Description

For this week’s discussion, you’re going to start finding resources on ELAC Library’s website. One of my favorite volcanic eruptions in history, which we’ll talk about next week, was the eruption of Krakatoa, Indonesia in 1883. You’re going to be researching this eruption and answering some questions about it.

please respond to this prompt with the following information

Part 1:

Learn about the kinds of resources that are available through OneSearch, a one-stop-shop for research on the library’s website.

  • From elac.edu, select Library from the Menu.
  • On the Library’s front page, you will see a search bar that says “OneSearch”.
  • In this search bar, search “Krakatoa”. Feel free to play around with the search terms; try variations and see the difference in the results.
  • On OneSearch, find and give the MLA citation (https://www.citationmachine.net/mla/cite-a-book (Links to an external site.)) for:
    • 1 book about Krakatoa
    • 1 newspaper article from the past 10 years about Krakatoa’s eruptions
    • 1 journal article from the 1800s about the 1883 eruption
  • WHICH SOURCE WOULD YOU PREFER TO READ TO GAIN A GOOD UNDERSTANDING OF THE GEOLOGY OF THE KRAKATOA VOLCANO?

Part 2:

Locate and open the article entitled Krakatoa by H.M. Paul, published in Science, August 15, 1884, Vol.4(80), pp.135-136. Read this short article and answer the following question: How far away was the 1883 Krakatoa eruption heard? It is a scientifically complicated, dense article, but try to scan the sentences for the information to answer this question. Do you think you need to understand everything in an article to be able to pull facts from a source?

after you finish part 1 and 2 please respond to two classmates, i will send their prompts once you choose this question Hjulstrom Diagarm Wilfrid Laurier University Department of Geography and Environmental Studies GG 282 Lab 4 Exercise: ADD ON TO PART 1 New Questions added – #7 and #8 Applied Geomorphology: River Discharge Nith River Watershed Examine the Nith River in Google Earth, including the locations of some of the gauging stations. Use Google Earth to become familiar with the topography of the area and the cultural landscape with a focus on land use. Examine the channel geomorphology, also refer also to the surficial geology and physiography maps. Flood Frequency Curves Download and Open the Excel spreadsheet Nith River Stations – your TA will work with you to show you how the information is presented. The calculations and the graph are completed for the station Nith River above Nithburg (refer to the lab handout). For the other two stations, complete the calculations and generate the graphs that plot Maximum Instantaneous Discharge vs Recurrence Interval. To do the calculations rank the maximum instantaneous discharge data from each station and calculate a recurrence interval for each record. Complete the calculations needed to answer Questions 1, 2 and 3. SAVE your files. The answers to Questions 1, 2 and 3 will be in the Excel document that you will create. Q1. Plot annual maximum instantaneous discharge as a function of recurrence interval for each station (produce a scatterplot). There will be three graphs (one is already created for you). Treat each station data set separately. Pass a straight line through those data points for which the recurrence interval is greater than or equal to 1.5 years. Use a curve fitting procedure to produce the line (use a logarithmic function). Copy your completed graphs into a document for submission. (5 marks) Q2. The column labelled IMAX is the maximum instantaneous discharge value for each years. Calculate the mean of this annual maximum discharge series for each station, this parameter is called the Mean Annual Flood. Express your answer in m3s-1. Present the results. (1.5 marks) Q3. Determine, from your graphs or the equations (preference is the equation), the recurrence interval of the Mean Annual Flood from each station. Present the results. (1.5 marks) Q4. From the flood frequency curves, estimate the magnitude of the 100 year flood of the Nith River at each station. (1.5 marks) Q5. Determine the magnitude of the flow (flood) events for recurrence intervals of 5, 20 and 50 years for the three stations. Enter those values into the table below and evaluate the probabilities listed in the table. (4.5 marks) Table 1 Annual Flood discharges and probabilities for Nith River. ‘Flood Magnitude’ (m3/s) Recurrence Interval (years) Nith River above Nithburg Nith River at New Hamburg Nith River near Canning Probability of occurrence in a given year Probability of occurrence in next 10 years 5 20 50 Show your probability calculations for the Recurrence Interval (RI) of 5 years here: (You may hand write it, take a photo of your work, and add the .jpeg.) Manning Equation Calculations Examine the diagram on page 9 of the lab background document that show the stream channel and the adjacent floodplain. Consider a variety of flow conditions. In the first set of conditions the water is contained within the channel. First there is a low water level, then with a moderate water level, and finally the water level is at the bankfull channel depth. For each condition there are values given for Mannings n, and the gradient (S). Using the geometry of the channel, solve for R (hydraulic radius) and V (velocity). Q6 a) Flow in Channel alone. Here the flow is confined to the channel. Using the roughness coefficients and slope values given in the table, solve for R and V. (6 marks) Water Depth in Channel (m) Mannings n S 0.25 0.046 0.001 0.75 0.036 0.001 2.0 0.030 0.0015 R (m) Show one set (calculation for R, calculation of V) of calculations here: (You may write it out and take a picture and attach a picture of your rough work): V (m/s) Q6 b) Flow in the Channel Above Flood Stage. Here the flow has exceeded the bankfull capacity of the channel and the water depth is now 2.5 metres above the bed of the channel. If we use the roughness and gradient values below, what are R and V? (2 marks) Water Depth in Channel (m) Mannings n S 2.5 0.030 0.0015 R (m) V (m/s) Q6 c) On the diagram we see a floodplain. When the flow exceeds the bankfull capacity, water spills out onto the floodplain. Assume the flow has exceeded the bankfull capacity of the channel and the water depth is now 0.5 metres above the floodplain surface. If we use the roughness and gradient values below, what are R and V for the floodplain. (2 marks) Water Depth above Floodplain (m) Mannings n S 0.5 0.25 0.0015 R (m) V (m/s) Q7. ADD THESE QUESTIONS/ANSWERS TO YOUR ORIGINAL DOCUMENT: In Question 6 you calculated the V(m/s) using the Manning equation for our hypothetical river as show in the diagram below. Now, using the River Velocity you calculated, you will calculate the Discharge (Q = A x V). Q7 a) Using your values for Velocity in Question 6, calculate the Discharge (Q) for the same scenarios. (6 marks) Water Depth in Channel (m) Mannings n S 0.25 0.046 0.001 0.75 0.036 0.001 2.0 0.030 0.0015 V (m/s) A(m2) Q(m3/s) Show one calculation for Q here: (You may write it out and take a picture and attach a picture of your rough work): Q7 b) Using your values for Velocity in Question 6b, calculate the Discharge (Q) for the river channel. (2 marks) Water Depth above Floodplain (m) Mannings n S 2.5 0.030 0.0015 V (m/s) A(m2) Q(m3/s) Q7 c) Using your values for Velocity in Question 6c, calculate the Discharge (Q) for the river floodplain. (2 marks) Water Depth above Floodplain (m) Mannings n S 0.5 0.25 0.0015 V (m/s) A(m2) Q(m3/s) Q8. Consider the velocity of the channel in the overbank condition. a) Describe what happens to the velocity as it moves onto the floodplain. (1 mark) b) Using the Hjulstrom Curve (found in the Excel file,) at that velocity how would fine sand, medium sand, and coarse sand be transported? (3 marks) c) What sediment sizes are you most likely to find in the floodplain. (1

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