1. Tuff cones – Menan Buttes (chapter 7, page 129) Working with air photos: To help you get started using air photos, refer to Figures 7.15 and 7.16 and answer the following: a. Which of the Menan Buttes is shown in Figure 7.15? How do you know? (A butte is an isolated, steep-sided hill with a flat or irregular top.) Figure 7.15 b. Draw an arrow pointing north on Figure 7.15. Figure 7.16 (not on scale) c. Outline on Figure 7.16 the area covered by the right-hand aerial photograph in Figure 7.15. d. Which direction was the sunlight coming from in Figure 7.15? How do you know? e. REFER TO THE MAPS IN YOUR TEXTBOOK Use the map in Figure 7.16 to determine the approximate scale of Figure 7.15. Show your work. Circle or describe the features on the map and the photo that you used for your measurements. This can be determined by measuring the distance between two points that are recognizable on both the aerial photograph and the map. For example, the distance between the narrow part of the Butte Market Lake Canal just before it enters the Snake River and the tip of the point where a tributary joins Henrys Fork (just south of the word Fork on the map) is 11.3 centimeters on the photos and 12.8 centimeters on the map. Consider that the aerial image and the map ultimately show and represent the same ground distance. f. Cinder cones are normally made of lapilli- and block-sized basaltic scoria. The Menan Buttes are tuff cones, which are like cinder cones, but are made of ash- and lapilli-sized basaltic pyroclasts. The Menan Buttes formed when rising basaltic magma hit abundant groundwater in the gravel along the Snake River, erupted explosively, and thereby fragmented into smaller pyroclasts than is normal with basalt. Which way was the wind blowing when the Menan Buttes erupted? Why do you say this? g. Examine Figure 7 .15 and carefully look at the contours on Figure 7.16. Would you say that these volcanic cones are steep-sided or broad and flat? Is the rim of the crater generally sharp or is it broad and wide? h. Recall that air photos make objects appear three or four times taller than they are. To get a more accurate view of the relief of the Menan Buttes, make a topographic profile on the graph below following the line A-A’ in Figure 7.16 of your TEXTBOOK. Use the 100-ft elevation increments of the index contours (from your TEXTBOOK), and be sure to locate the tops of ridges and the bottom of the crater. It is important to use the graph paper provided in your textbook to make a topographic profile with NO VERTICAL EXAGGERATION. You can achieve this by hand if you keep the horizontal and vertical scale the same: one inch = 2000 feet Add here the A-A’ topographic profile i. How wide is this tuff cone at its base (in miles)? How tall is it (in feet)? Show your work. j. Given their size, height, and basaltic composition, do you think that tuff cones such as these represent a substantial volcanic hazard? Are they likely to produce vast lava flows, scalding pyroclastic flows that travel 10 or 20 miles from the vent, roof -crushing air-fall deposits, or devastating lahars? Why? ANSWER IS GIVEN: Tuff cones are unlikely to represent a serious volcanic hazard. They are too small to produce large lava flows, they are too short and the wrong composition to produce pyroclastic flows of more than local significance, they are the wrong composition to produce large volumes of ash, and they are unlikely to produce lahars because they are too short to be capped by glaciers and too porous (being made of pyroclastic debris) to hold much of a lake in the cratelevel that set in about 7000 years ago • Life on Earth is vulnerable to climate change • Human societies are vulnerable to climate change Hazards related to coal burning • Effects of burning coal are: •release of CO2 → Greenhouse effect • release of SO2 → acidification • release of solid waste – Ash ~5-20% of the original volume. non-combustible silicate minerals and toxic metals → Smog=natural fog and coal smoke Anthropogenic hazards: Solid waste According to EPA, SOLID WASTE is • Any garbage or refuse (Municipal Solid Waste) • Sludge from wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility • Other discarded material • Solid, liquid, semi-solid, or contained gaseous material from