3:22 5月10日(月) 19% 0 dcccd.blackboard.com Courses Final Project Guidelines al Project Guidelines at Final Project: Create Something Due: Sunday, May 9th, 2021 by 11:59 PM Topic: Anything you are interested in that relates to the course. What do you like to do? Do that, but creatively. Value: 75 points! What to do: As an individual or in groups of up to 4 people, create something related to the topic of your interest. This is a VERY open-ended project, and I would like to see your creative sides. Creativity and interest in the project go a long way with your grade. Examples of what you can do: 1) Presentation 10 minutes per person. Use PowerPoint or another presentation software and record your presentation. 2) Podcast Minimum 10 minutes per person, Max. 1 hour! This is an informal discussion on your topic(s). You do need to exhibit some researched knowledge of your topic; do not just say what you think and leave it at that. Make sure you discuss data that you have researched to bolster your arguments. Do your best to not stray too far off topic and make sure to discuss major points or ideas that are related to the class. 3) YouTube Video – Talk to me if you are serious about doing a video. It will not have to be very long if there is a narrative.hapter 15 Lecture Understanding Weather and Climate Seventh Edition Earth’s Climates Redina L. Herman Western Illinois University © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Climate and Controlling Factors • Climate is the long-term statistical properties of the atmosphere for an area. • Climate analysis for an area includes many variables. • Climate classifications are based on properties such as temperature, precipitation, air mass types, and seasonal variations in water balance for an area. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Koeppen System • The Koeppen climate classification system is based on natural vegetation types as indicators of average temperature and precipitation. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Koeppen System • A—Tropical. Climates in which the average temperature for all months is greater than 18°C (64°F). Almost entirely confined to the region between the equator and the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. • B—Dry. Potential evaporation exceeds precipitation. • C—Mild Midlatitude. The coldest month of the year has an average temperature higher than –3°C (27°F) but below 18°C (64°F). Summers can be hot. • D—Severe Midlatitude. Winters have at least occasional snow cover, with the coldest month having a mean temperature below –3°C (27°F). Summers are typically mild. • E—Polar. All months have mean temperatures below 10°C (50°F). © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Koeppen System © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Koeppen System © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Tropical Climates • Tropical Wet (Af) • Tropical Climates – Warm annual temperatures and with little temperature variation. – Distinguished by precipitation variations. • Tropical Wet (Af) – Even precipitation through year – High humidity – Temperatures • Highs = low 30°C (80°F) • Lows = low 20°C (70°F) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Tropical Climates • Tropical Wet (Af) – Climographs depict monthly mean temperatures and precipitation, with line and bar graphs plotted simultaneously. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Tropical Climates • Monsoonal (Am) – Monsoonal climates are considered the transition climate between tropical wet and tropical wet dry climates. – Precipitation does not occur as steadily throughout the year in a monsoonal climate as it does in a tropical wet climate. – Some months experience heavy rainfall while others are nearly dry. – The wet months in monsoonal climates yield far more rain than does the wettest month for tropical wet climates. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Tropical Climates • Monsoonal (Am) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Tropical Climates • Tropical Wet and Dry (Aw) – Tropical wet and dry climates occur along the poleward sides of the tropics and border dry climates on one side and tropical wet climates on the other. – Low sun dry period. – Unreliable precipitation. – Savanna vegetation consists mainly of grasses with widely separated trees or clumps of trees. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Tropical Climates • Tropical Wet and Dry (Aw) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Dry Climates • Dry climates occur in areas where potential evapotranspiration is greater than precipitation. • 30% of Earth’s land surface is classified as a dry climate. • Semideserts are transitional zones that separate the true deserts from adjacent climates. • They are also called steppe climates, with reference to the associated vegetation type consisting of short grasses. • The two-tiered system of categorization yields four types of dry climates: subtropical desert, subtropical steppe, midlatitude desert, and midlatitude steppe. