Geography 282 Winter 2021 Introduction There are four sections to the examination. Follow the instructions in each section. In Section One there are a series of questions based on the lecture materials on mass movements. The responses in Section One are multiple choice. In Section Two, there are a series of short answer and multiple choice questions on a range of geomorphic features and processes. A Google Earth file is used in Section Two to show a series of locations. In Section Three these are long answer questions based on Google Earth locations. In Section Four there is a question describing the characteristics of a given soil order. Using Google Earth There is a Google Earth file that must be used as part of this examination/assignment. Google Earth files have a kml extension. To open these files, start Google Earth (or Google Earth Pro) and then under ‘File’, select ‘Open’ and select the appropriate file. When a kml file is opened there will be a series of labelled locations listed under the heading “Places’. To navigate to one of the locations, double click on the label (e.g. Location 4). The locations can be viewed from directly overhead or from an oblique perspective. In the image to the right we are looking at an example of a location. On the top of the following page we see an oblique view of the same location. Navigation is done by using the mouse or the navigation controls on the screen (shown at right). The upper dial can be used to alter the perspective, the lower dial to alter position. To adjust the vertical (elevation) exaggeration and the quality of the images, open the ‘Tools’ menu item, select ‘Options’ and Google Earth Options Window will open, with the 3D View tab visible. The elevation differences can be adjusted by changing the numeric value in the highlighted area below. In Google Earth it is possible to view imagery from different dates, by selecting the icon from the menu bar. This will open a slider called a timeline that can be used to imagery from specific dates. The format of the timeline slider varies between different of Google Earth, but in each it is possible to toggle between dates. clock select versions Street or ground level views can also be seen in Google Earth. The pegman icon can be dragged to the streets or ground in some locations. It is possible to measure distances between locations by using the ruler tool. To activate the ruler tool, click on the ruler icon to open the Ruler dialogue box. You can select either Line or Path. A Line will have two points (a start and end point), while a path may be comprised of many points. If you were digitizing along a stream channel to measure the channel length, the path tool would be used. If you digitize a line or path you can save it. When you save the path or line it will be saved in the temporary places folder and it will be visible in the table of contents to the left of the screen under Places. If you select the saved path or line you can display an elevation profile (a cross-section). To display the cross-section select the saved path or line and right click, then select elevation profile. An example of a digitized line is shown to the right and an elevation profile (cross-section) below. You may find it helpful in some of the multiple choice and short answer questions to examine gradients by using the above tool. When using Google Earth for this examination it may also be useful to have the ‘Borders and Labels’ Layer activated, the other Layers can be disabled. Files The files for the examination assignment are in a MyLS folder called GG282 Final. In that folder there are the following files: 1) GG282 Final 2021 Questions.pdf This document, which contains the instructions and questions for the examination assignment. 2) Locations.kml A Google Earth file that has locations that are used in Section Two and Three “Locations_2021.kmz”. 3) Podzolic Soils of Canada.pdf 2011 paper written by P. Sanborn, L. Lamontagne, and W. Hendershot titled Podzolic soils of Canada: Genesis, distribution, and classification”, published in the Canadian Journal of Soil Science Volume 91 pages 843-880. 4) Luvisolic Soils of Canada.pdf 2011 paper written by D. Pennock, A. Bedard-Haughn, and V. Viaud titled “Chernozemic soils of Canada: Genesis, distribution, and classification”, published in the Canadian Journal of Soil Science Volume 91 pages 719-747. 5) Chernozemic Soils of Canada.pdf 2011 paper written by L. M. Lavkulich1 and J. M. Arocena titled “Luvisolic soilsof Canada: Genesis, distribution, and classification”, published in the Canadian Journal of Soil Science Volume 91 pages 781- 806. Type your name and ID below to indicate you are submitting your own work for the GG282 Final Exam: TYPE ALL ANSWERS INTO THIS DOCUMENT! FOR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS, HIGHLIGHT AND BOLD YOUR RESPONSE. For example: 1. The name of your Prof for GG282 is a) Corey Conners b) Dr. Bitton c) Helix d) Jared Keeso If you think the correct answer is “b)”, highlight and bold this answer, as seen below. 