industrial, commercial, mining, and agricultural operations, and from community activities What do we do with solid waste: 1 – Dilute and disperse 1a. Throw it in the river / lake / ocean Following ocean surface circulation pattern plastic waste accumulates at the gyres To know more and how to help https://marinedebris.noaa.gov/ Beach plastic Pre-production plastic Nurdles b. INCINERATION (burning) – – Significantly reduces the volume of garbage Produces heat energy for generating electricity • It reduces refuse in volume and weight, BUT doesn’t eliminate it! 2. Concentrate and contain: dumps and landfills Historically, the most common way to deal with solid waste Open dumping is illegal in the US under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Sanitary Landfills: Engineered to contain leachate and collect methane and other byproducts • The landfill working face • Each day trash is spread in thin layers • Compacted down and covered with a soil layer Site selection: where to put a landfill? • must consider the effects/interaction with: – – – – – – – flood plain Mass wasting /sinkholes presence Faults Seismicity Water table Not In My Back Yard Syndrome Size for required capacity • Costs • Post-closure – what do with the land afterwards? MSW landfills in Fairfax Co. • NOT a long-term remedy → Post-closure land use – The I-95 landfill in Dumfries Closing in 2032 Living on Earth • Ultimately, living on Earth is about negotiating the balance between exploiting resources and acceptable risk • Acceptable risk differs for different stakeholders • Related to sustainability values and to resilience (ability to recover) California Many natural and anthropogenic hazards The Moon no hazards? MASS WASTING (be able to identify them in an image) • How gravity works on a slope • Angle of repose • Mass wasting features (be ready to identify these in an image). They constitute evidence of previous mass wasting: Head scarp, Body, Foot, Toe • Triggers of mass wasting o Role of water; Submarine mass wasting o Adding weight o Earthquakes o Volcanic eruptions o Deforestation o Steepening of slopes Classification of Mass wasting by 1 – Type of material – Mud, Earth, Rock, (Water) 2 – Type of motion – Fall – Slide (along a flat surface) – Slump (along a curved surface) – steps – Flow (chaotic mixture with water: e.g. mudlfow) 3 – Velocity of the movement – Fast – Slow (creep, solifluction) HYDROLOGIC CYCLE Processes: Precipitation, Evaporation, Infiltration, Runoff, Transpiration Reservoirs (by size, from greatest to smallest) SURFACE WATERS – STREAMS form (be able to identify them in an image) Surface water starts as runoff to stream through rills → gullies → valleys o Drainage Basin o Drainage patterns, drainage density o Discharge Q o Stream Profile: headwaters, base level, stream gradient. o Velocity, type of motion (laminar vs. turbulent) Stages of Stream Evolution: 1 –Youthful/Degradational stage: Stream is near headwater. High energy, erosion, V-shaped valley. Rapids and waterfalls, turbulent flow. 2 – Mature/ Balanced stage: Gradient of slope decreases, downward erosion is less dominant. Stream forms meanders → floodplain. Laminar flow • Meanders: changing meanders, cut banks, point bars, Oxbow Lakes. • Floodplain = river valley 3 – Aggradational stage: braided stream channels form. 4 – Terminal stage =mouth of the river/base level. Deposition The work of running water: • Erosion: valleys, cut banks, meanders, river terraces (=when the base level is lowered (sea level drop) and the river erodes downwards. Terrace formation = stream rejuvenation process) • Transport Load: dissolved, suspended and bed load • Deposition at low velocity and low energy. Deposits landforms: bar, point bar, levees, alluvial fan, deltas. Overall: roughness of channel (turbulence of water) and gradient decrease from the headwater to the mouth, channel size, velocity and discharge increase towards the mouth Flood discharge volume >> river channel volume. Levees natural formation from flooding. • Regional Flood large areas – Seasonal – controlled by intensity and duration of precipitations – Slow to build up (days to weeks), slower to recede (weeks to months!) The flatness of valley (low gradient) and presence of meanders contribute to flooding • Flash Flood Limited