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Instruction Manual with Experiment Guide and Teachers’ Notes 012-09900B ® Basic Optics System OS-8515C Ben ch 20 30 40 50 60 E N T C O M 70 P O N 80 10 80 0 9 L A M R O N 20 70 5 46 -8 S O 0 10 70 M C O 10 80 20 L A M R O N P O N E N T 60 S IC T P E O BL IC A S T A Y B RA 50 40 30 50 40 30 60 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 tics 0 Op Basic Optics System T a b l e o f C o n t e n ts Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 About the Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Storage Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 About the Experiments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Experiment 1: Color Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Experiment 2: Prism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Experiment 3: Reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Experiment 4: Snell’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Experiment 5: Total Internal Reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Experiment 6: Convex and Concave Lenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Experiment 7: Hollow Lens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Experiment 8: Lensmaker’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Experiment 9: Apparent Depth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Experiment 10: Reversibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Experiment 11: Dispersion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Experiment 12: Focal Length and Magnification of a Thin Lens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Experiment 13: Focal Length and Magnification of a Concave Mirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Experiment 14: Virtual Images. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Experiment 15: Telescope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Experiment 16: Microscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Experiment 17: Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Telescope and Microscope Test Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Teacher’s Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Storage Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Basic Optics System OS-8515C 1 Op tics Ben ch 3 4 5 2 6 20 30 40 50 60 7 70 P O N E N T 10 80 C O M 70 L A M R O N 20 80 90 5 46 -8 S O 0 10 60 N T 70 C 10 80 20 L A M R O N O M P O N E 50 40 30 50 40 30 60 S IC T P E O BL IC A S T A Y B RA 8 0 10 20 30 40 50 11 a 9 b c 12 d e f 10 13 ® 4 60 70 80 90 Included Equipment Part Number 1. Viewing Screen OS-8460 2. Adjustable Lens Holder OS-8474 3. +100 mm Mounted Lens 4. +200 mm Mounted Lens OS-8456 5. +250 mm Mounted Lens 6. −150 mm Mounted Lens OS-8519 7. Concave/convex Mirror OS-8457 8. Half-screen 9. Light Source OS-8470 10. 1.2 m Optics Bench OS-8508 11. Ray Table with D-shaped Lens OS-8465 12. Ray Optics Kit with: OS-8516A a. Storage Box/Water Tank 740-177 b. Mirror 636-05100 c. Hollow Lens OS-8511 d. Convex Lens 636-05501 e. Concave Lens 636-05502 f. 636-05611 Acrylic Trapezoid 13. Storage Box 740-09892 Introduction The PASCO Basic Optics System contains the optics components you will need for a variety of experiments and demonstrations. This manual includes student instructions and teacher’s notes for 17 typical experiments. For an even greater variety, you can expand the system with any of the Basic Optics kits and components available from PASCO, including lasers, polarizers, diffraction slits, and light sensors. See the PASCO Physics catalog or visit www.pasco.com for details. ® 5 Basic Optics System About the Equipment About the Equipment For detailed information on the Light Source, Ray Table, Adjustable Lens Holder, and Ray Optics Kit, see the instruction sheets included with those components. Optics Bench Basic Optics components, such as mounted lenses and the adjustable lens holder, snap into the wide central channel of the optics bench. Place the base of the component on the bench and push down firmly to snap it in place. To move it, squeeze the tab on base and slide it along the bench. Components that include a square bolt and a thumb screw are designed to be fasted to the T-slots on the sides and center of the bench. Slide the bolt into the T-slot, insert the thumb screw through the component’s mounting hold, thread the screw into the bolt and tighten it down. metric scale for measuring component positions Use the metric scale on the bench to measure the positions of components. Light Source The included light source can be used on a tabletop