make sure they earn at least 10 percent. By using this as the discount rate, we can ascertain whether we have earned the financial cost of doing business.

Chapter 12 (The Capital Budgeting Decision): The capital budgeting decision involves the planning of expenditures for a project with a life of at least one year, and usually considerably longer. In this chapter, capital budgeting is studied under the following major topical headings: administrative considerations, accounting flows verses cash flows, methods of ranking investment proposals, selection strategy, capital rationing, combining cash flow analysis and selection strategy, and the replacement decision. Later in the chapter, taxes and their impact on depreciation and capital budgeting decisions are emphasized.

Chapter 13 (Risk and Capital Budgeting): In this chapter, we examine definitions of risk, its measurement and its incorporation into the capital budgeting process, and the basic tenets of portfolio theory.

week 5

Long-Term Financing

Chapter 16 (Long-Term Debt and Lease Financing): The amount of corporate debt has increased over time as corporations grew with the economy. Sometimes the increased use of debt was due to business expansion in capital-intensive industries like airlines and telecommunications. Some companies simply did not generate enough internal funds from operations to fund expansion, so they sold bonds to finance their growth. Other firms decided to recapitalize and repurchase their common stock with funds raised from bond offerings. One thing that hasn’t changed is the cyclical nature of financial leverage ratios as the economy expands and contracts and interest rates move up and down.

Chapter 17 (Common and Preferred Stock Financing): The ultimate ownership of the firm resides in common stock, whether it is in the form of all outstanding shares of a closely held corporation or one share of Facebook. In terms of legal distinctions, it is the common stockholder alone who controls the business. While control of the company is legally in the shareholders’ hands, it is practically wielded by management on an everyday basis. Preferred stock plays a secondary role in financing the corporate enterprise. It represents a hybrid security, combining some of the features of debt and common stock. Though preferred stockholders do not have ownership interest in the firm, they do have a priority of claims to dividends that is superior to that of common stockholders.

week 6

International Finance (pt. 1)

Chapter 14 (Capital Markets) In this chapter, we will look at how capital markets are organized and integrated into the economic system. Capital markets provide a place for both governments and corporations to raise capital and for individuals to invest in promising business opportunities. These markets are influenced by many variables such as interest rates, exchange rates, investors’ confidence, economic growth, global crises, and more. Capital markets have become increasingly international as suppliers of financial capital seek out the best risk-return opportunities around the world.

Comparative Advantage: The theory of comparative advantage was originally advanced by the 19th-century economist David Ricardo as an explanation for why nations trade with one another. The theory claims that economic well-being is enhanced if each country’s citizens produce that which they have a comparative advantage in producing relative to the citizens of other countries, and then trade products. Underlying the theory are the assumptions of free trade between nations and that the factors of production (land, labor, technology, and capital) are relatively immobile.

Balance of Payments: The term balance of payments is often mentioned in the news and continues to be a subject of economic and political discourse around the world. It is not always clear, however, exactly what is meant by the term when it is mentioned in various contexts. This ambiguity is often attributable to misunderstanding and misuse of the term. The balance of payments, which is a statistical record of a country’s transactions with the rest of the world, is worth studying for a few reasons.

week 7

International Finance (pt. 2)

Chapter 21 (International Financial Management): Today the world economy is more integrated than ever. This growing interdependence necessitates the development of sound international business relations, which will enhance the prospects for future international cooperation and understanding. Even when stock and bond markets are relatively stable and free of crisis, companies still have to pay attention to the currency markets. This chapter deals with the dimensions of doing business worldwide and provides a basis for understanding the complexities of international financial decisions. Such an understanding is important if you work for a multinational manufacturing firm, a large commercial bank, a major brokerage firm, or any firm involved in international transactions.


Explanation & Answer length: 6 Pages

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