areas. Controlled by intensity and duration of precipitations ▪ In mountain areas/ narrow valleys after severe thunderstorms or snowmelt. ▪ In urbanized areas : impervious cover (cement). Reduced lag time between precipitation and flash flood Flood assessment: monitoring precipitations, water level (stage) and discharge Flood mitigation: By engineering efforts (Artificial levees, flood-control dams and channelization) By flood plain management (= land use planning) Groundwater Definition. Origin of Groundwater The Water Table, how it works • Springs Hot Springs heated by the cooling of igneous rock. o Geysers o Travertine limestone forms at hot springs Groundwater equalizes streamflow. Groundwater table and streams: gaining stream, losing stream • Groundwater moves ( gravity), through soil, sediments and rocks It moves slowly, velocity depends on Porosity and Permeability Darcy’s law Aquifer permeable rocks/ sediments that transmits groundwater. Aquitard impermeable rocks that prevents water movement Confined aquifer groundwater in aquifer is under pressure. Artesian well. water towers Wells: qanat, vertical wells, cone of depression, control of water level in wells • Groundwater is an erosional agent Groundwater (slightly acidic) in time dissolves the carbonate rocks of the Aquifer Forms caves and sinkholes Karst topography Extreme karst reduces the landscape to isolated pinnacles of limestone. • Effects of urbanization and agriculture on groundwater o Water withdrawal and ground subsidence • Groundwater contamination o Saltwater encroaching in freshwater aquifers o Pollution: highway salt, fertilizers, pesticides, chemical and industrial sewage, septic tanks, landfill leaks. Contaminants mix with groundwater • Sinkholes Glaciers Conditions of ice formation, including elevation and latitude Sea level change and ice on glaciers connection. Rise of sea level is all ice were to melt Sea ice Thickness, condition of formation, variability. Types of glaciers 1- Ice Sheet/Continental Glaciers. largest on Earth, forming on land (NOT ONTO THE SEA): Greenland and Antarctica Antarctica % of ice, maximum thickness. Ice shelves. Calving of ice shelves →iceberg 2 – Valley (or alpine) glaciers be able to identify these features in an image Glacial Erosion by abrasion and plucking produces: Landforms: Cirque, Horn, Arete, U-shaped valley, Hanging valley, Fjord Glacial Deposits = till, Moraines, type of moraines Glacial lakes Waves and Coastlines Processes – The coastal zone (be able to identify them in an image) Type of coast lines – Emergent, Submergent and their features Currents, Wave motion, wave breaking, surf zone • high mechanical energy (mass and velocity), more during winter • Waves are erosion on emergent coastlines o wave-cut cliffs, sea arches, sea stacks, stump, caves o Wave erosion concentrates on headlands → straighter coastline • Wave on sand coastlines, sandbars • Longshore currents: from wave fronts hitting the coastline at an angle. Longshore currents move and deposit sediments in: spits, tombolos, sand bars and barrier islands. These deposits – especially barrier islands, take the storms surges, they can be destroyed but then reconstructed by longshore current transport. • Rip currents • Tidal currents = flow of water accompanying the rise/fall of the tide: Flood current and Ebb current • Sea surface currents how they circulate on the surface of the world oceans and how they differ from the other currents, no need to study the names of the currents!!!! Hazard: coastline erosion Mitigation: Protecting shorelines from longshore currents and storms surges 1 – Building structures: what they are, how they work Groins, Jetties, Breakwater, Seawalls 2 – Beach nourishment bringing sand to replenish the beach eroded by longshore currents/storms 3 – Relocation Hurricanes Storm surge and Coastal floods Formation, measurements, effects on land Climate • Definition • Proxies: (those we described in lecture) • How the climate change, constant changes, various level of change, fluctuations Long term climate change factors (millions of years) • Composition of the atmosphere. • Position of the landmasses (controls heat absorbed and distributed by the land). Accumulation of continental ice • Oceanic circulation, which in turn controls heat and moisture