It is harder than it looks to take abstract concepts and turn them into measurable variables. How we conceptualize and operationalize concepts affects how we measure and analyze them. It also affects whether we can compare results with other studies. This discussion will challenge you to engage in conceptualization, operationalization, and evaluating measurements in a survey. You will need to post before you can see your peers’ contributions.

For your prompt POST (click the reply button below),
 pretend that you are constructing a well-written online survey on a sociological topic that interests you. Create five questions related to your topic and five demographic questions. Be sure to include a descriptive, but short title for your survey so that your peers know the focus of your study and instructions on how to complete the survey. See the video below for some tips on writing good questions!

Explanation & Answer length: 5 Questions1 attachmentsSlide 1 of 1

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Conceptualization and Measurement Observing the social world ⦿ Everyday observations are haphazard, inconsistent, and filled with bias ⦿ Scientific Measurement – Careful, deliberate observations of the real world for the purpose of describing objects and events in terms of the attributes composing the variable. What are we measuring? ⦿ Conceptualization – The process through which we specify what we mean when we use particular terms in research. ⦿ Uses › Deductive—translate abstract into testable hypotheses involving specific variables › Inductive—make sense of related observations What are we measuring? ⦿ Concepts are fuzzy notions of things in the real world › › ⦿ Race Self-esteem An attribute is a characteristic or quality of something (ex: female, old, student). A variable is a logical set of attributes (ex: gender, age). ⦿ › › The attributes composing it should be exhaustive. Attributes must be mutually exclusive. What are we measuring? ⦿ Selecting Variables › › › › Theories Utility of variables in previous research Constraints and opportunities in research setting Relevance of variables to analysis at hand How will we measure? ⦿ Operationalization is the process to devise operations that actually measure intended concepts › Goal🡪 achieve measurement validity 1. 2. 3. 4. Define concepts Choose variables , considering purpose of research Identify construct indicators Feasibility Levels of Measurement ⦿ The mathematical precision with which the values of a variable can be expressed › The nominal level of measurement, which is qualitative, has no mathematical interpretation › The quantitative levels of measurement—ordinal, interval, and ratio—are progressively more precise mathematically. ⦿ Level of measurement is not inherent in variable, but is chosen by the researcher. Levels of Measurement–NOIR Reliability and Validity Increasing Reliability Test-Retest Method ■ Make the same measurement more than once. Established Measures Already tested for reliability Reliability of Research Workers Inter-observer reliability

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