1.Why is the outer conductive layer helpful when charging the jar? It isn’t even in contact with the lid and water!

2.The simplest general equation for the capacitance(effectiveness holdingacharge) of a capacitor isC=εA/z. The three variables are: ε, the permittivity or polarizability of the insulating layer (in this case the glass or plastic); A, the total area ofeither conductive layerincontact withthe insulator; and z, the thickness of the insulating layer:

What arethethree ways to improve a Leyden Jar, in theory, based on this equation?

Lab 10 – Leyden Jar:
Purpose
Students will build and experiment
with a simple capacitor.
Theory
The Leyden Jar (“LIE-den”) was the
first effective capacitor. It holds charge
via polarization of atoms in the nonconductive jar walls once it’s induced
there by a voltage difference between
the inner and outer conductive layers.
The charging terminal connected to the
jar’s internal conductor must be very
smooth because pointy surfaces leak
charge rapidly via coronal discharge.
Figure 10: A classic Leyden Jar in cut-away.
This activity uses the electrophorus
and pith-ball pendulum from before.
Procedure

1. Find a bottle or jar made of glass or
plastic and fill it with tap water, as this
is a decent interior conductive body.
2. Wrap the lid very smoothly in foil,
and drape some around inside the lid
and down so that when the lid is lightly
threaded on, foil touches the water. If
foil is unavailable, a nail can be driven
through the lid from the top so that the
point sticks down into the water.
3. If available, wrap the whole jar in
foil up to about 2 cm of the lid. It is very
important that the exterior foil does
not touch the lid. If foil is unavailable,
the bottle must be held in one hand
when charge is applied to the lid metal
to act as the exterior conductor.
4. Using an electrophorus, charge up
the Leyden Jar by touching the charged
electrophorus plate to the lid’s metal
(meaning the foil on it or the nail).
5. Without accidentally touching the
lid metal and discharging the jar, try to
use the lid metal to power a pith-ball
pendulum: Lid metal on one side of it,
finger on the other, very close but not
touching. Oscillation of the pendulum
between the two means it works.
6. Assuming success up to this point,
try to charge the jar, wait five minutes,
and test it. Then try an hour. A welldesigned Leyden Jar (much better than
this one) can hold charge for months!
Analysis
Answer the following on Canvas via
complete, grammatical sentences:
7. Why is the outer conductive layer
helpful when charging the jar? It isn’t
even in contact with the lid and water!
8. The simplest general equation for
the capacitance (effectiveness holding
a charge) of a capacitor is C = εA/z. The
three variables are: ε, the permittivity
or polarizability of the insulating layer
(in this case the glass or plastic); A, the
total area of either conductive layer in
contact with the insulator; and z, the
thickness of the insulating layer: What
are the three ways to improve a Leyden
Jar, in theory, based on this equation?

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