distribution from low to high latitudes. Shorter term climate change factors (hundreds thousands to thousands of years) Cyclical variation of the Orbital Parameters (Milankovich cycles) affect the amount of solar radiation received: Eccentricity, Obliquity, Precession (and their duration) . Shortest term climate change factors (centuries to decades to years) Caused by oscillations of the atmosphere complex structure. • Example: North Atlantic Oscillation NAO: definition and variations. The little ice age. • ENSO el Nino Southern Oscillation. Climate changes and human history Anthropogenic control on climate. Hazard, Risk and Mitigation Definitions, type of mitigation intervention, knowledge, monitoring, engineering, land use planning, preparedness. Definition and example of anthropogenic hazards. Landfills – Definition, role of sanitary Landfills, key considerations before, during and after operations Question Completion Status: O a. A river. b. Degradational O a. A glacier. b. degradational O a: A glacier. A b. Aggradational O a. A river b. Aggradational L A Moving to another question will save this response. DOLL Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F9 F8 공 Fn . 0 ? # & B N. A T u ol < 0 * 0 3 7 Tab Q W E R T Y i u Black –> XC © A Remaining Time: 1 hour, 29 minutes, 32 seconds. Question Completion Status: Question 3 a. What erosional agent has originally shaped this valley? b. what is the stage of the river at the bottom of it? EXAM QUESTION Y.jpg w a. A river. DOLL ESC F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F10 а Q $ % & * < 0 N. 3 4. 5 7 8 Tab Q W E R T Y U ulon Status: A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 4 The many glaciations and warming periods that occurred during the last 2 hundred thousand of year were caused by: O changes in orbital parameters O Changes of the circulation of the oceans O Changes in the composition of the atmosphere O All of these choices are correct ř med A Moving to another question will save this response. DLL ESC F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 # $ % A & * 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 Tab Q W つ 2 E R. T Y А sLock A S J i K D F G H N X Х C V B N M A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 5 This is the most important property that lets water flow in an aquifer O Porosity Permeability O Water table O Subsidence 4 A Moving to another question will save this response. DOLL Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 >> H # $ 1 & 2 Ол „Р < O 3 4 7 Tab Q W E R. T Y Lock A S D F G H Н A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 6 Long term contribution to the climate is provided by this type of currents W O Longshore currents surface currents O none of these choices is correct O Tidal currents A Moving to another question will save this response. DELL ESC F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 FO X F6 F7 F8 HA 3 @ # $ % A & 1 2 3 4 ОЛ 6 7 Tab a W E R T Y os Lock А S D F G H Moving to another question will save this response. 4 Question 7 Where do the largest mass wasting processes occur on Earth? O On the highest mountains O In the desert, on very tall dunes O In submarine environments O in Artic regions, where the large section of permaforst melts L A Moving to another question will save this response. DOLL ESC F1 F2 F3 in F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 oo @ # $ Л 2 & Ол 9 3 4 7 Tab E a W E R ㅏ Y ps Lock A S D חד GIV → X CIO Remaining Time: 1 hour, 28 minutes, 23 seconds. Question Completion Status: Question 8 2 points Save Answe Match the features labeled in color in the image with their name EXAM QUESTION V.JRE D 0 DOLL ESC F7 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 FZ F8 F9 F10 F12 Prisci Insert — El F11 ©: $ % & 0 > 00* 7 3 5 7 9 W Q E R. т Y U I Р o S D F G I J K L Х N U V B N Ν. M Alt Ctrl 2 Question Completion Status: > v green lines A. Moraines Red lines B. Arretes v yellow circle C. Horn v blue shapes D. zone of acc faccumulation – circque A Moving to another question will save this response. DLL F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 FZ F9 云 I / F8 9 F10 Fli а Q o # $ % < & 1 2 3 * 00 4 Q W E R T Y U C A S D F. G H J K K N X C > B N M A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 9 What determines the drainage pattern of a stream? O The type and amount of precipitations (rain, snow, sleet) O All choices are correct O The velocity of flow – turbulent or laminar O The types of rocks and soil that are cut in by the stream to make its bed. » A A Moving to another question will save this response. DELL FS F1 F2 F3 F5 FO ESC F7 F4 TH »)) Л # $ u ole 3 2 4. 