1. The name of your Prof for gG282 is a) Corey Conners b) Dr. Bitton c) Helix d) Jared Keeso Section One (/12) This section has 12 multiple choice questions related to mass movement processes and landforms. Multiple Choice Questions (/12) 1. A fine textured soil or sediment is present on a hillslope. The material has a silty clay texture. Initially the material has a low moisture content. There is a long extended period of rainy weather and the moisture content of the sediment is increased. As the moisture content of the sediment increases to a very high value: a. the shear strength of the material will increase b. the consistency of the sediment will change and it will begin to behave like a highly viscous mixture of sediment and water c. the probability of a mass movement will be reduced due to an increase in cohesion d. the material will adopt the characteristics of a hard brittle solid 2. A granular material (soil or sediment) on a slope has a low moisture content. Following a long period of rainfall, the moisture content of the material is increased to a very high percentage by volume. The shear strength of the granular material: a. b. c. d. will not change because moisture content does not influence the strength of granular materials will be reduced because the increased pore water pressure reduces the effective normal stress will increase due to a rise in cohesion will be reduced because the moisture will act as a cementing agent 3. A topple style of mass movement involves: a. b. c. d. a forward rotation of slabs of cohesive material the downslope movement of a slurry of water and sediment in a channel a failure of cohesive sediments along a curved plane a failure of cohesive materials along a planar inclined surface 4. Which one of the following types of mass movements typically has the lowest water content? a. b. c. d. rock slide (translational) debris flow earth slump or earthflow soil creep 5. Relative to one another, in which one of the following types of mass movements would the displaced material typically move at the highest speed? a. b. c. d. soil creep earth flow rotational slump rock fall 6. A translational slide involves: a. b. c. d. a forward rotation of slabs of cohesive material the downslope movement of a slurry of water and sediment in a channel a failure of cohesive sediments along a curved plane a failure of cohesive materials along a planar inclined surface 7. In southern Ontario which one of the following mechanism is likely the most common cause of soil creep? a. The expansion and contraction of the soil due to hydration (swelling) and dehydration (contraction) cycles. b. The expansion and contraction of the soil due to daily cycles of temperature from warm (expansion) to cold (contraction) c. The expansion and contraction of the soil due to the seasonal development of salt crystals (expansion) and their subsequent dissolution (contraction) in the soil zone d. The expansion and contraction of the soil due to the development of ice (expansion) and its subsequent melting (contraction) in the soil zone 8. a. b. c. d. Which one of the following types of mass movements would be considered a slow mass wasting event? debris flow rock slide soil creep rock fall 9. Which one of the following types of mass movements would be considered a rapid mass wasting event? a. debris flow b. earthflow c. soil creep d. bedrock creep 10. Relative to one another, in which one of the following types of mass movements would the displaced material typically move at the highest speed? a. soil creep b. earth flow c. rotational slump d. rock fall 11. Which one of the following is not a cause or a contributing factor to a landslide (mass movement) development? a. weak, sensitive, or weathered geological materials b. erosion at the base of a slope by geomorphic processes (e.g. fluvial, wave, or glacial erosion) c. loading of a slope at its crest d. cementation of sediment due to evaporation of moisture 12. Moderate to rapid mass movements can occur on relatively gentle gradients under the right conditions. A lateral spread is an example of this type of failure. In eastern Ontario and southern Quebec these types of mass movements occur in fine textured sediments. The sediments involved are: a. b. c. d. glaciolacustrine deposits clays and silts that were deposited in marine conditions fine textured glacial tills derived earlier glaciolacustrine deposits weathered and fractured shale bedrock units that have been reduced to fine regolith Section Two (/9) Open the Google Earth file Locations_2021.kml. There are a series of locations labelled in sequence (e.g. Location 1). Respond to the following questions by highlighting and bolding your answers the Multiple Choice questions in this Word document. The multiple choice questions are worth 1 mark each. Location One Go to Location 1. View the location from an overhead perspective and an oblique angle. Adjust the vertical exaggeration to optimize your view of the landscape. There is a very steep cliff east of the location marker. The bedrock exposed in that cliff is igneous rock. In this immediate area the mountains are volcanoes and the most recent eruption in the area was approximately 11,000 years ago. The area can experience substantial seismic activity. 16. What is the dominant mass movement process that is occurring at this location? a. Flow b. Creep c. Falls d. Rotational Sliding 17. Which one of the following terms is appropriate to describe the slope on which the Location 1 marker is placed? a. Felsenmeer b. Pediment c. Planation Surface d. Talus 18. In January of the year 1700 there was an earthquake with an estimated magnitude of 9.0 that influenced this region. In the event of a similar very large seismic event which one of the following types of mass movement could be triggered from the area of Location 1. a. Mudflow b. Earthflow c. Rockslide or Rock Avalanche d. Lateral Spread Location Two Go to Location 2. The marker is on a landform. Examine the terrain surrounding the marker. 19. The landform at Location 2 is: a. an Alluvial Fan b. a Debris Cone or Debris Flow Fan c. a Talus Cone d. a Colluvial Delta 20. Which of the following set of terms would best describe the materials that are found at Location 2? a. silt and clay b. well sorted sand c. well rounded pebbles d. angular pebbles, cobbles and boulders Location Three Go to Location 3, use the time slider to view the area over a series of dates. The slope at Location 3 was unstable for a long period of time. In late March of 2014 there was a major mass movement at the site. View the imagery from March 31, 2014, this imagery was captured 9 days after a major event.

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