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Dry Climates • Subtropical Deserts (BWh) – – – – Largest deserts are located in BWh climates. Occur on the western sides of continents. Areas with atmospheric subsidence and high pressure. High daily temperature ranges with low dew points and humidity. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Dry Climates • Subtropical Deserts (BWh) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Dry Climates • Subtropical Deserts (BWh) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Dry Climates • Subtropical Steppe (BSh) – – – – – High aridity. High precipitation and temperature variability. Large temperature ranges. Extreme summer temperatures. Summer precipitation. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Dry Climates • Subtropical Steppe (BSh) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Dry Climates • Midlatitude Deserts (BWk) – Extreme continentality and/or rain shadows create the BWk climate. – Very high temperature ranges. – Summer temperatures are very hot. – Nighttime and winter temperatures are very cool. – Higher humidity and precipitation than subtropical deserts. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Dry Climates • Midlatitude Deserts (BWk) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Dry Climates • Midlatitude Steppe (BSk) – A transition zone. – BSk climates have the same temperature characteristics as the midlatitude deserts. – BSk climates have higher annual average precipitation than deserts. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Dry Climates • Midlatitude Steppe (BSk) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Mild Midlatitude Climates • The mild midlatitude climates are located in parts of the latitude range between 30° and 60° in either hemisphere. • Varying precipitation systems with mild winter temperatures. Summer temperatures may be high. • This climate group is subdivided into three climates: the mediterranean, humid subtropical, and the marine west coast climates. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Mild Midlatitude Climates • Mediterranean (Csa, Csb) – Distinct summer dry period due to subtropical high interactions. – Winter precipitation varies while temperatures are mild. – Mild to hot summers. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Mild Midlatitude Climates • Mediterranean (Csa, Csb) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Mild Midlatitude Climates • Humid Subtropical (Cfa, Cwa) – – – – Eastern continental areas of the lower midlatitudes. Long, hot, and muggy summers. Abundant precipitation primarily the result of convection. Winter temperatures are lower than those of mediterranean climates. – The occurrence of frost and snow decreases toward the lower latitudes, but even south Florida is not completely immune. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Mild Midlatitude Climates • Humid Subtropical (Cfa, Cwa) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Mild Midlatitude Climates • Marine West Coast (Cfb, Cfc) – – – – Marine west coasts climates occur poleward of Csb. Cold ocean current influence with mild summers and winters. Often has fog and/or low cloud cover. High frequency of rain days with low annual totals. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Mild Midlatitude Climates • Marine West Coast (Cfb, Cfc) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Severe Midlatitude Climates • Humid Continental (Dfa, Dfb, Dwa, Dwb) – Severe Midlatitude Climates • Very cold winters. • Large continental areas. • Evenly distributed annual precipitation. – Humid Continental (Dfa, Dfb, Dwa, Dwb) • Eastern continents of 40°N–55°N. • Warm to hot summers and cold winters. • Abundant annual precipitation. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Severe Midlatitude Climates • Humid Continental (Dfa, Dfb, Dwa, Dwb) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Severe Midlatitude Climates • Subarctic (Dfc, Dfd, Dwc, Dwd) – Contains the coniferous boreal forest (taiga—Asia). – Warm, short summers and extremely cold winters. – Low annual precipitation with the moistest season being summer. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Severe Midlatitude Climates • Subarctic (Dfc, Dfd, Dwc, Dwd) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Polar Climates • Tundra (ET) – Polar Climates • Very high • Very cold. – Tundra (ET) • • • • Named for vegetation (tundra). Severe winters. Mild summers of long daylight. Permafrost (permanently frozen layer below the surface) region. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Polar Climates • Tundra (ET) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Polar Climates • Ice Cap (EF) – – – – – Constant ice cover. Greenland and Antarctica. Warmest monthly temperatures are less than 0°C. Katabatic winds influence this climate. Low precipitation totals. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Polar Climates • Ice Cap (EF) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Polar Climates • Highland Climates (H) – Governed solely by topography and not geographic location. – Vertical zonation, as climate changes with height (mountainous regions). – Local climates con

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