6 Tab Q W E T R WIII save this response. Question 10 At what stage does the river achieve its maximum load capacity? Terminal Aggradational Degradational O Balanced b A Moving to another question will save this response. DOLL Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 | »)) kk n @ # $ Л Ол „Р 1 2 3 4. 6 Tab a W E R T Cansack A S D E G Question Completion Status: Question IT At what stage of development is the river in the image? EXAM QUESTION 0.jpg DLL F10 F9 F1 F7 F8 F5 F6 F4 F3 no g Esc F2 F1 T Fn # % HAT * 00 7 6 5 1 3 2 Yi u U ㅏ F W R. E Q Tab G H J F D S Caps Lock A B N > N С X OBAlanced ☆ O Aggradational O Terminal O Degradational A Moving to another question will save this response. DLL F6 F9 “F7 F10 F8 F5 F4 F3 F1 F2 ESC а FO X A $ # & u ol 6 7 8 2 3 4 R. E T Y U W Q b G H Н F. J S D А Lock Β Ι Ν. A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 12 ON which river feature is the US capitol built? O Meander O Anacostia river delta O Potomacalluvial fan O River terrace » A Moving to another question will save this response. DELL F6 F5 F7 F3 F4 F1 ESC F2 IX Fn Л # $ N Ол „Р 2 6 4 3 E T R. W Tab Q Question Completion Status: Question 16 Examine the figure< which well(s) will be contaminated by the septic tank? EXAM QUESTION R.gif WELL д WELL B no Toxic Waste Site WELL C Septic Tank WELL D Impermeable Rock Layer w O wellc O none will be contaminated, because the septic thank is above the groundwater table O wells a and c O well a because of the higher water table in the region DLL F10 F9 F6 “F7 F8 F4 F5 F3 Esc F1 F2 o CE < * # $ & % 8 9 7 5 1 4 2 3 つ 2 ㅏ F W Q R. E Y Tab T F. D G 1 H J S A Caps Lock Z X N 7 C V B westion Completion Status: A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 13 Which of the following correctly describes the aggradational stage? O large valley, very low gradient, deposition prevailing, transport not very effective, stream channels break into a braided pattern O River discharge is maximum, river reaches base level. All load deposited. O Large floodplain, meanders,ox bow lakes, transport prevails Å O Narrow valley, high gradient, erosion prevailing, turbulent flow A Moving to another question will save this response. DLL F9 F10 F11 F8 F7 F6 F5 F4 F3 Esc F1 F2 >) Fn & * # $ Ол 0 6 7 8 1 2 4 3 U O O I T Y E R. W Q Tab J i K H D F G aps Lock s А M B N V X 7 C A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 17 What is the most common type of floods that occur in urbanized areas? O Regional floods O Flash floods Road flood O Capital floods A Moving to another question will save this response. ESC F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 FZ F8 1» # $ & Ол „Р < 0 2 3 4 7 Tab Q W E R ㅏ Y Caps Lock A S D F G G H Remaining Time: 1 hour, 07 minutes, 39 seconds. Question Completion Status: A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 21 Which of these statements is NOT correct? O The storm surge forms on the sea water at the center of the hurricane OTHe El Nino Southern Oscillation anomaly forms when the trade winds are strong and push warm moist air towards the western side of the Pacific Ocean Hurricanes can form when warm sea water evaporates and condenses in the cooler atmosphere generating an area of low pressure O Coastal floods are generated by the landing of the storm surge formed by the hurricane A Moving to another question will save this response. DLL F7 F3 F4 F6 F8 F5 F9 Prt F10 Esc F1 F12 F2 F11 o: Q Fn a # $ A % & * 00 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 7 Tab W Q E R T Р Y U A SLOCK S D F G H K J L C Х V BN NM N Remaining Time: 1 hour, 18 m Question Completion Status: A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 19 Where does calving occur? O At the basal slip O At the formation of crevasses O In the glacial cirque O Towards the front edge of the ice shelf L A Moving to another question will save this response. Esc F1 F2 F3 Fn F4 F5 F6 IK F7 # $ % A Q