or mounted on the bench. It functions as a bright point source, an illuminated crossed-arrow object, a primary-color source, and a ray box with up to five parallel rays. T-slots Mounted Lenses The Basic Optics System includes four lenses mounted in holders. Use them on the optics bench with the light source, viewing screen, and other Basic Optics components. Adjustable Lens Holder To use an unmounted lens on the bench, place it in the adjustable lens holder. It will hold any round lens between 20 and 75 mm in diameter. Viewing Screen lenses. Mount the screen on the bench to view real images formed by Concave/convex Mirror and Half-screen The mounted mirror is concave on one side and convex on the other side. The radius of curvature of both surfaces is 200 mm. Use the half-screen to view real images formed by the concave side of the mirror. Ray Table and D-shaped Lens Use the ray table and D-shaped lens on a tabletop with the light source (in ray-box mode) to study angles of incidence, reflection and refraction. Ray Optics Kit The ray optics kit is a set of optics components designed for use with the light source in ray-box mode. To make the rays easy to see and trace, use the ray optics components on a white sheet of paper on a flat table top. The transparent storage box doubles as a water tank for studying lenses under water. 6 ® Model No. OS-8515C Storage Box Storage Box Use the foam-padded box to store, organize, and protect the system’s components. Place the components in the fitted compartments as illustrated below. Extra compartments are included for additional components as spare parts. A full-page diagram appears on page 69. Remove or copy that page and attach it the box lid. Concave/convex Mirror Ray Optics Kit AC Adapter Light Source D-shaped Lens Viewing Screen Half-screen -150 mm +250 mm +200 mm +100 mm Ray Table and Adjustable Lens Holder Lenses About the Experiments The experiment instructions on the following pages are arranged and categorized according to which components of the Basic Optics System they use. See the table at the top of each experiment for a detailed list of required equipment. Teachers’ notes, including typical data and answers to questions, can be found starting on page 59. The experiments that call for the light source work best in a dimly lit room. Ray Optics Kit Experiments These experiments use the Ray Optics Kit, the Light Source (in ray-box mode), and may require blank white paper, a ruler, protractor, and drawing compass. 1. Color Addition (page 9): Explore the results of mixing colored light and illuminating colored ink with colored light. 2. Prism (page 11): Show how a prism separates white light into its component colors and show that different colors are refracted at different angles through a prism. 3. Reflection (page 13): Show how rays are reflected from plane, concave, and convex mirrors. 4. Snell’s Law (page 15): Determine the index of refraction of acrylic by measuring angles of incidence and refraction of a ray passing through the trapezoid. 5. Total Internal Reflection (page 17): Determine the critical angle at which total internal reflection occurs in the trapezoid. ® 7 Basic Optics System About the Experiments 6. Convex and Concave Lenses (page 19): Use ray tracing to determine the focal lengths of lenses. 7. Hollow Lens (page 21): Use the hollow lens and water to explore how the properties of a lens are related to its shape, its index of refraction, and the index of refraction of the surrounding medium. 8. Lensmaker’s Equation (page 23): Determine the focal length of a concave lens by measuring its radius of curvature. 9. Apparent Depth (page 25): Measure the apparent depth of the trapezoid and determine its index of refraction by comparing the apparent depth to the actual thickness. Ray Table Experiments These experiments use the Ray Table with the D-shaped Lens and the Light Source (in ray-box mode). 10. Reversibility (page 29): Explore how the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction is related to the direction of propagation. 11. Dispersion (page 31): Show how white light is separated into colors by the acrylic D-shaped lens and determine the different indices of refraction for red and blue light. Optics Bench Experiments These experiments use the Optics Bench, Mounted Lenses, and Viewing Screen. Experiments 12 and 17 also use the Light Source. 12. Focal Length and Magnification of a Thin Lens (page 33): Determine the focal length of a converging lens and measure the magnification for a certain combination of object and image distances. 