ESS 21: On Thin Ice 2021 – Exam 1 Practice Questions Answers Part A: Questions are worth 1 point each. 1. The image on the left is the International Space Station. There are currently 6 crew aboard. The space station acts as a(n): a. isolated system b. mostly open system c. mostly closed system 2. Identify this logical fallacy: “You can either create a planet that your children can live in, or you can choose to fly across the world for a vacation.” a. False dilemma b. Argument from authority c. False analogy d. Slippery slope e. None of the above 3. I want to heat up 2kg of water from 5 oC to 10 oC. If the specific heat of water is 4000 Joules/kgoC, how much energy would I have to add? a. 5,000 Joules b. 10,000 Joules c. 20,000 Joules d. 40,000 Joules 4. Which of these diagrams shows the obliquity Milankovitch cycle? A 5. Which of the following is NOT one of the 5 key messages about how climate change will affect the Southwestern US? a. Snowpack and streamflow amounts are projected to decline, decreasing water supply for cities, agriculture, and ecosystems. b. Increased warming and drought will increase wildfires and impacts of wildfire on people and ecosystems. c. Flooding and erosion in coastal areas due to sea level rise. d. Increased temperatures will expand the range of disease-carrying insects. 6. Which of the following news article headlines is about climate change rather than weather? a. “Record breaking temperatures in New York” b. “Ocean acidification in last 30 years causing a threat to coral reefs” c. “Sierra Nevada snowfall down 80% this winter” d. “Santa Ana winds bringing dry air and wildfire danger this week” 7. Which of the following water properties is responsible for transporting heat from tropical areas towards the Pole, or for cooling us down when we sweat? a. high latent heat of vaporization b. high density of water c. high specific heat of water 8. What are the arrows pointing to on the diagram on the left? a. covalent bonds b. electron pairs c. neutrons d. hydrogen bonds 9. Mercury is much smaller than the Earth and much closer to the Sun. Will the solar constant of Mercury be higher or lower than that of the Earth? Solar constant = solar luminosity / 4 π r2 where r = distance of planet from Sun a. Higher b. Same c. Lower 10. Which of the following statements about past climates is FALSE? a. For much of Earth’s history there were no large ice sheets and sea level was much higher b. Human civilization has experienced several dramatic climate changes throughout the past few thousand years without much effect. c. Milankovitch cycles have controlled the timing of glacials (ice ages) over at least the last 2 million years d. Amplifying feedbacks, often related to the cryosphere, have been important in climate history. 11. Aerosols affect climate by: a. reflecting incoming shortwave radiation b. absorbing outgoing longwave radiation c. both a. and b. 12. The diagram above shows a simplified version of the hydrologic cycle. What is the residence time of a water molecule in groundwater? Residence time = amount in reservoir total sources OR sinks a. 300 years b. 600 years c. 800 years d. 1200 years 13. The greenhouse effect of Earth’s atmosphere warms our planet because: a. Incoming shortwave radiation is transmitted by the atmosphere but outgoing longwave radiation is absorbed by certain gases b. Incoming shortwave radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere but outgoing longwave radiation is transmitted c. Both incoming shortwave (visible) radiation and outgoing longwave (infrared) radiation is transmitted by the atmosphere d. Both incoming shortwave radiation and outgoing longwave radiation is absorbed by certain gases in the atmosphere 14. Where will the greatest increase in temperatures be due to climate change over the next 100 years? a. the tropics b. Southern California c. over the oceans d. Arctic areas 15. Which of the following geoengineering techniques would work by reducing CO2 concentrations? a. creating more clouds b. launching space mirrors c. spreading fertilizer into the ocean d. covering the deserts with white material 16. Which of the following is NOT a carbon-free or carbon-neutral energy source? a. wind b. solar c. biomass d. natural gas e. geothermal Part B: Answer the following short questions on this exam paper. The value of each question is in brackets. 1. Planetary energy balance (3) One billion years from now, Earth’s average temperature will be about 50 oC. With reference to the 5 factors that control planetary temperature, give 3 explanations for why temperature will be so much higher then? a) The Sun’s luminosity will continue to increase so more energy will be arriving from the Sun. b) At that higher temperature there will be no ice on Earth therefore there will be higher sea level and these changes will lead to a lower albedo. c) At that higher temperature there will be more evaporation and more water vapor in the atmosphere. Water vapor is a greenhouse gas and so our greenhouse effect will be stronger. 