A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 24 Find the false statement about ice accumulation on Earth: O Continental ice sheet can be more than 3km thick O In polar regions, sea ice can accumulate up to 5-7 m in thickness O Glaciers can transport very large rocks O There can be no glaciers at tropical regions b A Moving to another question will save this response. w DLL Esc F2 F3 F4 Fn F5 F6 F7 F8 FC # $ % Л & N. 3 4 5 7 Tab Q W E R T Y Caps Lock A S D F G н Question completi A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 26 M Which climate proxy is best for determing the sea surface temperature of the past? O Variations in the ratio of oxygen isotopes of limestone O Ice cores O all of these can be used as proxies to find the sea surface temperature of the past O Pollen and tree rings size A Moving to another question will save this response. DELL Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 Fn 공 (B) $ % Л #m & * 2 4 4. 5 6 7 E Tab Q W E R ㅏ Y U Caps Lock А S D A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 28 Solifluction is a form of mass wasting that occurs: O Along a curved surface with steps O At low latitudes, from the occasional freezing of the ground O At high latitudes, from the occasional thawing of permafrost No correct choice is available A Moving to another question will save this response. DOLL Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 IX х FO F7 F8 P @ # Л & 2 u ole A T 3 Tab a W E R TTY Caps Lock A S D וד G 1 EXC Remaining Time: 45 minutes, 25 seconds. * Question Completion Status: A Click Submit to complete this assessment. Question 50 To keep the inlet open what structure(s) were/was built? EXAM QUESTION S.jpg . JAREN DOLL ESC F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 FZ F8 F9 F10 F11 Fn KR DA # % л & * 00 1 2 3 4 5 0) 9 Tab Q W E R. Y T U 1 o ㅈ aps Lock 2 A S D F G H. J K к 7 NI –> XC Remaining Time: 45 minutes, 26 seconds. Question Completion Status: EXAM QUESTION S.jpg (c) Rich Galiano Jetties Obreakwater O bridge O seawall DLL Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 # % & * < 1 2 3 4 5 7 00 Tab Q W R T Y U Caps Lock А S D F G H J i K к 7 Your answers are saved automatically. Remaining Time: 45 minutes, 39 seconds. > Question Completion Status: A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 48 In a meandering stream, where is the water more likely to flow faster? O On the cut bank side On the point bar side O At the center of the stream O On the stream bottom A Moving to another question will save this response. DLL ESC F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 Fn F10 F11 g a $ % A & * 1 2 3 4 5 0 7 8 Tab a W E R. T Y U aps Lock 2 А S D F. G I ок N X Х C V B N. M M Remaining Time: 45 minutes, 34 seconds. Question Completion Status: –> A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 49 what force drives the movement of ground water? O gravity O water table O permeability O porosity A Moving to another question will save this response. DLL Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 CE F5 F6 FZ F8 F9 K N F10 Fli a ~ # % Л & * 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Tab Q W E R T Y U Caps Lock 2 A s D F G H J i K N Х с C V B N. M Remaining Time: 45 minutes, 48 seconds. * Question Completion Status: A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 46 Which of these parameters controls the formation and accumulation of ice? O All choices are correct O Latitude O Elevation above the sea level O temperature below freezing A Moving to another question will save this response. DOLL Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 FIO FO Fi @ # $ % & * 6 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 Tab 3 Q E R T T Y U Slock А S D F. G I J i K Your answers are saved automatically. Remaining Time: 45 minutes, 43 seconds. Question Completion Status: A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 47 W What is the effect of rain on the stability of a slope? O Rain makes the slope steeper O Rainwater works against the cohesion of material of the slope Rain makes the slope more stable. O Rainwater absorbed by the ground becomes groundwater and doesn t affect slopes A Moving to another question will save this response. DOLL Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 rF8 F9 F10 F1 а Q # $ % A & 1 2 3 4 * 00 5 6 7 Tab 3 Q E R. т Y U aps Lock A S D F G H J i K к N X Х C V B N M х Blackboard –> XCO Remaining Time: 45 minutes, 55 seconds. * Question Completion Status: Question 45 At what stage of development is the river in the image? 