AHIS-3200 Fall 2021 NSCAD University History of Photography Take-home Test Assigned: Tuesday, Dec. 14, 2021 DUE: Friday, Dec. 17 at 5:00 pm* Atlantic Time on Brightspace (*please note that late submissions are not possible because of grading deadlines) 30% of final grade NAME: STUDENT NUMBER: Part A: 55 points Part B: 45 points [100 points total] Part A: Short Answer 1) How did Laura Wexler characterize Frederick Douglass’s relationship to photography? How did she contrast Douglass’s position with Roland Barthes’ in Camera Lucida? [200 words max., 15 points] 2) What was new about George Eastman’s Kodak camera in the 1880s? What impact did this invention have on the history of photography? [100 words max., 5 points] 3) Jo Spence described herself as a “cultural sniper.” What do you think this meant to her and where and how do you see it operating in her work (please mention at least one specific work and illustrate and caption—artist, title, date, medium, dimensions— it below)? [200 words max., 15 points] 4) Choose one of the following questions to answer: a. What are some of the key differences between the daguerreotype and the calotype processes? Choose one image from the textbook or lecture slides that exemplifies each process (please include captioned—artist, title, date, medium, dimensions— images of these works below). Explain the characteristics of each process with reference to these two images. [250 words max., 20 points] b. Briefly describe how photography was used by either the Surrealists or the Dadaists. Choose one photograph from the textbook or lecture slides that corresponds to the movement you are describing (please include a captioned—artist, title, date, medium, dimensions— image of this work below). How does this photograph display some of the characteristics of the movement? What strategies has the photographer used? Explain with reference to the image. [250 words max, 20 points] AHIS-3200 Fall 2021 NSCAD University Part B: Essay Please respond to one of the following two questions: 1) Compare these works formally, taking into consideration the way they were made and their subject matter. Both works were discussed with reference to debates surrounding photography and art. How do these works relate to such debates from their respective periods? [700 words max., 45 points] Oscar G. Rejlander, Two Ways of Life (Hope in Repentance), 1857 (printed 1925) carbon print, combination print, 41.1 × 76.9 cm Alfred Stieglitz, The Steerage, 1907, photogravure, 33.4 x 26.4 cm 2) Throughout the term we have analyzed many different types of photographic portraits— from studio portraits, to social documentary portraits, to photomontaged and multiple exposure portraits, to performative and staged portraits. Choose one portrait from the nineteenth century and one from the twentieth or twenty-first century from the textbook or lecture slides. Compare and contrast these two works formally, contextually (without launching into extensive research, broad strokes are fine here), and conceptually (please illustrate and fully caption—artist, title, date, medium, dimensions—the two images below). [700 words max., 45 points] [FOR A TOTAL OF 100 POINTS] AHIS-3200 “Portraituromania”: problems and possibili4es Week Two Tuesday, Sept. 21, 2021 Portraiture Joseph Wright, The Corinthian Maid, 1782 Memling, St. Veronica, c. 1470 Caravaggio, Narcissus, 1594-96 Regnault, Origin of Painting, 1785 Hippolyte Bayard, Self-Portraits Bayard’s tests of photosensi7vity, 1839 Hippolyte Bayard, Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man, 1840, direct positive print “The corpse which you see here is that of M. Bayard, inventor of the process that has just been shown to you. As far as I know, this indefa@gable experimenter has been occupied for about three years with perfec@ng his discovery…. All those who have seen his pictures admired them as you do at this very moment, although he considers them s@ll imperfect. This has brought him honor, but not a single penny. The Government, which has been only too generous to Monsieur Daguerre, says it can do nothing for Monsieur Bayard, and the unhappy wretch has drowned himself in despair. Oh human fickleness! For some @me, ar@sts, scien@sts and the press took an interest in him, but now that he has been at the morgue for several days, nobody has recognized him. Ladies and gentlemen, let us discuss something else so as not to offend your sense of smell, for as you can see, the face and hands of the gentleman are already beginning to decompose. H.B., 18 October 1840.” Hippolyte Bayard, Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man, 1840, -Bayard: inscribed on back of print Direct