2. Feedback loops (4) An increase in global temperature will cause frozen soil (permafrost) to warm up above freezing. As the soil warms, organic matter contained within the soil will start to decay which releases methane and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Draw the appropriate arrows between the below boxes to demonstrate the permafrost-carbon feedback loop. (3) Is this a positive (amplifying) feedback or a negative (dampening) feedback? (1) POSITIVE / NEGATIVE 3. Earth System Science through diagrams! (2) a) Milankovitch cycles and seasons: Complete the diagram below by drawing the position and tilt of the Earth that would result in extremely hot summers in the Northern hemisphere. (1) b) Blackbody radiation: The Sun’s spectrum is shown on the graph below. Draw the spectrum you would expect from a hotter star. (1) Wien’s Law: λmax= 2898/T Stefan-Boltzman Law: I = σT4 4. Climate change causes and solutions (4) a) According to the diagram above, what amount of cooling is caused by changes in clouds due to aerosols? (1) 0.5 W/m2 b) What creates the largest uncertainty in our estimates of temperature in 2100? (1) The amount of greenhouse gases emitted by human activities over the next decades. c) We can cut carbon emissions by conservation, efficiency, carbon-free energy, and carbon capture and storage. Which of these strategies would the following solutions represent? (2) i) increasing the gas mileage of cars efficiency ii) unplugging your cell phone charger when not using it conservation Question 1 2 pts Being able to identify logical fallacies is helpful in identifying weak arguments about a range of topics. What logical fallacy does each statement below commit? (2 points) (Tip – there is one example of each fallacy.) Choose Plants use carbon dioxide for photosynthesis so carbon dioxide cannot be considered a pollutant. ( Choose You cannot believe what activist Greta Thunberg says about climate change because she is too emotional. You can either create a planet that your children can live in, or you can drive a car. Choose) Choose Senator X says that we must propose policies to cut our carbon emissions. Senator Y says that they are shocked that Senator X is willing to sacrifice the US economy and workers just to save a few polar bears. Question 2 1 pts Panel A of the image below shows a real headline and graph of temperature anomaly data from a news article in the Financial Post in 2017. Panel B of the image below shows a graph of the temperature anomaly data (difference in temp compared to the average from 1901-2000) produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (part of the US government). Explain why the graph in Panel A is an example of cherry-picking and therefore misleading. (Quick note – “hiatus” means “pause”.) те FINANCIAL POST GLOBAL TEMPERATURE PAUSE Junk Science Week: The ‘hiatus’ The World’s surface temperature since 1997 according to the UK Met Office’s HadCRUTA database in global warming is the hottest 120 topic in climate science right now, whether alarmists like it or not The global warming hiatus is the most talked about and esearched topic in climate science pecial to handle 22, 2017.12.2017 3 minute. Join the conversation DGC When you want 04C 02°C В 1900 1910 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Question 3 1 pts Earth is a mostly closed system. Explain ONE implication that this has for the future of human society. Edit View Insert Format Tools Table 12pt Paragraph Β Ι Ο Av T2 : р O words D Question 4 1 pts The major reservoir on Earth that contains the cryosphere is the: O atmosphere O geosphere biosphere hydrosphere D Question 5 1 pts The diagram below shows a simplified version of the carbon cycle. What is the residence time of a carbon atom in soil in years? Residence time = amount in reservoir / total sources OR sinks Atmosphere 800 Gtons Photosynthesis Plant respiration 40 Gtons/yr 20 Gtons/yr Soil respiration 18 Gtons/yr Dissolution 38 Gtons/yr Gas release 40 Gtons/yr Land plants 800 Gtons Oceans 40,000 Gtons Leaf-fall 20 Gtons/yr Soil 2000 Gtons Soil runoff 2 Gtons/yr D Question 6 1 pts As global temperatures rise, there are more extreme weather events which causes more damage to our economy. Because of this damage our carbon emissions drop and therefore this would help reduce global temperature. Which of the diagrams below accurately represents this feedback loop? Global temperature Global temperature Human carbon emissions due to economic activity A Number and intensity of extreme weather events Human carbon emissions due to economic activity B Number and intensity of extreme weather events Damage to economy Damage to economy Global temperature Global temperature Human carbon emissions due to economic activity с Number and intensity of extreme weather events Human carbon emissions due to economic activity D Number and intensity of extreme weather events Damage to economy Damage to economy ОА OB OC OD D Question 7 1 pts The feedback described in the question above is a: O positive feedback loop O negative feedback loop D Question 8 1 pts Which blackbody law is responsible for the Earth being in planetary energy balance? O Stefan-Boltzmann Law O Wien’s Law Law of gravitation D Question 9 1 pts Solar constant – solar luminosity / 4 nr2 wherer-distance of planet from Sun The closer a planet is to the Sun: O the higher the solar constant o the lower the solar constant o o distance from the Sun has no effect on the solar constant Question 9 1 pts Solar constant = solar luminosity / 412 where r = distance of planet from Sun The closer a planet is to the Sun: O the higher the solar constant O the lower the solar constant O