25 ड ما O oxbow DELL Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 Fn F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 а Q # $ > & * 1 2 u oo 3 4 6 7 8 9 Tab Q W E R T Y U O Caps Lock А s D F G ㅈ H. K Shift N. X C С V B N M x Blackboard -→XCO8 Remaining Time: 45 minutes, 57 seconds. Question Completion Status: S ड O oxbow O Balanced O point bar O Aggradational DOLL Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 K F9 M F10 न P F11 : # $ ON A % I da 1 * 3 4 5 6 8 Tab Q W E R T Y U O Caps Lock A S D F G H J K → XCIO Remaining Time: 46 minutes, 10 seconds. Question Completion Status: O Rock fall, talus O Moraines, rock falls O Debris flow, angle of repose O Slump, talus DOLL F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 FZ F8 F9 F10 Esc F11 F12 Insert Presc Delete U q ངག FO ~ ! & + % $ C © N. Backsp #3 * ♡ 1 4 5 6 7 O) O Tab C С W E Q R T Y Р 1 { [ А Caps Lock S F. G H. J K L > ? N х C V B N M Alt Ctrl En Alt . -Home Inspiron 13 7000 2-in-1 Question Completion Status: A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 41 What statement is false? O A stream may reach a discharge so high that the water cannot be accommodated any longer in the stream channel O The discharge of a stream can change with the weather and the season O the discharge is higher towards the mouth of the river O The discharge of a stream is the volume of water that is in a stream क A Moving to another question will save this response. DLL ESC F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 FZ F8 F9 F10 F CE a KK а) i $ % A * #3 & 1. 2 4 5 6 8 Q W E R. T Y Y U 1 ock A А. S D F G H. J K K 2 D NI MA Question Completion Status: O The structure is a jetty, the longshore current moves towards the left of the image O The structure is a seawall, the current moves towards the right of the image O The structure is a groin, the longshore current moves towards the right O The structure is a breakwater, the longshore current moves towards the left of the image A Moving to another question will save this response. DLL Esc F1 F2 F4 F3 )) F5 F6 FZ F8 F9 Fn F10 g a # % A & A Ý 1 2 * 00 3 5 6 7 9 Tab Q W E R T Y U 5 Lock S T D וד G H J A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 43 This is false about the water table O It varies in depth O It is flat and horizontal The aquifer below the water table is saturated with water O it can have hills and valleys like the topographic surface A Moving to another question will save this response. DLL Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 Fn 공 # Л & 2 Ол „О 3 A T 4. 6 7 Tab Q Q W E R T T Y Question Completion Status: Question 40 what structure is shown in this pictures and which way is the current moving? SD d DELL Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 FZ F8 F9 F10 CE K AN g 2 # $ A & * u ol 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 Tab Q W E R. T Y U sLock 2 A S D F G H. J IK K Question Completion Status: O This is a barrier island that forms along a submergent coastline. The longshore currents flows to the bottom of the image None of these choices is correct This is a barrier island that forms along a submergent coastline. The longshore currents flows towards the top of the image This is a sand bar that forms at the edge of a flat marine terrace. The longshore current flows towards the bottom of the image > A Moving to another question will save this response. DOLL Esc FI F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 14 F8 F9 F10 F11 o F12 # A % A 1 & * 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Q W E R. E Y U I O A S D F G H J K L N X C V B L N M A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 39 The place where the stream velocity drops to zero is called the: O Dissolved load Base level O Gradient O Headwaters A Moving to another question will save this response. DOLL ESC F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 Fn X N @ # Л & $ 4 oo Ол 2 3 6 7 3 Tab Q W E R T| Y u L Question Completion Status: Question 35 Examine this image and find the correct