paper positive (like Niepce and Daguerre) J-L David, Marat at his Last Breath, 1793, oil on canvas Hippolyte Bayard, Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man, 1840 Southworth & Hawes, Rollin Heber Neale, ca. 1850, Daguerreotype Albert Sands Southworth and Josiah Johnson Hawes: Susan Brownell Anthony, daguerreotype, 21.6 x 16.5 cm (8 1/2 x 6 1/2 in.), ca. 1850 (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, GiO of I. N. Phelps Stokes, Edward S. Hawes, Alice Mary Hawes, and Marion Augusta Hawes, 1937, Accession ID: 37.14.35); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art M.B. Brady’s New Photographic Gallery, New York David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson, Redding the Line (Portrait of James Linton), ca. 1846, Calotype David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson: Aben Fishwife (Mrs. Flucker Of Newhaven, Shucking Oysters), calotype, 190.5×139.7 mm, 1845 (Los Angeles County Museum of Art Tintypes André-Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri Cartes-de-visites Self-Portrait, albumen print, toned (carte-devisite), 85.7×54 mm, c. 1860; (Los Angeles County Museum of Art, The Audrey and Sydney Irmas Collection, Accession ID: AC1992.197.44 Cartes de Visites Prince Lobkowitz Ar0st:André-Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri (French, Paris 1819–1889 Paris) Date:1858 Medium:Albumen silver print from glass negadve Dimensions:20.0 x 23.2 cm (7 7/8 x 9 1/8 in.) Physiognomy “Physiognomics, the art of judging character from facial features” Johann Kaspar Lavater (1741-1801) Helplessness Fear Rejlander, Duchenne de Boulogne, Illustra@ons for the Expression of the Emo@ons in Man and Animals by Charles Darwin, 1872, Heliotypes Allan Sekula, 1951-2013 “The Body and the Archive,” 1986 “Photography subverted the privileges inherent in portraiture.” “Every proper portrait has its lurking, objectifying inverse in the files of the police.” Important noPon of HONORIFIC and REPRESSIVE portraits Allan Sekula. Self-Portrait (Lendo 12/22/02). From Black Tide/Marea negra, 20022003. Twenty color photographs in ten frames, text. Courtesy the Estate of Allan Sekula. BerMllon Card From Thomas Byrnes, Professional Criminals of America, 1886) Alphonse Bertillon, “Summary Chart of Physical Traits for the Study or the ‘Portrait Parlé,’ ” circa 1909. Photograph from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Alphonse BerCllon, “Murder of Madame Veuve Bol, ProjecOon on a VerOcal Plane,” 1904. Photograph from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gilman CollecCon FronCspiece of Havelock Ellis’s The Criminal. Frontispiece from Francis Galton, Inquiries into Human Faculty, 1883 Hannah Maynard, Self-Portrait in muldple exposures, c. 1893 Hannah Maynard, Captain Jack and his wife. c. 1868 (Kwakwakaʼwakw couple) Hannah Maynard, Belle Adams, Victoria Police Department, 1898 Hannah Maynard, Gems of Bri:sh Columbia. 1883 and 1885 Frederick Douglass (1818-1895) “Daguerre, by simple but all abounding sunlight has converted the planet into a picture gallery. As munificent in the exalted arena of art, as in the radiadon of light and heat, the God of day not only decks the earth with rich fruit and beaudful flowers—but studs the world with pictures. Daguerreotypes, Ambrotypes, Photographs and Electrotypes, good and bad, now adorn or disfigure all our dwellings. . . . Men of all condidons may see themselves as others see them. What was once the exclusive luxury of the rich and great is now within reach of all “ -Douglass, “Pictures and Progress,” 1861 Unknown (American), daguerreotype of Frederick Douglass, ca. 1855, The Rubel Collection, Gift of William Rubel, 2001. The Metropolitan Museum of Art 1. How does Wexler describe Douglass’s relationship to photography? 2. What role does Douglass propose photography can play in society, especially in the context of abolitionism and following the American Civil War? 3. How does Wexler contrast Douglass’s and Roland Barthes’s theorizations on photography? Frederick Douglass, 1848 Chester County Historical Society Frederic Douglas, 1863, carte de visite Revenant “As an avatar of social progress, the photographic Revenant enlivens the present and hails a beGer world.” -Wexler on Douglass Richard Avedon, William Casby, 1963 Richard Avedon reflected in William Casby’s eyes ‘Portraits uniquely enable us to “see our interior selves as disRnct personaliRes as though looking in a glass,” and from this “power we possess of making our-selves objecRve to ourselves,” arises the potenRal for “self-criRcism out of which comes the highest aGainments of human excellence.” For Douglass, pictures enable us to see ourselves as if from the outside and, from this more distanced view, to contemplate and assess ourselves, drawing up plans for improvement. Encouraging self-criRque in this way, pictures, according to Douglass, are the very foundaRon of progress, and photographic portraits can be catalysts for social change.’ -Maurice O. Wallace and Shawn Michelle Smith (quoNng Frederick Douglass), “IntroducNon,” Pictures and Progress: Early Photography and the Making of African American Iden?ty (2012) Sojourner Truth, “I Sell the Shadow to Support the Substance,” 1864, unknown photographer, albumen silver print from glass negative Carte-de-visite portrait of Sojourner Truth, unknown photographer, 1863, albumen and silver nitrate on photographic paper, 4 x 2.5 inches Hippolyte Bayard, Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man, 1840, direct positive print Frederick Douglass, 1863, carte de visite ‘A portrait is an open door. It can remind us of our ethical duty to the other. “The face speaks to me, and thereby invites me to a rela=on,” as the philosopher Emmanuel Lévinas puts it. Unlike machines, we see with sympathy. (This is why a mere portrait of a despot can be dangerously effec=ve propaganda. The portrait humanizes the person depicted in ways we can’t quite control. Inhuman behavior is rarely apparent on a human face.) A photograph by Berenice AbboL, Seydou Keïta, Gordon Parks, Dawoud Bey or any of the greats in the history of photography, a portrait of Sojourner Truth, Frederick Douglass or an unnamed boy standing in front of a tent in Brooklyn presents us with the face of the other and restores us to ourselves. Some magic happens there, a magic as old and reliable as the portraits painted on the Fayyum funerary boards 2,000 years ago. Not all portraits are created equal: To be great, they must contain presence, tension, a finely balanced amalgam of feeling and craZ. “This is human,” is the final meaning of a great portrait, “and I am human, and this is worth defending.”’ ‘‘Young Man at a Tent Revival, Brooklyn, NY, 1989.’’Credit…Dawoud Bey. From Stephen Daiter Gallery and Rena Bransten Gallery ~Teju Cole, “There’s Less to Portraits Than Meets the Eye, and More,” The New York Times, 2018 1. What kind of people and professionals became interested in photographic processes and producing portraiture in the mid-1800s? 2. How did public a^tudes towards the purpose of portraiture change throughout the 19th century? How did the burgeoning fields of physiognomy and anthropology relate to these changes? Picturing an Expanding World: Landscape and Modernization History of Photography Week 3 Formal Analysis “…methods and ques.ons that concern visual and physical aspects of a work of art […] you seek the answers to your ques.ons in the work of art itself, usually without referring extensively to outside sources. You’re exploring the visual effect of the work of art, looking at what the ar.st is trying to accomplish through visual means.” Contextual Analysis “…requires you to go outside the work of art for your answers. What you’re trying to do is understand how a work of art expresses or shapes the experiences, ideas, and values of the individuals and groups that make, use, view or own it. To develop contextual analysis, you might look at such evidence as documents, other images, books from the period, the ar.st’s wri.ngs, and histories.” -Anne D’Alleva, Look! The Fundamentals of Art History Visual Analysis -Where and how is your eye guided through the image? -How is the photograph composed? Dividing, horizontal, or vertical lines? -Contrast: light and dark values: where? How does this serve to structure your viewing? -Background/Foreground/Focus: what is foregrounded/backgrounded? What is sharply focused/out of focus? What details are emphasized or obscured? -Detail: What do you see? What type of space is shown? -Gaze? Where is figure looking? What is significant about that? -Framing/cropping? How is the subject cropped? Is there background or not? Is the effect one of crowding or spaciousness? Pierre-Louis Pierson, Scherzo di Follia (Game of Madness), 1863-1866,Albumen silver print, 15 x 11.5 cm -What might be outside the frame? Various eye miniatures, ca. 1800, collection of Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia “The Masquerade,” by Thomas Houseworth and Company, San Francisco. Cabinet card from the Houseworth Celebrities Series (note hemline inscription. 1880s). Photo-fashion and photoadvertising. Palmquist Collection. AleXsandro Palombo, Marge Simpson as Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione, 2013 Pushpamala N., The Spy (A

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