distance from the Sun has no effect on the solar constant А B Atmosphere DA Earth Use this diagram to answer the following 2 questions. Question 10 1 pts On the diagram above: arrow Select represents the albedo arrow Select represents the additional energy flux due to the greenhouse effect that keeps Earth’s surface warmer than it otherwise would be. Question 11 1 pts Remember that we are in planetary energy balance. Using the diagram above, what would be equal to? O A+E O B+E O CUF O B+F O A+F Question 12 2 pts All of the changes below are occurring due to climate change or other human activities. Select ALL of them that are causing albedo to INCREASE (and so helping slow warming). (NOTE – correct answers will earn points but incorrect answers will cause you to lose points so be careful!) TABLE 2-1 Average Albedo Range of Earth’s Surfaces Surface Albedo range (percent) Fresh snow or ice 60-90% Old, melting snow 40-70 Clouds 40 90 Desert sand 30-50 Soil 5-30 Tundra 15-35 Grasslands 18-25 Forest 5-20 Water 5-10 Adapted from W. D. Sellers, Physical Climatology (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965), and from R. G. Barry and R. J. Chorley, Atmosphere, Weather, and Climate, 4th ed. (New York: Metbwew, 1982). O melting of snow and sea ice revealing land or ocean underneath overgrazing is removing vegetation and expanding areas of desert increasing cloud cover increasing sea level flooding areas of land deforestation is removing forest and replacing it with grassland for raising cows D Question 13 1 pts Use the graph below to work out which of the gases would be a “greenhouse gas”? 100% Gas A 0% 100% Gas B Energy absorbed by gas 0% 100% Gas C M 0% ultraviolet visible infrared Increasing wavelength O Gas A O Gas B O Gasc All of the gases Question 14 1 pts Is the news story below related to weather or climate? Japan’s cherry blossom ‘earliest peak since 812’ Change BEHROZ MEHR O weather O climate Question 15 1 pts Which position on the diagram below would be northern hemisphere summer? B A с OA OB OC OD D Question 16 1 pts Which of the following is NOT a reason that the poles are colder than the Equator? O greater reflection at higher latitudes due to the angle of incoming energy O shorter days for part of the year O variations in the strength of the greenhouse effect close to the Poles O beam spreading due to curvature of the Earth D Question 17 1 pts Match the diagram to the correct Milankovitch cycle. А Northern Hemisphere tilted away from the sun at aphelion Northem hemisphere tilted toward the sun at aphelion B precession Choose1 eccentricity Choose 1 obliquity [Choose1 Question 18 1 pts From the diagram below, which hemisphere would be experiencing more extreme seasons? O Northern hemisphere O Southern hemisphere Both hemispheres would have extreme seasons D Question 19 1 pts An example of a geologic record of past climate indicating wetter conditions in the past is: the satellite record of rainfall over the last 30 years o the presence of dry lakes in the deserts of Southern California O wider tree rings from trees grown in California 1000 years ago D Question 20 1 pts Which of the following statements about climate change is TRUE? Earth’s climate is projected to change faster over the next 100 years than at any other time in the last 65 million years. There has always been ice on Earth. O Global temperatures are now the highest they’ve ever been over Earth’s history. Human civilization has experienced several rapid and dramatic changes in climate before over the last 10.000 years, Question 21 1 pts Apart from causing warming, increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere affects the ocean by causing: Edit View Insert Format Tools Table 12pt Paragraph | BI VA £ Tv р O words 1 Global Climate Drivers Heat-trapping Emissions (Greenhouse Gases) 3 Forcing (watts per sq. meter) Warming WNLO-NWAU Cooling Sun’s Energy Output 1 Ho Land Use – Changes Aerosols from Aerosols from Volcanic Venting Urban Pollution 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 1880 1900 Use the graph above to answer the following 2 questions. D Question 22 1 pts Approximately how much warming was caused by greenhouse gases in the year 2000 in W/m?? D Question 23 1 pts If we manage to reduce aerosol pollution in urban areas by creating stricter laws, what would that do to global temperatures based on the graph above? there would be no change O we would see global cooling O we would experience extra warming Question 24 1 pts What causes the LARGEST uncertainty in our estimates of future climate changes by 2100? O how ice sheets will respond to rising temperature o the response of clouds and precipitation O sudden shifts such as the melting of sea ice or burning of rainforest O how much greenhouse gas humans emit over the next decades Question 25 2 pts Briefly explain TWO reasons that human society in the RCP8.5 scenario emits more greenhouse gas emissions than in the RCP2.6 scenario. Edit View Insert Format Tools Table 12pt Paragraph B T U A 2 Ty : p O words Question 26 1 pts Explain ONE way that changes to the cryosphere are going to specifically impact people in the southwest US as our climate changes. Edit View Insert Format Tools Table 12pt Paragraph B 1 U AV Tv p O words Question 27 1 pts The diagrams below show projected changes in precipitation by 2100 with best or worse