sentence to describe it: EXAM QUESTION U.jpg DELL Esc Fn F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 HA F9 g F10 F11 # $ % Λ 7 2 & 3 * 4 5 6 7 8 9 Q W E R. T Y U O 4 А S D F G H. J K N x C > B N. M < –> XCO Remaining Time: 57 minutes, 57 seconds. Question Completion Status: Close Windo! A Moving to another question will save this response. A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 34 Identify the most likely type of mass wasting process that deposited the rocks shown in this image EXAM QUESTION W.jpg DOLL ESC F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 I $ % A I ĂN & * 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 Tab Q W E R. E Y U O Lock A S D F G H J ㅈ T L N Х C V < B N maining Time: 54 minutes, 51 seconds. estion Completion Status: 2013.10-22 DOLL Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 PrtScr Fn IK g # $ % A & S 8 * 00 1 2 3 LE 4 5 6 7 9 O a W E R. T Y U I O Р ㅈ A S D TI G H J L > N X C VS B N. M Remaining Time: 54 minutes, 48 seconds. Question Completion Status: 2013. 10. O creep O Talus O debris flow O Rock Fall A Moving to another question will save this response. « DELL Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 FZ F8 F9 F10 * F11 F12 ܀ # $ % < & I ☆r 1 2 3 4 * 00 5 6 9 b Q W E R T Y U O Р ock А s D וד G H. J K L N X C V B N. L M > Blackboard → XCO Remaining Time: 29 minutes, 06 seconds. Question Completion Status: Less than half of the time re 16 20 36 46 51 66 76 80 316 91 32 33 34 35 366376386 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200216226236 46 24 47 48 250 26 49 50 270 28 29 30 A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 32 A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 41 What statement is false? O A stream may reach a discharge so high that the water cannot be accommodated any longer in the stream channel O The discharge of a stream can change with the weather and the season O the discharge is higher towards the mouth of the river O The discharge of a stream is the volume of water that is in a stream ♡ A Moving to another question will save this response. Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 FZ F8 F9 F10 FL a # $ % л & * 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 E Tab Q W E R T Y U -> XCO A Remaining Time: 09 minutes, 45 seconds. A Question Completion Status: 20 36 40 50 68 81 96 100 110 120 130 140 156166176186196 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 43 w This is false about the water table O It varies in depth O It is flat and horizontal O The aquifer below the water table is saturated with water O it can have hills and valleys like the topographic surface A Moving to another question will save this response. DELL F9 F8 F7 F5 Esc F2 F6 F1 F3 F4 5 For A # @ & A T Ол ? 2 7 3 6 Remaining Time: 09 minutes, 22 seconds. Question Completion Status: 80 20 30 51 61 91 100 110 120 130 140 150 165 176 315 325 335 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 41 42 43 44 450 46 47 A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 46 Which of these parameters controls the formation and accumulation of ice? w O All choices are correct O Latitude O Elevation above the sea level O temperature below freezing A Moving to another question will save this response. DELL ESC F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 Fn ex х H a tt % Л & Question Completion Status: 21 4.5. 53 81 90 100 110 125 135 145 155 165 176 BIL 1825 1886 345|| 355 365 375 386 390|404|| 41 42 43 44 457 46 47 A Moving to another question will save this response. W Question 47 What is the effect of rain on the stability of a slope? O Rain makes the slope steeper Rainwater works against the cohesion of material of the slope O Rain makes the slope more stable. O Rainwater absorbed by the ground becomes groundwater and doesn t affect slopes A Moving to another question will save this response. DOLL Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F Fn S A Moving to another question will save this response. Question 48 In a meandering stream, where is the water more likely to flow faster? O On the cut bank side On the point bar side O At the center of the stream O On the stream bottom A Moving to another question will save this response. Esc F

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