13. Focal Length and Magnification of a Concave Mirror (page 37): Determine the focal length of a concave mirror and measure the magnification for a certain combination of object and image distances. 14. Virtual Images (page 41): Study virtual images formed by a diverging lens and a convex mirror. 15. Telescope (page 47): Construct a telescope and determine its magnification. 16. Microscope (page 51): Construct a microscope and determine its magnification. 17. Shadows (page 55): Show the umbra and the penumbra of a shadow. 8 ® Model No. OS-8515C E x p e r i m e n t 1 : C o l o r A d d it i o n Experiment 1: Color Addition Required Equipment from Basic Optics System Light Source Convex Lens from Ray Optics Kit Other Required Equipment Red, blue, and black pens Blank white paper Purpose Light source In Part 1 of this experiment, you will discover the results of mixing red, green, and blue light in different combinations. In Part 2, you will compare the appearance of red, blue, and black ink illuminated by red and blue light. Convex lens Folded paper Part 1: Addition of Colored Light Procedure 1. 2. Red, green, and blue rays Turn the wheel on the light source to select the red, green, and blue color bars. Fold a blank, white sheet of paper, as shown in Figure 1.1. Lay the paper on a flat surface and put the light source on it so that the colored rays are projected along the horizontal part of the paper and onto the vertical part. Combined colors Figure 1.1: Color addition Place the convex lens near the ray box so it focuses the rays and causes them to cross at the vertical part of the paper. Note: The lens has one flat edge. Place the flat edge on the paper so the lens stands stably without rocking. 3. What is the resulting color where the three colors come together? Record your observation in Table 1.1. Table 1.1: Results of Colored Light Addition Colors Added Resulting Color red + blue + green 4. 5. Now block the green ray with a pencil. What color results from adding red and blue light? Record the result in Table 1.1. Block each color in succession to see the addition of the other two colors and complete Table 1.1. red + blue red + green green + blue Questions 1. Is mixing colored light the same as mixing colored paint? Explain. 2. White light is said to be the mixture of all colors. In this experiment, did mixing red, green, and blue light result in white? Explain. ® 9 Basic Optics System E x p e r i m e n t 1 : C o l o r A d d it i o n Part 2: Observing Colored Ink Under Colored Light Procedure 1. While you look away, have your partner draw two lines—one red and one black—on a sheet of white paper. One of the lines should be labeled A, and the other B, but you should not know which is which. Before you look at the paper, have your partner turn off the room lights and cover the red and green bars so the paper is illuminated only with blue light. Now look. What colors do the two lines appear to be? Do they appear to be different colors? Record your observations in Table 1.2. Finally, observe the lines under white light and record their actual colors in Table 1.2. 2. Repeat step 1, but this time have your partner draw lines using blue and black ink (labeled C and D), and observe them under red light. 3. For Trial 2, switch roles and repeat steps 1 and 2 with your partner observing lines that you have drawn. Record the results in Table 1.2. (For this trial, you may try to trick your partner by drawing both lines the same color—both red or both black, for instance.) Table 1.2: Colored Ink Observed Under Colored Light Trial 1: Name of observer: ______________________________________ Color of Light Line Apparent Color of Ink Do they look different? Actual Color of Ink A Blue Light B C Red Light D Trial 2: Name of observer: ______________________________________ Color of Light Line Apparent Color of Ink Do they look different? Actual Color of Ink A Blue Light B C Red Light D 4. Look at red and black lines under red light. Which line is easier to see? _________________________ Questions 10 1. What makes red ink appear red? When red ink is illumined by blue light, is most of the light absorbed or reflected? 