case scenarios. Which of the statements below is TRUE? RCP2.6 RCP8.5 Change in average precipitation (1986-2005 to 2081-2100) (b) (%) -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 O All locations on Earth get wetter in the future due to climate change. . There are more dramatic changes in precipitation in the RCP8.5 scenario than the RCP2.6 scenario. O Dry places get much drier in the future but wet places get similar amounts of rain. The Arctic gets drier in both scenarios by 2100. D Question 28 2 pts Match the solutions below with the category of climate change solution they belong to. (2 points) installing insulation in your home to make it easier to heat during winter [ Choose planting a large number of trees around the world to take up carbon dioxide [Choose1 eating less meat [Choose building wind turbines to generate electricity Choose Question 29 1 pts One potential geoengineering solution to climate change is adding fertilizer to the oceans which causes more algae to grow and carry out photosynthesis, taking in CO2. How would this cool climate? O By reducing the solar luminosity By increasing the amount of incoming energy reflected O By decreasing the amount of outgoing energy absorbed O By causing internal feedback loops D Question 30 1 pts Our worst-case scenario predicts that carbon emissions could grow to 16 Gtons/year by 2050. If we manage to stabilize our carbon emissions at today’s levels of around 8 Gtons/year what will happen to the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere? O decrease O remain the same O Increase D Question 31 1 pts Name ONE way carbon-free method of generating electricity and explain a potential challenge in using this method to supply us with energy. Edit View Insert Format Tools Table 12pt Paragraph v | BI VA I VA 2 Tv : p O words Question 32 1 pts What do we mean when we say that much of our daily water use is “hidden”? Edit View Insert Format Tools Table 12pt Paragraph | BIVAL T²u р O words Question 33 1 pts How are hydrogen bonds different from covalent bonds? O Hydrogen bonds form between molecules rather than between atoms O Both hydrogen and covalent bonds form due to the sharing of electrons Hydrogen bonds are much stronger (so more difficult to break) than covalent bonds D Question 34 2 pts Match the unusual property of water chemistry with their real world implication. Is the reason that ocean temperatures are not warming as fast as atmospheric temperatures due to climate change [Choose1 Choose ] high latent heat of vaporization hexagonal, open structure as a solid high specific heat Allows the transport of energy from the Equator to the Poles which keeps them warmer than they would otherwise be Means that ice floats rather than sinks Choose1 D Question 33 1 pts How are hydrogen bonds different from covalent bonds? Hydrogen bonds form between molecules rather than between atoms Both hydrogen and covalent bonds form due to the sharing of electrons Hydrogen bonds are much stronger (so more difficult to break) than covalent bonds Question 34 2 pts Match the unusual property of water chemistry with their real world implication. Choose Is the reason that ocean temperatures are not warming as fast as atmospheric temperatures due to climate change [Choose] < Allows the transport of energy from the Equator to the Poles which keeps them warmer than they would otherwise be Means that ice floats rather than sinks [Choose > D Question 35 1 pts I add 24,000 Joules of energy to 3kg of water. If the specific heat of water is 4000 Joules/kg°C, how much warmer would the water get in oC? Question 34 2 pts Match the unusual property of water chemistry with their real world implication. Is the reason that ocean temperatures are not warming as fast as atmospheric temperatures due to climate change [Choose] [Choose] high latent heat of vaporization hexagonal, open structure as a solid high specific heat Allows the transport of energy from the Equator to the Poles which keeps them warmer than they would otherwise be Means that ice floats rather than sinks [ Choose Question 28 2 pts Match the solutions below with the category of climate change solution they belong to. (2 points) installing insulation in your home to make it easier to heat during winter planting a large number of trees around the world to take up carbon dioxide [Choose] [Choose] conservation efficiency geoengineering carbon-free energy [Choose] eating less meat building wind turbines to generate electricity [ Choose Question 1 2 pts Being able to identify logical fallacies is helpful in identifying weak arguments about a range of topics. What logical fallacy does each statement below commit? (2 points) (Tip – there is one example of each fallacy.) Plants use carbon dioxide for photosynthesis [Choose) so carbon dioxide cannot be considered a pollutant. [Choose] False dilemma Non sequitur You cannot believe what activist Greta Straw man Thunberg says about climate change because Ad hominem she is too emotional. You can either create a planet that your children can live in, or you can drive a car. [ Choose [Choose Senator X says that we must propose policies to cut our carbon emissions. Senator Y says that they are shocked that Senator X is willing to sacrifice the US economy and workers just to save a few polar bears.
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