2. When illumined with red light, why is red ink on white paper more difficult to see than black ink? ® Model No. OS-8515C Experiment 2: Prism Experiment 2: Prism Required Equipment from Basic Optics System Light Source Trapezoid from Ray Optics Kit Blank white paper Purpose Incident ray The purpose of this experiment is to show how a prism separates white light into its component colors and to show that different colors are refracted at different angles through a prism. Normal to surface q1 n1 Surface n2 Theory When a monochromatic light ray crosses from one medium (such as air) to another (such as acrylic), it is refracted. According to Snell’s Law, q2 Refracted ray (n1 > n2) n 1sin θ1 = n2sin θ2 Figure 2.1: Refraction of Light the angle of refraction (θ2) depends on the angle of incidence (θ1) and the indices of refraction of both media (n 1 and n2), as shown in Figure 2.1. Because the index of refraction for light varies with the frequency of the light, white light that enters the material (at an angle other than 0°) will separate into its component colors as each frequency is bent a different amount. The trapezoid is made of acrylic which has an index of refraction of 1.497 for light of wavelength 486 nm in a vacuum (blue light), 1.491 for wavelength 589 nm (yellow), and 1.489 for wavelength 651 nm (red). In general for visible light, index of refraction increases with increasing frequency. Procedure 1. Place the light source in ray-box mode on a sheet of blank white paper. Turn the wheel to select a single white ray. Color spectrum Single white ray q Normal to surface Figure 2.2 2. Position the trapezoid as shown in Figure 2.2. The acute-angled end of the trapezoid is used as a prism in this experiment. Keep the ray near the point of the trapezoid for maximum transmission of the light. ® 11 B a s ic O p t i c s S y s t e m 3. Experiment 2: Prism Rotate the trapezoid until the angle (θ) of the emerging ray is as large as possible and the ray separates into colors. (a) What colors do you see? In what order are they? (b) Which color is refracted at the largest angle? (c) According to Snell’s Law and the information given about the frequency dependence of the index of refraction for acrylic, which color is predicted to refract at the largest angle? 4. 12 Without repositioning the light source, turn the wheel to select the three primary color rays. The colored rays should enter trapezoid at the same angle that the white ray did. Do the colored rays emerge from the trapezoid parallel to each other? Why or why not? ® Model No. OS-8515C Experiment 3: Reflection Experiment 3: Reflection Required Equipment from Basic Optics System Light Source Mirror from Ray Optics Kit Other Required Equipment Drawing compass Protractor Metric ruler White paper Purpose In this experiment, you will study how rays are reflected from different types of mirrors. You will measure the focal length and determine the radius of curvature of a concave mirror and a convex mirror. Part 1: Plane Mirror Procedure 1. Place the light source in ray-box mode on a blank sheet of white paper. Turn the wheel to select a single ray. 2. Place the mirror on the paper. Position the plane (flat) surface of the mirror in the path of the incident ray at an angle that allows you to clearly see the incident and reflected rays. Incident ray 3. On the paper, trace and label the surface of the plane mirror and the incident and reflected rays. Indicate the incoming and the outgoing rays with arrows in the appropriate directions. Normal to surface Reflected ray 4. Remove the light source and mirror from the paper. On the paper, draw the normal to the surface (as in Figure 3.1). 5. Measure the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection. Measure these angles from the normal. Record the angles in the first row Table 3.1. 6. Repeat steps 1–5 with a different angle of incidence. Repeat the procedure again to complete Table 3.1 with three different angles of incidence. Figure 3.1 Table 3.1: Plane Mirror Results Angle of Incidence 7. Angle of Reflection Turn the wheel on the light source to select the three primary color rays. Shine the colored rays at an angle to the plane mirror. Mark the position of the surface of the plane mirror and trace the incident and reflected rays. Indicate the colors of ® 13 B a s ic O p t i c s S y s t e m Experiment 3: Reflection the incoming and the outgoing rays and mark them with arrows in the appropriate directions. Questions 1. What is the relationship between the angles of incidence and reflection? 2. Are the three colored rays reversed left-to-right by the plane mirror? Part 2: Cylindrical Mirrors Theory mirror R A concave cylindrical mirror focuses incoming parallel rays at its focal point. The focal length ( f ) is the distance from the focal point to the center of the mirror surface. The radius of curvature (R) of the mirror is twice the focal length. See Figure 3.2. focal point f Procedure 1. Turn the wheel on the light source to select five parallel rays. Shine the rays straight into the conc

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